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Risks of ACTH therapy for West syndrome following BCG vaccination.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Apr 7;118:107924. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Objective: Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) is a live vaccine for tuberculosis that is administered to all infants in Japan. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for West syndrome (WS) causes immunosuppression and may result in BCG infection after BCG vaccination. We evaluated the safety of ACTH therapy initiated shortly after BCG vaccination. Read More

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Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects in China.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 7;153:106548. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Guangdong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Environmental and Health Risk Assessment, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Background: Evidence of maternal exposure to ambient air pollution on congenital heart defects (CHD) has been mixed and are still relatively limited in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and CHD in China.

Method: This longitudinal, population-based, case-control study consecutively recruited fetuses with CHD and healthy volunteers from 21 cities, Southern China, between January 2006 and December 2016. Read More

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Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 1;15(3):777-782. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Hasan Sadikin, Bandung, Indonesia; Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Tangerang, Indonesia. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: This study aims to synthesize evidence on dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and mortality in COVID-19 patients and factors affecting it.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature search from PubMed, Scopus, and Embase databases from inception of databases up until 7 March 2021. Studies that met all of the following criteria were included: 1) observational studies or randomized controlled trials that report COVID-19 patients, 2) reporting DPP-4 inhibitor use, 3) mortality, and 4) mortality based on DPP-4 inhibitor use. Read More

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Red and processed meat consumption and cancer outcomes: Umbrella review.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 27;356:129697. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Urology/Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this umbrella review was to evaluate the quality of evidence, validity and biases of the associations between red and processed meat consumption and multiple cancer outcomes according to existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The umbrella review identified 72 meta-analyses with 20 unique outcomes for red meat and 19 unique outcomes for processed meat. Red meat consumption was associated with increased risk of overall cancer mortality, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), bladder, breast, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, gastric, lung and nasopharyngeal cancer. Read More

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Evaluation of heavy metal pollution in coastal sediments of Bandar Abbas, the Persian Gulf, Iran: Mercury pollution and environmental geochemical indices.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 7;167:112314. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 1651153311, Iran. Electronic address:

Mercury has been measured by using Cold Vapor-Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry in coastal sediments of the Persian Gulf (Bandar Abbas region). The mean concentration of the six stations followed a decreasing order of S6 (3.95) > S1 (3. Read More

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Southern Mediterranean coast pollution: Long-term assessment and evolution of PAH pollutants in Monastir Bay (Tunisia).

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Apr 7;167:112268. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Laboratory of Georessources, technopole of Borj Cedria, 273, University Carthage, Soliman 8020, Tunisia.

In order to evaluate the long-term pollution level(s) of Monastir Bay (Tunisian-Mediterranean coastal area), four sediment cores were collected from the meeting points between the main local streams and the marine environment and investigated. Macroscopic observations and granulometric and chemical compositions showed that this Bay received heterogeneous materials. The distribution of 15 total PAH (priority pollutants) concentrations in different levels of core sediments ranged from 222 to 2992 μg kg. Read More

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How important is price variation between health insurers?

J Health Econ 2021 Feb 16;77:102423. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University and NBER, United States.

Prices negotiated between payers and providers affect a health insurance contract's value via enrollees' cost-sharing and self-insured employers' costs. However, price variation across payers is difficult to observe. We measure negotiated prices for hospital-payer pairs in Massachusetts and characterize price variation. Read More

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February 2021

Prevalence of hemotropic mycoplasmas and coinfection with feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in the Moscow region, Russia.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Mar 26;190:105339. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Molecular Genetics of National Research Centre «Kurchatov Institute», Kurchatov Sq 2, 123182, Moscow, Russia; Nanodiagnostics, Ltd., Kurchatov Sq 2, 123182, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

Feline haemoplasma infection studies are lacking in Russia. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of feline haemoplasmas in domestic cats in the Moscow region, Russia. A risk of haemoplasma coinfection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was also determined. Read More

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Clinical Features and Outcomes of Anti-N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis in Infants and Toddlers.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 Mar 12;119:27-33. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Department of Neurology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We describe the clinical features and outcomes of anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in infants and toddlers.

Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study. Infants and toddlers who met the diagnostic criteria for anti-NMDAR encephalitis were recruited for the study. Read More

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Distance to water source in early childhood affects growth: a cohort study.

Public Health 2021 Apr 7;193:139-145. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Economics and Resource Management, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Approximately 165 million children aged <5 years are at risk of low height-for-age. This study explored whether water quality and distance to water source affected short- and long-term growth, and the critical time windows of such effects.

Study Design: This study used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), which was a cohort study performed in 15 Chinese provinces. Read More

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Acute effect of particulate matter pollution on hospital admissions for stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes in Beijing, China, from 2014 to 2018.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 7;217:112201. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China; Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Beijing 100069, China. Electronic address:

Background: The health effect of particulate matter pollution on stroke has been widely examined; however, the effect among patients with comorbid type 2 diabetes (T2D) in developing countries has remained largely unknown.

