9,998 results match your criteria rise bacterial

Cytoplasmic condensation induced by membrane damage is associated with antibiotic lethality.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 19;12(1):2321. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute for Medical Engineering & Science and Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria by perturbing various cellular targets and processes. Disruption of the primary antibiotic-binding partner induces a cascade of molecular events, leading to overproduction of reactive metabolic by-products. It remains unclear, however, how these molecular events contribute to bacterial cell death. Read More

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Linear trends over 20 years in sexually transmitted infections among patients attending a tertiary care center in north Kerala, India.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 Apr 12:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala, India.

Background: Worldwide, a declining trend is observed in sexually transmitted infections of bacterial origin which is reflected as a rise in the proportion of viral sexually transmitted infections.

Aims: To find out the clinical referral patterns of sexually transmitted infections among patients who attended the sexually transmitted infection clinic attached to Dermatology and Venereology Department of Government Medical College, Kozhikode from 1.1. Read More

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Low-dimensional nanomaterials for antibacterial applications.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan RD, Shanghai 200240, China.

The excessive use of antibiotics has led to a rise in drug-resistant bacteria. These "superbugs" are continuously emerging and becoming increasingly harder to treat. As a result, new and effective treatment protocols that have minimal risks of generating drug-resistant bacteria are urgently required. Read More

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The role of the human gut microbiota in colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-13

Department of Internal Medicine, Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt Am Main, Germany.

About 100 years ago, the first antibiotic drug was introduced into health care. Since then, antibiotics have made an outstanding impact on human medicine. However, our society increasingly suffers from collateral damage exerted by these highly effective drugs. Read More

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Trends on the Cellulose-Based Textiles: Raw Materials and Technologies.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 29;9:608826. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.

There is an emerging environmental awareness and social concern regarding the environmental impact of the textile industry, highlighting the growing need for developing green and sustainable approaches throughout this industry's supply chain. Upstream, due to population growth and the rise in consumption of textile fibers, new sustainable raw materials and processes must be found. Cellulose presents unique structural features, being the most important and available renewable resource for textiles. Read More

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Were eukaryotes made by sex?: Sex might have been vital for merging endosymbiont and host genomes giving rise to eukaryotes.

Michael Brandeis

Bioessays 2021 Apr 16:e2000256. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

The Department of Genetics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

I hypothesize that the appearance of sex facilitated the merging of the endosymbiont and host genomes during early eukaryote evolution. Eukaryotes were formed by symbiosis between a bacterium that entered an archaeon, eventually giving rise to mitochondria. This entry was followed by the gradual transfer of most bacterial endosymbiont genes into the archaeal host genome. Read More

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Levels of pathogen virulence and host resistance both shape the antibody response to an emerging bacterial disease.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8209. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9FE, UK.

Quantifying variation in the ability to fight infection among free-living hosts is challenging and often constrained to one or a few measures of immune activity. While such measures are typically taken to reflect host resistance, they can also be shaped by pathogen effects, for example, if more virulent strains trigger more robust immune responses. Here, we test the extent to which pathogen-specific antibody levels, a commonly used measure of immunocompetence, reflect variation in host resistance versus pathogen virulence, and whether these antibodies effectively clear infection. Read More

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Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Animal Manure - Consequences of Its Application in Agriculture.

Front Microbiol 2021 29;12:610656. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Bacterial Physiology, Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are a relatively new type of pollutant. The rise in antibiotic resistance observed recently is closely correlated with the uncontrolled and widespread use of antibiotics in agriculture and the treatment of humans and animals. Resistant bacteria have been identified in soil, animal feces, animal housing (e. Read More

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Engineering Selectively Targeting Antimicrobial Peptides.

Annu Rev Biomed Eng 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155, USA; email:

The rise of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacterial pathogens has necessitated the development of new therapeutics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of compounds with potentially attractive therapeutic properties, including the ability to target specific groups of bacteria. In nature, AMPs exhibit remarkable structural and functional diversity, which may be further enhanced through genetic engineering, high-throughput screening, and chemical modification strategies. Read More

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[Control of the community reservoir of multidrug-resistant - essential information for the practitioner].

Rev Med Suisse 2021 Apr;17(734):732-736

Service des maladies infectieuses et prévention et contrôle de l'infection, Département de médecine, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.

The emergence of cases of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections during recent years has given rise to country-specific surveillance and control strategies. The pandemic we are going through has at least helped to remind the importance of applying basic hygiene practices to prevent and control the spread of numerous other pathogens, including multidrug-resistant bacteria including CA-MRSA. However, once identified, patients who are healthy carriers of CA-MRSA may benefit from decolonization according to an established protocol. Read More

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Molecular characterization of a novel p38 MAPK cDNA from Cyclina sinensis and its potential immune-related function under the threat of Vibrio anguillarum.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Apr 9:110599. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Animal Diversity, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is one important member of MAPK family and reported to serve a predominant function in regulating innate immunity after the occurrence of certain infection. In the present study, one novel p38 MAPK gene was acquired from Cyclina sinensis based on the RNA-seq analysis and designated as Csp38 MAPK. This novel gene contained a full length of 1781 bp, 1104 bp of which was deemed as open reading frames and gave rise to a peptide of 367 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 42. Read More

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Microbial Arsenal of Antiviral Defenses - Part I.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Mar;86(3):319-337

Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow, 143028, Russia.

