43,854 results match your criteria rhesus macaque

Rhesus macaques build new social connections after a natural disaster.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre for Research in Animal Behaviour, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of weather-related disasters such as hurricanes, wildfires, floods, and droughts. Understanding resilience and vulnerability to these intense stressors and their aftermath could reveal adaptations to extreme environmental change. In 2017, Puerto Rico suffered its worst natural disaster, Hurricane Maria, which left 3,000 dead and provoked a mental health crisis. Read More

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Functional variability of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) NAT2 gene for drug-metabolising arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 5:114545. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Alexandroupolis, Greece. Electronic address:

Human NAT2 is a polymorphic pharmacogene encoding for N-acetyltransferase 2, a hepatic enzyme active towards arylamine and arylhydrazine drugs, including the anti-tubercular antibiotic isoniazid. The isoenzyme also modulates susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis, particularly of the bladder. Human NAT2 represents an ideal model for anthropological investigations into the demographic adaptation of worldwide populations to their xenobiotic environment. Read More

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Age-related calcium dysregulation linked with tau pathology and impaired cognition in non-human primates.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Departments of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Yale University, Connecticut, USA.

Introduction: The etiology of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires non-genetically modified animal models.

Methods: The relationship of tau phosphorylation to calcium-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) dysregulation was analyzed in aging rhesus macaque dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and rat primary cortical neurons using biochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy. The influence of calcium leak from ryanodine receptors (RyRs) on neuronal firing and cognitive performance was examined in aged macaques. Read More

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Robust vestibular self-motion signals in macaque posterior cingulate region.

Elife 2021 Apr 8;10. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Self-motion signals, distributed ubiquitously across parietal-temporal lobes, propagate to limbic hippocampal system for vector-based navigation via hubs including posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Although numerous studies have indicated posterior cingulate areas are involved in spatial tasks, it is unclear how their neurons represent self-motion signals. Providing translation and rotation stimuli to macaques on a 6-degree-of-freedom motion platform, we discovered robust vestibular responses in PCC. Read More

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Stimulus-dependent relationships between behavioral choice and sensory neural responses.

Elife 2021 Apr 7;10. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States.

Understanding perceptual decision-making requires linking sensory neural responses to behavioral choices. In two-choice tasks, activity-choice covariations are commonly quantified with a single measure of choice probability (CP), without characterizing their changes across stimulus levels. We provide theoretical conditions for stimulus dependencies of activity-choice covariations. Read More

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Likelihood approximation networks (LANs) for fast inference of simulation models in cognitive neuroscience.

Elife 2021 Apr 6;10. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Robert J and Nancy D Carney Institute for Brain Science; Cognitive, Linguistic & Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, United States.

In cognitive neuroscience, computational modeling can formally adjudicate between theories and affords quantitative fits to behavioral/brain data. Pragmatically, however, the space of plausible generative models considered is dramatically limited by the set of models with known likelihood functions. For many models, the lack of a closed-form likelihood typically impedes Bayesian inference methods. Read More

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The neutralizing antibody, LY-CoV555, protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection in non-human primates.

Sci Transl Med 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

AbCellera Biologics Inc., Vancouver, BC, V5Y0A1, Canada.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a public health threat for which preventive and therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibodies are a key class of therapeutics which may bridge widespread vaccination campaigns and offer a treatment solution in populations less responsive to vaccination. Herein, we report that high-throughput microfluidic screening of antigen-specific B-cells led to the identification of LY-CoV555 (also known as bamlanivimab), a potent anti-spike neutralizing antibody from a hospitalized, convalescent patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Read More

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Greater Reduction in Contralesional Hand Use After Frontoparietal Than Frontal Motor Cortex Lesions in .

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 18;15:592235. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD, United States.

We previously reported that rhesus monkeys recover spontaneous use of the more impaired (contralesional) hand following neurosurgical lesions to the arm/hand representations of primary motor cortex (M1) and lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) (F2 lesion) when tested for reduced use (RU) in a fine motor task allowing use of either hand. Recovery occurred without constraint of the less impaired hand and with occasional forced use of the more impaired hand, which was the preferred hand for use in fine motor tasks before the lesion. Here, we compared recovery of five F2 lesion cases in the same RU test to recovery after unilateral lesions of M1, LPMC, S1 and anterior portion of parietal cortex (F2P2 lesion - four cases). Read More

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Female ornaments: is red skin color attractive to males and related to condition in rhesus macaques?