Methods: A time-series study was conducted to investigate the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM) and inhalable particulate matter (PM) on hospital admissions for stroke among patients with T2D in Beijing, China, from 2014 to 2018. An over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model was employed to adjust for important covariates, such as weather conditions and long-term and seasonal trends. Read More

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Refinement of the gradient method for the estimation of natural source zone depletion at petroleum contaminated sites.

J Contam Hydrol 2021 Mar 27;241:103807. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Rates of natural source zone depletion (NSZD) are increasingly being used to aid remedial decision making and light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) longevity estimates at petroleum release sites. Current NSZD estimate methods, based on analyses of carbon dioxide (CO) and oxygen (O) soil-gas concentration gradients ("gradient method") assume linear concentration profiles with depth. This assumption can underestimate the concentration gradients especially above LNAPL sources that are typically characterized by curvilinear or semi-curvilinear O and CO concentration profiles. Read More

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Prevalence of at-risk hyperandrogenism by age and race/ethnicity among females in the United States using NHANES III.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Mar 26;260:189-197. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Office of Research Resources, Biostatistics and Epidemiology Consulting Lab, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA; Division of Biostatistics & Epidemiology, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Hyperandrogenism in females leads to multiple endocrine and metabolic disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) that yields adverse health outcomes across all ages. We sought to estimate the prevalence of hyperandrogenemia and at-risk hyperandrogenism among the US females of different age groups, racial/ethnic, and metabolic characteristics.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective population-based cross-sectional study of females 6 years or older having serum testosterone measures using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2013-2016 was conducted. Read More

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Cardiotocograph (CTG) changes and maternal and neonatal outcomes in chorioamnionitis and/or funisitis confirmed on histopathology.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Mar 30;260:183-188. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Global Academy of Medical Education & Training, London & Consultant Intrapartum Care Advisor, Basildon University Hospital, Mid and South Essex NHS Foundation Trust, Essex, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the cardiotocographic changes and maternal and neonatal outcomes in cases of chorioamnionitis and or funisitis confirmed on histopathology.

Study Design: A retrospective analysis of histopathology reports confirming chorioamnionitis and/or funisitis was carried out from 2014 to 2020 in a single centre. The preterm births (<37 weeks) were excluded. Read More

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Cortical fractal dimension predicts disability worsening in Multiple Sclerosis patients.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Mar 29;30:102653. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi Sunyer - Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Spain; Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Fractal geometry measures the morphology of the brain and detects CNS damage. We aimed to assess the longitudinal changes on brain's fractal geometry and its predictive value for disease worsening in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

Methods: We prospectively analyzed 146 consecutive patients with relapsing-remitting MS with up to 5 years of clinical and brain MRI (3 T) assessments. Read More

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Brain volumetry in fetuses that deliver very preterm: An MRI pilot study.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Mar 29;30:102650. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Centre for the Developing Brain, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Infants born preterm are at increased risk of neurological complications resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The exact mechanism and the impact of antenatal factors has not been fully elucidated, although antenatal infection/inflammation has been implicated in both the aetiology of preterm birth and subsequent neurological sequelae. It is therefore hypothesized that processes driving preterm birth are affecting brain development in utero. Read More

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Narrative review of the influence of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia on colorectal cancer risk and oncological outcomes.

Transl Oncol 2021 Apr 7;14(7):101089. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, No. 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung City 807, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan; Center for Cancer Research, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Center for Liquid Biopsy and Cohort Research, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia have been shown to have significant effects on the incidence, chemoresistance, and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as the outcomes of localized and metastatic CRC. Inflammation and endocrine effects may act as central mechanisms of DM and cancer and stimulate the insulin-like growth factor 1-phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (IGF-1-PI3K-AKT-mTOR) pathway. Dysregulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway leads to metabolic imbalance and indicates cancer risk. Read More

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Recurrence of disease activity after fingolimod discontinuation in older patients previously stable on treatment.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Mar 21;51:102918. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Discontinuing fingolimod (FTY) in older patients is a growing concern with little evidence supporting the decision to pursue treatment and reasonable doubt for disease reactivation after withdrawal.

Objective: To estimate the incidence of recurrence of disease activity (RDA) and rebound after FTY withdrawal in patients older than 50 years.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of all MS patients in our clinic who discontinued FTY after at least 6 months of treatment, according to disease activity on FTY and age at discontinuation. Read More

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Internalizing and externalizing problems across childhood and psychotic-like experiences in young-adulthood: The role of developmental period.

Schizophr Res 2021 Apr 7;231:108-114. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, University College London, London WC1H 0AA, United Kingdom.

Background: Psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, commonly indexed by co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, has been found to predict psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in adults. However, studies to date have rarely examined internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors simultaneously or identified in which developmental period do these problem behaviors predict PLEs in adults. This study tests to what extent internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in childhood (4-9 years) or adolescence (11-16 years) predict PLEs in young-adulthood (18 years). Read More

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Optimization of biochar production based on environmental risk and remediation performance: Take kitchen waste for example.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 3;416:125785. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, PR China. Electronic address:

Two major obstacles that need to be addressed for environmental application of biochar include its environmental risk and remediation performance for target pollutants. In this study, kitchen waste was taken as an example to optimize the pyrolysis temperature for biochar production based on its heavy metal risk and Cd(II) remediation performance. The results showed that the pH and ash content of kitchen waste biochar (KWB) increased; however, the yield, H/C, and N/C decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Read More

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Subclinical upper motor neuron involvement at the diagnosis may predict disease progression in a cohort of lower motor neuron syndromes from Southern Italy.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Mar 16;425:117392. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Neurology Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Piazza Giulio Cesare 11, 70100 Bari, Italy.