Bacteriophages or phages are viruses that infect bacterial cells (for the scope of this review we will also consider viruses that infect Archaea). Constant threat of phage infection is a major force that shapes evolution of the microbial genomes. To withstand infection, bacteria had evolved numerous strategies to avoid recognition by phages or to directly interfere with phage propagation inside the cell. Read More

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Determination of antimicrobial resistance profiles and mechanisms of using a Raman spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Food, Nutrition and Health Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada

Rapid identification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles and mechanisms is critical for clinical management and drug development. However, the current AMR detection approaches take up to 48 h to obtain a result. Here we demonstrate a Raman spectroscopy-based metabolomic approach to rapidly determine the AMR profile of , a major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Read More

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The rumen eukaryotome is a source of novel antimicrobial peptides with therapeutic potential.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Apr 8;21(1):105. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, 19 Chlorine Gardens, Belfast, Northern Ireland, BT9 5DL, UK.

Background: The rise of microbial antibiotic resistance is a leading threat to the health of the human population. As such, finding new approaches to tackle these microbes, including development of novel antibiotics is vital.

Results: In this study, we mined a rumen eukaryotic metatranscriptomic library for novel Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) using computational approaches and thereafter characterised the therapeutic potential of the AMPs. Read More

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Dysregulation of metallothionein and zinc aggravates periodontal diseases.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Apr 3;66:126754. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia.

Background: Periodontitis (PD) is a multifaceted inflammatory disease connected to bacterial infection that results in the destruction of tooth supporting structures and eventually tooth loss. Given their involvement in infection and inflammation, both metallothionein (MT) and zinc (Zn) might play vital roles in the development and progression of PD. More specifically, both MT and Zn are heavily involved in regulating immune functions, controlling bacterial infection, balancing inflammatory responses, and reducing oxidative stress, all of which are associated with the pathogenesis of PD. Read More

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Sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection: Scenario in Western India.

Indian J Sex Transm Dis AIDS 2020 Jul-Dec;41(2):162-168. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Dermatology, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Context: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have a well-established synergistic relationship with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Coinfection with HIV and STI can increase the probability of HIV transmission to an uninfected partner by increasing HIV concentrations in genital lesions, genital secretions, or both. Concurrent HIV infection alters the natural history of the classic STIs. Read More

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The Origin of Niches and Species in the Bacterial World.

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:657986. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

National Center for Biotechnology (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Niches are spaces for the biological units of selection, from cells to complex communities. In a broad sense, "species" are biological units of individuation. Niches do not exist without individual organisms, and every organism has a niche. Read More

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The Inflammatory Profile of Obesity and the Role on Pulmonary Bacterial and Viral Infections.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 26;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, D-07747 Jena, Germany.

Obesity is a globally increasing health problem, entailing diverse comorbidities such as infectious diseases. An obese weight status has marked effects on lung function that can be attributed to mechanical dysfunctions. Moreover, the alterations of adipocyte-derived signal mediators strongly influence the regulation of inflammation, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation. Read More

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Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae-Implications for Treating Acute Leukemias, a Subgroup of Hematological Malignancies.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Faculty of Health, VID Specialized University, 5020 Bergen, Norway.

Acute leukemias (AL) are a group of aggressive malignant diseases associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Patients with AL are highly susceptible to infectious diseases due to the disease itself, factors attributed to treatment, and specific individual risk factors. Enterobacteriaceae presence (e. Read More

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The Iron Chelator Desferrioxamine Increases the Efficacy of Bedaquiline in Primary Human Macrophages Infected with BCG.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 13;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

TB Immunology Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, 8 Dublin, Ireland.