Behav Ecol 2021 Mar-Apr;32(2):236-247. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

Sexual selection produces extravagant male traits, such as colorful ornaments, via female mate choice. More rarely, in mating systems in which males allocate mating effort between multiple females, female ornaments may evolve via male mate choice. Females of many anthropoid primates exhibit ornaments that indicate intraindividual cyclical fertility, but which have also been proposed to function as interindividual quality signals. Read More

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January 2021

Fecal Bacterial Microbiota of Healthy Free-Ranging, Healthy Corralled, and Chronic Diarrheic Corralled Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

Comp Med 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

A clinical challenge to nearly every primate facility in North America is chronic idiopathic diarrhea (CID), the pathogenesis of which has yet to be fully elucidated. However, wild macaques appear resistant to CID, a trend that we observed in the free-ranging population of the Caribbean Primate Research Center. The gastrointestinal microbiota has been shown to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of disease and in maintaining normal health and development of the gut. Read More

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Dimethyl Fumarate, an Approved Multiple Sclerosis Treatment, Reduces Brain Oxidative Stress in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques: Potential Therapeutic Repurposing for HIV Neuroprotection.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory drug approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, induces antioxidant enzymes, in part through transcriptional upregulation. We hypothesized that DMF administration to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques would induce antioxidant enzyme expression and reduce oxidative injury and inflammation throughout the brain. Nine SIV-infected, CD8-T-lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques were studied. Read More

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Genotyping of Entamoeba nuttalli strains from the wild rhesus macaques of Myanmar and comparison with those from the wild rhesus macaques of Nepal and China.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Mar 30;92:104830. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Parasitology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan. Electronic address:

Entamoeba nuttalli found in macaques is phylogenetically the closest species to Entamoeba histolytica and is potentially pathogenic. In this study, the prevalence of Entamoeba infections was examined in wild rhesus macaques by examining 73 and 90 fecal samples collected from two sites, Popa Taung Kalat (PTK) and Pho Win Taung (PWT), in Myanmar. The positive rates of E. Read More

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Non-neutralizing Antibodies May Contribute to Suppression of SIVmac239 Viremia in Indian Rhesus Macaques.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:657424. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Pathology, George Washington University, Washington, DC, United States.

The antiviral properties of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV are well-documented but no vaccine is currently able to elicit protective titers of these responses in primates. While current vaccine modalities can readily induce non-neutralizing antibodies against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and HIV, the ability of these responses to restrict lentivirus transmission and replication remains controversial. Here, we investigated the antiviral properties of non-neutralizing antibodies in a group of Indian rhesus macaques (RMs) that were vaccinated with , , and , as part of a previous study conducted by our group. Read More

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The Subcortical Atlas of the Rhesus Macaque (SARM) for Neuroimaging.

Neuroimage 2021 Mar 29:117996. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Centre for Integrative Neurosciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany; Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany; Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Center for Biomedical Imaging and Neuromodulation, Orangeburg, NY, USA; International Center for Primate Brain Research, Songjiang, Shanghai, PRC. Electronic address:

Digitized neuroanatomical atlases that can be overlaid onto functional data are crucial for localizing brain structures and analyzing functional networks identified by neuroimaging techniques. To aid in functional and structural data analysis, we have created a comprehensive parcellation of the rhesus macaque subcortex using a high-resolution ex vivo structural imaging scan. This anatomical scan and its parcellation were warped to the updated NIMH Macaque Template (NMT v2), an in vivo population template, where the parcellation was refined to produce the Subcortical Atlas of the Rhesus Macaque (SARM) with 210 primary regions-of-interest (ROIs). Read More

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The Rhesus Macaque Serves As a Model for Human Lateral Branch Nephrogenesis.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio

Background: Most nephrons are added in late gestation. Truncated extrauterine nephrogenesis in premature infants results in fewer nephrons and significantly increased risk for CKD in adulthood. To overcome the ethical and technical difficulties associated with studies of late-gestation human fetal kidney development, third-trimester rhesus macaques served as a model to understand lateral branch nephrogenesis (LBN) at the molecular level. Read More

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A comprehensive macaque fMRI pipeline and hierarchical atlas.

