3,025 results match your criteria ring motifs


Rational design, chemical synthesis and cellular evaluation of novel 1,3-diynyl derivatives of noscapine as potent tubulin binding anticancer agents.

J Mol Graph Model 2021 May 5;106:107933. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre of Excellence in Natural Products and Therapeutics, Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla, Sambalpur-768019, Odisha, India. Electronic address:

We present a new class of derivatives of noscapine, 1,3-diynyl-noscapinoids of an antitussive plant alkaloid, noscapine based on our in silico efforts that binds tubulin and displays anticancer activity against a panel of breast cancer cells. Structure-activity analyses pointed the C-9 position of the isoquinoline ring which was modified by coupling of 1,3-diynyl structural motifs to rationally design and screened a series of novel 1,3-diynyl-noscapinoids (20-22) with robust binding affinity with tubulin. The selected 1,3-diynyl-noscapinoids, 20-22 revealed improved predicted binding energy of -6. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

O-Heterocycle Synthesis via Intramolecular C-H Alkoxylation Catalyzed by Iron Acetylacetonate.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States.

Intramolecular alkoxylation of C-H bonds can rapidly introduce structural and functional group complexities into seemingly simple or inert precursors. The transformation is particularly important due to the ubiquitous presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF) motifs as fundamental building blocks in a wide range of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and natural products. Despite the various synthetic methodologies known for generating functionalized THFs, most show limited functional group tolerance and lack demonstration for the preparation of spiro or fused bi- and tricyclic ether units prevalent in molecules for pharmacological purposes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

DNMT3A-mediated silence in ADAMTS9 expression is restored by RNF180 to inhibit viability and motility in gastric cancer cells.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 30;12(5):428. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Gastroenterology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer; Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin; Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, 300060, China.

ADAMTS9 belongs to the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family, and its expression is frequently silenced due to promoter hypermethylation in various human cancers. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of ADAMTS9 on gastric cancer (GC) cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identification of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Compounds from Food Using QSAR-Based Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking, and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Analysis.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Apr 13;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Business Administration, Economics and Political Science, British University in Egypt, Cairo 11837, Egypt.

Due to the genetic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, the present work endeavored to derive a balanced Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) model, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies to identify novel molecules having inhibitory potential against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. The QSAR analysis developed on multivariate GA-MLR (Genetic Algorithm-Multilinear Regression) model with acceptable statistical performance (R = 0.898, Qloo = 0. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Secondary Structure in Nonpeptidic Supramolecular Block Copolymers.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Molecular Design Institute and Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, New York 10003, United States.

ConspectusProteins contain a level of complexity-secondary and tertiary structures-that polymer chemists aim to imitate. The bottom-up synthesis of protein-mimicking polymers mastering sequence variability and dispersity remains challenging. Incorporating polymers with predefined secondary structures, such as helices and π-π stacking sheets, into block copolymers circumvents the issue of designing and predicting one facet of their 3D architecture. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent developments in selective -arylation of azoles.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines) Dhanbad, Dhanbad-826004, India.

Transition-metal based carbon-heteroatom (C-X) bond formation has attracted the attention of synthetic chemists over the past few years because the resultant aryl/heteroaryl motifs are important substructures in many natural products, pharmaceuticals, etc. Several efficient protocols such as Buchwald-Hartwig amination, Ullmann coupling, Chan-Lam coupling and metal-free approaches have proved beneficial in C-X bond formation. Selective arylation of one hetero-centre over other centres without protection/deprotection thus allowing minimum synthetic manipulation has been achieved for several substrates using these protocols. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent advances in the synthesis and reactivity of azetidines: strain-driven character of the four-membered heterocycle.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 Apr;19(15):3274-3286

Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, 73 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102, USA.

Azetidines represent one of the most important four-membered heterocycles used in organic synthesis and medicinal chemistry. The reactivity of azetidines is driven by a considerable ring strain, while at the same the ring is significantly more stable than that of related aziridines, which translates into both facile handling and unique reactivity that can be triggered under appropriate reaction conditions. Recently, remarkable advances in the chemistry and reactivity of azetidines have been reported. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evolutionary and functional analysis of an NRPS condensation domain integrates β-lactam, ᴅ-amino acid, and dehydroamino acid synthesis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(17)

Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218

Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are large, multidomain biosynthetic enzymes involved in the assembly-line-like synthesis of numerous peptide natural products. Among these are clinically useful antibiotics including three classes of β-lactams: the penicillins/cephalosporins, the monobactams, and the monocyclic nocardicins, as well as the vancomycin family of glycopeptides and the depsipeptide daptomycin. During NRPS synthesis, peptide bond formation is catalyzed by condensation (C) domains, which couple the nascent peptide with the next programmed amino acid of the sequence. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Marinoterpins A-C: Rare Linear Merosesterterpenoids from Marine-Derived Actinomycete Bacteria of the Family Streptomycetaceae.