For over 50 years, patients with drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tuberculosis have undergone long, arduous, and complex treatment processes with several antimicrobials. With the prevalence of drug-resistant strains on the rise and new therapies for tuberculosis urgently required, we assessed whether manipulating iron levels in macrophages infected with mycobacteria offered some insight into improving current antimicrobials that are used to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis. We investigated if the iron chelator, desferrioxamine, can support the function of human macrophages treated with an array of second-line antimicrobials, including moxifloxacin, bedaquiline, amikacin, clofazimine, linezolid and cycloserine. Read More

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: An Ancient Commensal with Weapons of a Pathogen.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 24;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00166 Rome, Italy.

is regarded as a life-threatening pathogen associated with community-acquired and nosocomial infections, mainly pneumonia. The rise in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains reduces effective therapies and increases mortality. Bacterial comparative genomic studies have unraveled the innate and acquired virulence factors of These virulence factors are involved in antibiotic resistance, environmental persistence, host-pathogen interactions, and immune evasion. Read More

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Photoinactivation of Staphylococci with 405 nm Light in a Trachea Model with Saliva Substitute at 37 °C.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institute of Medical Engineering and Mechatronics, Ulm University of Applied Sciences, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

The globally observed rise in bacterial resistance against antibiotics has increased the need for alternatives to antibiotic treatments. The most prominent and important pathogen bacteria are the ESKAPE pathogens, which include among others , and . These species cause ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which accounts for 24% of all nosocomial infections. Read More

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Long-term water quality analysis reveals correlation between bacterial pollution and sea level rise in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Mar 30;166:112231. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Life Sciences, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, TX 78412, USA. Electronic address:

Long-term assessments are needed to identify water quality trends and their socio-environmental drivers for coastal management and watershed restoration. This study provides the first long-term assessment of fecal bacterial pollution in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico using enterococci data spanning the Texas coast from 2009 to 2020. The data were representative of 66 beaches, 169 stations, and over 75,000 samples. Read More

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Comparison of China's and the European Union's Approaches to Antimicrobial Stewardship in the Pork Industry.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a recognized global public health concern. Although the link between antimicrobial usage in food animals and AMR in humans is established, the detailed interactions are unclear. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) in livestock was first implemented in Europe with Sweden as the pioneer in 1986. Read More

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A navigation guide of synthetic biology tools for Pseudomonas putida.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Mar 27;49:107732. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Systems and Synthetic Biology, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen 6708 WE, The Netherlands; LifeGlimmer GmbH, Berlin 12163, Germany. Electronic address:

Pseudomonas putida is a microbial chassis of huge potential for industrial and environmental biotechnology, owing to its remarkable metabolic versatility and ability to sustain difficult redox reactions and operational stresses, among other attractive characteristics. A wealth of genetic and in silico tools have been developed to enable the unravelling of its physiology and improvement of its performance. However, the rise of this microbe as a promising platform for biotechnological applications has resulted in diversification of tools and methods rather than standardization and convergence. Read More

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A unique bacterial and archaeal diversity make mangrove a green production system compared to rice in wetland ecology: A metagenomic approach.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 25;781:146713. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India.

Mangrove provides significant ecosystem services, however, 40% of tropical mangrove was lost in last century due to climate change induced sea-level rise and anthropogenic activities. Sundarban-India, the largest contiguous mangrove of the world lost 10.5% of its green during 1930-2013 which primarily converted to rice-based systems. Read More

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Mixed azo dyes degradation by an intracellular azoreductase enzyme from alkaliphilic Bacillus subtilis: a molecular docking study.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Integrative Biology, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

The rise of pollution due to the dye industries and textile wastes are evolving rapidly every day. The dyes are used in different trade names by the textile industries. The actual chemistry of dye is vague and difficult to understand even today though we are equipped technically. Read More

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Ionic gold demonstrates antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains due to cellular ultrastructure damage.

Arch Microbiol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Microbiology at Interfaces, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester, M1 5GD, UK.

Due to the ever-increasing rise of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, the development of alternative antimicrobial agents is a global priority. The antimicrobial activity of ionic gold was explored against four Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with different AMR profiles in order to determine the antimicrobial activity of ionic gold and elucidate the mechanisms of action. Disc diffusion assays (zone of inhibition: ZoI) coupled with minimum inhibitory/bactericidal concentrations (MIC/MBC) were conducted to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of ionic gold. Read More

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Pore-forming toxins of foodborne pathogens.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Symbiosis School of Biological Sciences, Symbiosis International (Deemed University), Pune, India.

Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are water-soluble molecules that have been identified as the most crucial virulence factors during bacterial pathogenesis. PFTs disrupt the host cell membrane to internalize or to deliver other bacterial or virulence factors for establishing infections. Disruption of the host cell membrane by PFTs can lead to uncontrollable exchanges between the extracellular and the intracellular matrix, thereby disturbing the cellular homeostasis. Read More

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Extensive structural variation in the Bowman-Birk inhibitor family in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

BMC Genomics 2021 Mar 25;22(1):218. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA.

Background: Bowman-Birk inhibitors (BBI) are a family of serine-type protease inhibitors that modulate endogenous plant proteolytic activities during different phases of development. They also inhibit exogenous proteases as a component of plant defense mechanisms, and their overexpression can confer resistance to phytophagous herbivores and multiple fungal and bacterial pathogens. Dicot BBIs are multifunctional, with a "double-headed" structure containing two separate inhibitory loops that can bind and inhibit trypsin and chymotrypsin proteases simultaneously. Read More

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