Background: Only few epidemiological studies on survival of Lower Motor Neuron (LMN) phenotype (LMNP) are available and with controversial results.

Aims: To prospectively evaluate a cohort of LMNP patients and assess the possible contribute on survival or disease's progression according to the presence of subclinical Upper Motor Neuron (UMN) impairment at the diagnosis.

Methods: Forty LMNP among 176 consecutive incident ALS cases observed in our tertiary center from the ALS-Apulia Register were enrolled in the study. Read More

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Development of omics biomarkers for estrogen exposure using mRNA, miRNA and piRNAs.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Mar 12;235:105807. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268, United States. Electronic address:

The number of chemicals requiring risk evaluation exceeds our capacity to provide the underlying data using traditional methodology. This has led to an increased focus on the development of novel approach methodologies. This work aimed to expand the panel of gene expression-based biomarkers to include responses to estrogens, to identify training strategies that maximize the range of applicable concentrations, and to evaluate the potential for two classes of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), microRNA (miRNA) and piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA), as biomarkers. Read More

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The ecotoxicological contaminant tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) impacts embryonic development in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Mar 26;235:105815. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

San Diego State University School of Public Health, 5500 Campanile Dr., Hardy Tower 119, San Diego, CA, 92182, USA. Electronic address:

Tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) is a water contaminant with unknown etiology, but is believed to be a byproduct of DDT manufacturing. It is highly persistent in the environment, and bioaccumulates in marine species. TCPMOH has also been measured in human breast milk, which poses a risk for developing infants. Read More

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Dietary total antioxidant capacity is inversely associated with cardiovascular events and cardiometabolic risk factors: A cross-sectional study.

Nutrition 2021 Feb 19;89:111140. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Body Composition, Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Dietary total antioxidant capacity (dTAC) has been introduced as a useful tool to quantify the antioxidant content of a diet. However, few studies have evaluated the association of dTAC with cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurrence and cardiometabolic risk factors in people with established CVD events. Thus, we aimed to investigate the presence of an association between dTAC values, cardiovascular events, and cardiometabolic risk factors in individuals with previous CVD in a Brazilian multicenter study. Read More

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February 2021

The impact of prenatal stressful life events on adverse birth outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 31;287:406-416. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, No. 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China; Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Anhui Medical University, No. 81 Meishan Road, Hefei 230032, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

Background: Stressful life events as important stressors have gradually been recognized as the potential etiology that may lead to adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA). However, researches on this topic have shown relatively inconsistent results. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to synthesize available data on the association between prenatal stressful life events and increased risks of PTB, LBW, and SGA. Read More

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Clinical predictors of delayed neurological sequelae in charcoal-burning carbon monoxide poisoning.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 3;48:12-17. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Aksaray University Training and Research Hospital, Aksaray University Medical School, Aksaray, Turkey.

Background: The main objective of the treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is to prevent delayed neurological sequelae (DNS). However, today there is still no objective screening tool to identify patients at high risk of developing DNS. The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors that could predict DNS after acute charcoal-burning CO poisoning. Read More

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Integrating column leaching experiments and geochemical modelling to predict the long-term alkaline stability during erosion process for gypsum amended bauxite residue.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 7;289:112479. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China. Electronic address:

Gypsum amendment is widely used to resolve alkalinity issues and implement sustainable management for bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs). Amended BRDAs under natural conditions suffer from long-term erosion processes. Nevertheless, the effect of erosion on amendment efficacy is rarely assessed. Read More

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Self-regulation task in young school age children born preterm: Correlation with early academic achievement.

Early Hum Dev 2021 Mar 26;157:105362. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Center for Human Development, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0115, United States of America; Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0603, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Children born preterm are at risk for difficulties in executive function (EF), however there are limited tools to assess EF in young children and it is not fully understood how these early deficits are related to emerging academic skills.

Aims: To examine (a) early EF differences in young children born preterm, (b) how a measure of behavioral self-regulation correlates with other measures of EF in children born preterm, and (c) how this measure relates to academic outcomes in children born preterm.

Study Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Read More

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Occurrence of parabens in outdoor environments: Implications for human exposure assessment.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 1;282:117058. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China; Heilongjiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Polar Environment and Ecosystem (HPKL-PEE), Harbin, 150090, China. Electronic address:

Parabens (PBs) are widely used as preservatives in food, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs). Due to their potential characteristics, similar to endocrine-disrupting compounds, their safety in our daily products and frequent exposure to human health have become public concerns. Nevertheless, little information is available about the occurrence of PBs in outdoor environments and their implications for human exposure. Read More

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