J Org Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

The chemical examination of two undescribed marine actinobacteria has yielded three rare merosesterterpenoids, marinoterpins A-C (-, respectively). These compounds were isolated from the culture broth extracts of two marine-derived actinomycetes associated with the family Streptomycetaceae, (our strains were CNQ-253 and AJS-327). The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR, MS, and combined spectroscopic data. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Copper-Catalyzed Cycloisomerization of Unactivated Allene-Tethered -Propargyl Oximes: A Domino Reaction Sequence toward the Synthesis of Hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-]azepin-5(4)-ones.

Org Lett 2021 May 12;23(9):3343-3348. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institut fur Organische Chemie, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitat Freiburg Albertstrasse 21, 79104 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

A novel copper-catalyzed cycloisomerization of unactivated allene-tethered propargyl oximes has been developed for the synthesis of hexahydropyrrolo[3,4-]azepin-5(4)-ones. This one-pot domino reaction proceeds via a [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement, a [3 + 2] cycloaddition, and another [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement. The methodology offers a practical and straightforward route for the rapid assembly of both ring components of the fused bicyclic motifs from acyclic precursors by simultaneously forming four new bonds (a C═O, a C═N, and two C-C bonds) in a single step. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Expanding Monomers as Anti-Shrinkage Additives.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 6;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH, Roseggerstrasse 12, 8700 Leoben, Austria.

Commonly, volumetric shrinkage occurs during polymerizations due to the shortening of the equilibrium Van der Waals distance of two molecules to the length of a (significantly shorter) covalent bond. This volumetric shrinkage can have severe influence on the materials' properties. One strategy to overcome this volumetric shrinkage is the use of expanding monomers that show volumetric expansion during polymerization reactions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Palladium-Catalyzed Defluorinative Alkylation of gem-Difluorocyclopropanes: Switching Regioselectivity via Simple Hydrazones.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Chemistry and FRQNT Center for Green Chemistry and Catalysis, McGill University, 801 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 0B8, Canada.

Conventional approaches for Pd-catalyzed ring-opening cross-couplings of gem-difluorocyclopropanes with nucleophiles predominantly deliver the β-fluoroalkene scaffolds (linear selectivity). Herein, we report a cooperative strategy that can completely switch the reaction selectivity to give the alkylated α-fluoroalkene skeletons (branched selectivity). The unique reactivity of hydrazones that enables analogous inner-sphere 3,3'-reductive elimination driven by denitrogenation, as well as the assistance of steric-embedded N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, are the key to switch the regioselectivity. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Supramolecular Self-Assembly Built by Weak Hydrogen, Chalcogen, and Unorthodox Nonbonded Motifs in 4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-[(4-fluorobenzyl)sulfanyl]-5-(thiophen-2-yl)-4-1,2,4-triazole, a Selective COX-2 Inhibitor: Insights from X-ray and Theoretical Studies.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 3;6(10):6996-7007. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Biomolecular Crystallography Laboratory, Department of Bioinformatics, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur 613 401, India.

A selective triazole-based COX-2 inhibitor, 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[(4-fluorobenzyl)sulfanyl]-5-(thiophen-2-yl)-4-1,2,4-triazole, CHClFNS, has been synthesized, and its crystal structure was determined at 150 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the thiophene ring was disordered over two orientations. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak hydrogen and chalcogen bonds and unorthodox F···π and S···C(π) contacts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rhodium-Catalyzed C-H Alkenylation/Electrocyclization Cascade Provides Dihydropyridines That Serve as Versatile Intermediates to Diverse Nitrogen Heterocycles.

Acc Chem Res 2021 04 19;54(7):1766-1778. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, United States.