Neuroimage 2021 Mar 28:117997. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Functional neuroimaging research in the non-human primate (NHP) has been advancing at a remarkable rate. The increase in available data establishes a need for robust analysis pipelines designed for NHP neuroimaging and accompanying template spaces to standardize the localization of neuroimaging results. Our group recently developed the NIMH Macaque Template (NMT), a high-resolution population average anatomical template and associated neuroimaging resources, providing researchers with a standard space for macaque neuroimaging (Seidlitz et al. Read More

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Chronic Opioid Administration is Associated with Prevotella-dominated Dysbiosis in SIVmac251 Infected, cART-treated Macaques.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.

People living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an elevated risk of opioid misuse due to both prescriptions for HIV-associated chronic pain and because injection drug use remains a primary mode of HIV transmission. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by chronic immune activation and microbial dysbiosis, and translocation across the gut barrier exacerbating inflammation. Despite the high rate of co-occurrence, little is known about the microbiome during chronic opioid use in the context of HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Read More

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Study of Relationship between Learning and Behavioral Parameters in Mature Male Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 Mar 31;170(5):669-671. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Research Institute of Medical Primatology, Sochi, Russia.

A study of mature male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) was carried out to determine the relationships between learning ability, and behavioral parameters. In individuals with low behavioral scores of aggression, sociability, and mobility, the levels of learning, training, and skill retention were significantly higher than in individuals with higher behavioral scores. At the same time, individuals with a high level of anxiety were characterized with enhanced level of learning, training and skill stability. Read More

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Disentangling perceptual awareness from nonconscious processing in rhesus monkeys ().

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511.

Scholars have long debated whether animals, which display impressive intelligent behaviors, are consciously aware or not. Yet, because many complex human behaviors and high-level functions can be performed without conscious awareness, it was long considered impossible to untangle whether animals are aware or just conditionally or nonconsciously behaving. Here, we developed an empirical approach to address this question. Read More

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Quantitative Imaging Analysis of the Spatial Relationship between Antiretrovirals, RT-SHIV RNA, and Collagen in the Mesenteric Lymph Nodes of Nonhuman Primates.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

HIV persistence in tissue reservoirs is a major barrier to HIV cure. While antiretrovirals (ARVs) suppress viral replication, antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption results in rapid rebound viremia that may originate from lymphoid tissues. To understand the relationship between anatomic distribution of ARV exposure and viral expression in lymph nodes, we performed mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of 6 ARVs, RNAscope hybridization for viral RNA, and immunohistochemistry of collagen in mesenteric lymph nodes from 8 uninfected and 10 reverse transcriptase-simian/human immunodeficiency virus (RT-SHIV) infected rhesus macaque nonhuman primates (NHPs) dosed to steady-state with combination ART. Read More

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Changes in the gut microbiome community of nonhuman primates following radiation injury.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Mar 29;21(1):93. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Radioprotectants, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Composition and maintenance of the microbiome is vital to gut homeostasis. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the impact of high doses of radiation, which can occur as a result of cancer radiation therapy, nuclear accidents or intentional release of a nuclear or radioactive weapon, on the composition of the gut microbiome. Therefore, we sought to analyze alterations to the gut microbiome of nonhuman primates (NHPs) exposed to high doses of radiation. Read More

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Corrigendum to "Sensorimotor cortex injury effects on recovery of contralesional dexterous movements in Macaca mulatta" [Experimental Neurology 281 (2016) 37-52].

Exp Neurol 2021 Mar 17:113702. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, The University of South Dakota, Sanford School of Medicine, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA.

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How do non-human primates represent others' awareness of where objects are hidden?

Cognition 2021 Mar 24;212:104658. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA; Cognitive Science Program, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA; College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA.

Although non-human primates (NHPs) generally appear to predict how knowledgeable agents use knowledge to guide their behavior, the cognitive mechanisms that enable this remain poorly understood. We assessed the conditions under which NHPs' representations of an agent's awareness break down. Free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) watched as an agent observed a target object being hidden in one of two boxes. Read More

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Generation and Cultivation of Transgene-Free Macaque and Baboon iPSCs Under Chemically Defined Conditions.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Research Platform Degenerative Diseases, German Primate Center - Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Göttingen, Germany.

Non-human primates (NHP), and in particular Old World monkeys including macaques and baboons, are key animal models for the late preclinical testing of novel stem cell-based therapies and other advanced therapy medical products (ATMP) for the treatment of degenerative diseases. These pathologies are characterized by the loss of functional cells in an organ, as in Parkinson's disease, age-related macular degeneration, or after myocardial infarction. For preclinically relevant testing of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based therapies, robust, and standardized protocols for the generation, characterization, and differentiation of NHP-iPSCs are required. Read More

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Primate innate immune responses to bacterial and viral pathogens reveals an evolutionary trade-off between strength and specificity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(13)

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, University of Montreal, QC H3T 1C5, Montréal, Canada;

Despite their close genetic relatedness, apes and African and Asian monkeys (AAMs) differ in their susceptibility to severe bacterial and viral infections that are important causes of human disease. Such differences between humans and other primates are thought to be a result, at least in part, of interspecies differences in immune response to infection. However, because of the lack of comparative functional data across species, it remains unclear in what ways the immune systems of humans and other primates differ. Read More

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Combination therapy protects macaques against advanced Marburg virus disease.

Nat Commun 2021 03 25;12(1):1891. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Galveston National Laboratory, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX, USA.

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and remdesivir, a small-molecule antiviral, are promising monotherapies for many viruses, including members of the genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus (family Filoviridae), and more recently, SARS-CoV-2. One of the major challenges of acute viral infections is the treatment of advanced disease. Thus, extending the window of therapeutic intervention is critical. Read More

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The long noncoding RNA Synage regulates synapse stability and neuronal function in the cerebellum.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

MOE Key Laboratory for Membraneless Organelles and Cellular Dynamics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, CAS Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, School of Life Sciences, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

The brain is known to express many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs); however, whether and how these lncRNAs function in modulating synaptic stability remains unclear. Here, we report a cerebellum highly expressed lncRNA, Synage, regulating synaptic stability via at least two mechanisms. One is through the function of Synage as a sponge for the microRNA miR-325-3p, to regulate expression of the known cerebellar synapse organizer Cbln1. Read More

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Processing of motion boundary orientation in macaque V2.

Elife 2021 Mar 24;10. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Human and nonhuman primates are good at identifying an object based on its motion, a task that is believed to be carried out by the ventral visual pathway. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such ability remains unclear. We trained macaque monkeys to do orientation discrimination for motion boundaries (MBs) and recorded neuronal response in area V2 with microelectrode arrays. Read More

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Examining cross-modal fMRI adaptation for observed and executed actions in the monkey brain.

Neuroimage 2021 Mar 20;233:117988. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Laboratory for Neuro- & Psychophysiology, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium; Leuven Brain Institute, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

While mirror neurons have been found in several monkey brain regions, their existence in the human brain is still largely inferred from indirect non-invasive measurements like functional MRI. It has been proposed that, beyond showing overlapping brain responses during action observation and execution tasks, candidate mirror neuron regions should demonstrate cross-modal action specificity, in line with a defining physiological characteristic of these neurons in the monkey brain. Although cross-modal fMRI adaptation has been put forward as a suited method to test this key feature of cross-modal action specificity in the human brain, so far, the overall usefulness of this technique to demonstrate mirror neuron activity remains unclear. Read More

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Metabolomics analysis of follicular fluid coupled with oocyte aspiration reveals importance of glucocorticoids in primate periovulatory follicle competency.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 22;11(1):6506. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Reproductive and Developmental Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR, USA.

Gonadotropin administration during infertility treatment stimulates the growth and development of multiple ovarian follicles, yielding heterogeneous oocytes with variable capacity for fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst formation. To determine how the intrafollicular environment affects oocyte competency, 74 individual rhesus macaque follicles were aspirated and the corresponding oocytes classified as failed to cleave, cleaved but arrested prior to blastulation, or those that formed blastocysts following in vitro fertilization. Metabolomics analysis of the follicular fluid (FF) identified 60 unique metabolites that were significantly different between embryo classifications, of which a notable increase in the intrafollicular ratio of cortisol to cortisone was observed in the blastocyst group. Read More

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