Nitrogen heterocycles are present in approximately 60% of drugs, with nonplanar heterocycles incorporating stereogenic centers being of considerable interest to the fields of medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, and synthetic methods development. Over the past several years, our laboratory has developed synthetic strategies to access highly functionalized nitrogen heterocycles with multiple stereogenic centers. This approach centers on the efficient preparation of diverse 1,2-dihydropyridines by a Rh-catalyzed C-H bond alkenylation/electrocyclization cascade from readily available α,β-unsaturated imines and alkynes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ring Model for Understanding How Interfacial Interaction Dictates the Structures of Protection Motifs and Gold Cores in Thiolate-Protected Gold Nanoclusters.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Mar 18;12(11):3006-3013. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Physics, School of Physical Science and Technology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Understanding the effect of interfacial interactions between the protection motifs and gold cores on the stabilities of thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters is still a challenging task. Based on analyses of 95 experimentally crystallized and theoretically predicted thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters, we present a ring model to offer a deeper insight into the interfacial interactions for this class of nanoclusters. In the ring model, all the gold nanoclusters can be generically viewed as a fusion or interlocking of several [Au(SR)] ( = 4-8, 10, and 12 and 0 ≤ ≤ ) rings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bioinspired Diversification Approach Toward the Total Synthesis of Lycodine-Type Alkaloids.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Mar 17;143(12):4732-4740. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Nitrogen heterocycles (azacycles) are common structural motifs in numerous pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and natural products. Many powerful methods have been developed and continue to be advanced for the selective installation and modification of nitrogen heterocycles through C-H functionalization and C-C cleavage approaches, revealing new strategies for the synthesis of targets containing these structural entities. Here, we report the first total syntheses of the lycodine-type alkaloids casuarinine H, lycoplatyrine B, lycoplatyrine A, and lycopladine F as well as the total synthesis of 8,15-dihydrohuperzine A through bioinspired late-stage diversification of a readily accessible common precursor, -desmethyl-β-obscurine. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Direct catalytic asymmetric synthesis of α-chiral bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes.

Nat Commun 2021 03 12;12(1):1644. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Chemistry Research Laboratory, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3TA, UK.

Bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes (BCPs) are important motifs in contemporary drug design as linear spacer units that improve pharmacokinetic profiles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Synthesis, X-ray, Hirshfeld surface analysis, exploration of DNA binding, urease enzyme inhibition and anticancer activities of novel adamantane-naphthyl thiourea conjugate.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 9;109:104707. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Hacettepe University, Department of Physics, 06800 Beytepe-Ankara, Turkey.

1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl-3-(1-naphthyl)) thiourea (CHNOS (4), was synthesized by the reaction of freshly prepared adamantane-1-carbonyl chloride from corresponding acid (3) with ammonium thiocyanate in 1:1 M ratio in dry acetone to afford the adamantane-1-carbonyl isothiocyanate (2) in situ followed by treatment with 1-naphthyl amine (3). The structure was established by elemental analyses, FTIR, H, C NMR and mass spectroscopy. The molecular and crystal structure were determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Tuning flavin environment to detect and control light-induced conformational switching in Drosophila cryptochrome.

Commun Biol 2021 Feb 26;4(1):249. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Light-induction of an anionic semiquinone (SQ) flavin radical in Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) alters the dCRY conformation to promote binding and degradation of the circadian clock protein Timeless (TIM). Specific peptide ligation with sortase A attaches a nitroxide spin-probe to the dCRY C-terminal tail (CTT) while avoiding deleterious side reactions. Pulse dipolar electron-spin resonance spectroscopy from the CTT nitroxide to the SQ shows that flavin photoreduction shifts the CTT ~1 nm and increases its motion, without causing full displacement from the protein. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Synthesis of Complex Diterpenes: Strategies Guided by Oxidation Pattern Analysis.

Acc Chem Res 2021 03 23;54(6):1360-1373. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

The Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States.

With complex molecular architectures, intriguing oxidation patterns, and wide-ranging biological activities, diterpene natural products have greatly impacted research in organic chemistry and drug discovery. Our laboratory has completed total syntheses of several highly oxidized diterpenes, including the -kauranoids maoecrystal Z, trichorabdal A, and longikaurin E; the antibiotic pleuromutilin; and the insecticides ryanodol, ryanodine, and perseanol. In this Account, we show how analysis of oxidation patterns and inherent functional group relationships can inform key C-C bond disconnections that greatly simplify the complexity of polycyclic structures and streamline their total syntheses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Divergent rhodium-catalyzed electrochemical vinylic C-H annulation of acrylamides with alkynes.

Nat Commun 2021 02 10;12(1):930. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

State Key Laboratory of Organometallic Chemistry, Center for Excellence in Molecular Synthesis, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

α-Pyridones and α-pyrones are ubiquitous structural motifs found in natural products and biologically active small molecules. Here, we report an Rh-catalyzed electrochemical vinylic C-H annulation of acrylamides with alkynes, affording cyclic products in good to excellent yield. Divergent syntheses of α-pyridones and cyclic imidates are accomplished by employing N-phenyl acrylamides and N-tosyl acrylamides as substrates, respectively. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Teaching Aldehydes New Tricks Using Rhodium- and Cobalt-Hydride Catalysis.

Acc Chem Res 2021 03 3;54(5):1236-1250. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, United States.

By using transition metal catalysts, chemists have altered the "logic of chemical synthesis" by enabling the functionalization of carbon-hydrogen bonds, which have traditionally been considered inert. Within this framework, our laboratory has been fascinated by the potential for aldehyde C-H bond activation. Our approach focused on generating acyl-metal-hydrides by oxidative addition of the formyl C-H bond, which is an elementary step first validated by Tsuji in 1965. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Regioselective Synthesis of 1,2,3,4-Tetrasubstituted Arenes by Vicinal Functionalization of Arynes Derived from Aryl(Mes)iodonium Salts*.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 16;27(24):7168-7175. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, 97201, USA.

Herein, the synthesis of 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted benzenoid rings, motifs found in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and natural products, is described. In the past, the regioselective syntheses of such compounds have been a significant challenge. This work reports a method using substituted arynes derived from aryl(Mes)iodonium salts to access a range of densely functionalized 1,2,3,4-tetrasubstituted benzenoid rings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Ring structure of selected two-dimensional procrystalline lattices.

Phys Rev E 2020 Dec;102(6-1):062308

Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ, United Kingdom.

Recent work has introduced the term "procrystalline" to define systems which lack translational symmetry but have an underlying high-symmetry lattice. The properties of five such two-dimensional (2D) lattices are considered in terms of the topologies of rings which may be formed from three-coordinate sites only. Parent lattices with full coordination numbers of four, five, and six are considered, with configurations generated using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Maedi-visna virus Vif protein uses motifs distinct from HIV-1 Vif to bind zinc and the cofactor required for A3 degradation.

J Biol Chem 2020 Nov 24;296:100045. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

The mammalian apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3 or A3) family of cytidine deaminases restrict viral infections by mutating viral DNA and impeding reverse transcription. To overcome this antiviral activity, most lentiviruses express a viral accessory protein called the virion infectivity factor (Vif), which recruits A3 proteins to cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases such as cullin-5 (Cul5) for ubiquitylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Although Vif proteins from primate lentiviruses such as HIV-1 utilize the transcription factor core-binding factor subunit beta as a noncanonical cofactor to stabilize the complex, the maedi-visna virus (MVV) Vif hijacks cyclophilin A (CypA) instead. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Identification of a Catalytic Active but Non-Aggregating MDM2 RING Domain Variant.

J Mol Biol 2021 03 13;433(5):166807. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Glasgow G61 1BD, United Kingdom; Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

As a key regulator of the tumour suppressor protein p53, MDM2 is involved in various types of cancer and has thus been an attractive drug target. So far, small molecule design has primarily focussed on the N-terminal p53-binding domain although on-target toxicity effects have been reported. Targeting the catalytic RING domain of MDM2 resembles an alternative approach to drug MDM2 with the idea to prevent MDM2-mediated ubiquitination of p53 while retaining MDM2's ability to bind p53. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Anticancer Activity-Structure Relationship of Quinolinone-Based Compounds: An Overview.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Pharmacy Services Program, Vocational School, Beykent University 34500, Istanbul. Turkey.

Background: Heterocyclic compounds play an important role in the pharmaceutical and biological processes. Among all heterocycles, quinolinone/quinoline has one of the most unique structures in the discovery of these compounds. These derivatives have been prepared by various on the structures, positions, and they have attracted a great deal of attention in the field of medicinal chemistry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Identification of flavonoid 8-hydroxylase with gossypetin synthase activity from flower specific EST data of Lotus Japonicus.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Research and Development, Kazusa DNA Research Institute, 2-6-7 Kazusa-Kamatari, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

Lotus japonicus is a model legume, that accumulates 8-hydroxyflavonol derivatives such as gossypetin (8-hydroxyquercetin) 3-O-glycoside, which confer the yellow color to its petals. An enzyme, flavonoid 8-hydroxylase (LjF8H), is assumed to be involved in the biosynthesis, but the specific gene is yet to be identified. The LjF8H cDNA was isolated as an FAD-binding monooxygenase-like protein using flower buds and flower specific EST data of L. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

TRIM proteins in lung cancer: Mechanisms, biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 4;268:118985. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

The tripartite motif (TRIM) family is defined by the presence of a Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, one or two B-box motifs and a coiled-coil region. TRIM proteins play key roles in many biological processes, including innate immunity, tumorigenesis, cell differentiation and ontogenetic development. Alterations in TRIM gene and protein levels frequently emerge in a wide range of tumors and affect tumor progression. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

DNA Ring-Opening Polymerization Driven by Base Stacking.

Chembiochem 2021 May 23;22(9):1621-1626. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Key Laboratory of Luminescence Analysis and Molecular Sensing, Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, P. R. China.

Supramolecular polymers, relying on reversible intermolecular interactions, promise a wide range of applications, including optoelectronic materials, self-healing materials, and biomedical delivery materials. Among potential molecular candidates, DNA strands act as an excellent platform. DNA has a well-established secondary structure (double helix), and its intermolecular interactions can be readily thermodynamically engineered and kinetically controlled. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF