7,938 results match your criteria reviews disparities

Cardiovascular safety of naltrexone and bupropion therapy: Systematic review and meta-analyses.

Obes Rev 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Cardiology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil.

Despite being approved for clinical use, evidence of cardiovascular safety (CV) is lacking for treatment with bupropion, naltrexone, or their combination (B-N). The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between these treatments and the risk of major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE). Phase 3 randomized clinical trials (RCT) evaluating bupropion, naltrexone, or B-N versus control with reported incidence of MACE. Read More

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Disparities and interventions in the timeliness of endometrial cancer diagnosis and treatment in the United States: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2021 Apr 13;10(1):107. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Background: Disparities in the stage at diagnosis of endometrial cancer (EC) account for a significant proportion of the disparities in morbidity and mortality experienced by vulnerable groups in the USA. Evidence suggests that disparities in timeliness of care and treatment play a significant role in stage at diagnosis. Despite an increase in literature on EC disparities, the issue remains largely unchanged. Read More

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Am J Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address:

Before the COVID-19 pandemic, use of telehealth services had been limited in cardiovascular care. Potential benefits of telehealth include improved access to care, more efficient care management, reduced costs, the ability to assess patients within their homes while involving key caretakers in medical decisions, maintaining social distancing, and increased patient satisfaction. Challenges include changes in payment models, issues with data security and privacy, potential depersonalization of the patient-clinician relationship, limitations in the use of digital health technologies, and the potential impact on disparities - socioeconomic, gender, age-related, and access to technology and broadband. Read More

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Addressing cervical cancer screening disparities through advances in artificial intelligence and nanotechnologies for cellular profiling.

Biophys Rev 2021 Mar;2(1):011303

Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.

Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Detection of pre-cancerous cervical changes provides a window of opportunity for cure of an otherwise lethal disease when metastatic. With a greater understanding of the biology and natural course of high-risk HPV infections, screening methods have shifted beyond subjective Pap smears toward more sophisticated and objective tactics. Read More

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Expression and clinical implications of estrogen receptors in thoracic malignancies: a narrative review.

J Thorac Dis 2021 Mar;13(3):1851-1863

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy.

Thoracic malignancies represent a significant global health burden with incidence and mortality increasing year by year. Thoracic cancer prognosis and treatment options depend on several factors, including the type and size of the tumor, its location, and the overall health status of patients. Gender represents an important prognostic variable in thoracic malignancies. Read More

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Public Health Foundations for Radiology Resident Education: Healthcare Disparities in Radiology.

Curr Probl Diagn Radiol 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Radiology, Detroit Medical Center, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.

Increasing recognition within the medical literature and by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has been attributed to the need for enhanced resident education on concepts related to public health and health equity. Despite increasing documentation of pervasive inequalities within the scope of radiology, dedicated curricula designed to improve cultural competency and understanding of healthcare disparities among radiology trainees remains sparse. With relatively fewer patient interactions, radiology trainees are particularly susceptible to insufficient contextual awareness of how socioeconomic factors influence patient health and behaviors, physician recommendations, and ultimately clinical outcomes. Read More

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Acute and chronic exposure to air pollution in relation with incidence, prevalence, severity and mortality of COVID-19: a rapid systematic review.

Environ Health 2021 04 10;20(1):41. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49 (O&N 706), B-3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Air pollution is one of the world's leading mortality risk factors contributing to seven million deaths annually. COVID-19 pandemic has claimed about one million deaths in less than a year. However, it is unclear whether exposure to acute and chronic air pollution influences the COVID-19 epidemiologic curve. Read More

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A Qualitative Analysis of State Medicaid Coverage Benefits for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (alloHCT) for Patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD).

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 29;27(4):345-351. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common inherited hemoglobin disorder, affecting approximately 100,000 people in the United States. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), also known as bone marrow transplant (BMT), is currently the only established curative option for SCD. However, alloHCT is an optional benefit under Medicaid. Read More

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Understanding racial disparities in the care of patients with irritable bowel syndrome: The need for a unified approach.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Apr 9:e14152. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Gastroenterology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent disorder of gut-brain interaction, which significantly erodes the quality of life of those it affects. Recent studies have confirmed that its prevalence varies quite markedly between countries, implying that it is affected by cultural and socioeconomic factors. In an important study, Silvernale at al. Read More

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Global Perspectives on Palliative Care for Cancer Patients: Not All Countries Are the Same.

Curr Oncol Rep 2021 Apr 8;23(5):60. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Middle Eastern Cancer Consortium, Haifa, Israel.

Purpose Of The Review: The integration of cancer-related palliative care is essential to holistic, quality cancer care. While some similarities exist between countries, this manuscript will focus on five differences that impact palliative care for cancer patients including the epidemiology of cancer and related symptoms, cancer-specific integration into care, palliative care education, economic development of the country, and cultural and religious differences.

Recent Findings: The epidemiology of cancer varies around the world resulting in variable symptoms and the need for individualized approaches to palliative care. Read More

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Neuropilins: C-end rule peptides and their association with nociception and COVID-19.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biology, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, PO Box 15551, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Viral internalization is aided by host cell surface receptors. In the case of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, the primary host receptor is the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Considering the disparities in the transmission rate and viral tropism of the two coronaviruses, additional host factors were suspected. Read More

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Addressing Parental Vaccine Hesitancy and Other Barriers to Childhood/Adolescent Vaccination Uptake During the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:663074. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Informatics, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.

Routine childhood immunizations are proven to be one of the most effective public health interventions at controlling numerous deadly diseases. Therefore, the CDC recommends routine immunizations for children and adolescent populations against vaccine-preventable diseases e.g. Read More

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Virtual Care in the Veterans Affairs Spinal Cord Injuries and Disorders System of Care During the COVID-19 National Public Health Emergency.

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2021 05 3;32(2):207-221. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Spinal Cord Injuries and Disorders, National Program Office, Veterans Health Administration, 810 Vermont Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20571, USA; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, 325 9th Avenue, Box 359612, Seattle, WA 98104, USA. Electronic address:

Telehealth reduces disparities that result from physical disabilities, difficulties with transportation, geographic barriers, and scarcity of specialists, which are commonly experienced by individuals with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has been an international leader in the use of virtual health. The VA's SCI/D System of Care is the nation's largest coordinated system of lifelong care for people with SCI/D and has implemented the use of telehealth to ensure that Veterans with SCI/D have convenient access to their health care, particularly during the restrictions that were imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Green Space and Health Equity: A Systematic Review on the Potential of Green Space to Reduce Health Disparities.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 4;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Recreation, Sport and Tourism, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820, USA.

Disadvantaged groups worldwide, such as low-income and racially/ethnically minoritized people, experience worse health outcomes than more privileged groups, including wealthier and white people. Such health disparities are a major public health issue in several countries around the world. In this systematic review, we examine whether green space shows stronger associations with physical health for disadvantaged groups than for privileged groups. Read More

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USDA Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Vendor Criteria: An Examination of US Administrative Agency Variations.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 29;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Center for Research in Education & Social Policy, College of Education & Human Development, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA.

The food retail environment has been directly linked to disparities in dietary behaviors and may in part explain racial and ethnic disparities in pregnancy-related deaths. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), administered by the United States Department of Agriculture, is associated with improved healthy food and beverage access due to its requirement for minimum stock of healthy foods and beverages in WIC-eligible stores. The selection and authorization criteria used to authorize WIC vendors varies widely from state to state with little known about the specific variations. Read More

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The Impact of Sex on Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Young Patients: From Stroke Occurrence to Poststroke Consequences.

Children (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medical Sciences in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Medykow Str 16, 40-752 Katowice, Poland.

The male sex has been suggested to predominate in paediatric patients with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), especially in newborns. The explanation for this phenomenon remains unsatisfactory since it focuses on the analysis of the potential relationship with trauma and arterial dissection. In turn, in some populations of young adults, men suffer from AIS more frequently than women, which may be related to the protective role of oestrogen. Read More

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Removing Race from eGFR calculations: Implications for Urologic Care.

Urology 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA. Electronic address:

Equations estimating the glomerular filtration rate are important clinical tools in detecting and managing kidney disease. Urologists extensively use these equations in clinical decision making. For example, the estimated glomerular function rate is used when considering the type of urinary diversion following cystectomy, selecting systemic chemotherapy in managing urologic cancers, and deciding the type of cross-sectional imaging in diagnosing or staging urologic conditions. Read More

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Opportunities and challenges for the computational interpretation of rare variation in clinically important genes.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Apr;108(4):535-548

Departments of Bioengineering & Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Genome sequencing is enabling precision medicine-tailoring treatment to the unique constellation of variants in an individual's genome. The impact of recurrent pathogenic variants is often understood, however there is a long tail of rare genetic variants that are uncharacterized. The problem of uncharacterized rare variation is especially acute when it occurs in genes of known clinical importance with functionally consequential variants and associated mechanisms. Read More

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Underrepresentation in Oncology: Identifying and Addressing Structural Barriers.

Oncologist 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Perelman School of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Underrepresentation of minority groups in the oncology physician workforce is a pressing issue which may contribute to disparities in cancer research, clinical care, and patient outcomes. To address this, we highlight the role of medical culture and institutions in perpetuating a range of barriers that lead to the persistent underrepresentation of minority medical trainees and physicians. These barriers include an exclusionary medical culture, bias in measures of merit, financial barriers to medical subspecialty training, under-recognition of achievement, and poor representation and satisfaction among underrepresented faculty. Read More

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Annual Research Review: Youth firearm violence disparities in the United States and implications for prevention.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Education and Human Development, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Objective: Research has identified the United States (U.S.) as a global outlier in its firearm ownership rates, with a correspondingly higher risk of youth firearm violence compared to other countries. Read More

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The Role of Estrogen Receptors in Urothelial Cancer.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 16;12:643870. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States.

Epidemiological data have indicated that there are some sex-related differences in bladder cancer. Indeed, the incidence of bladder cancer in men has been substantially higher than that in women throughout the world, while women tend to have higher stage disease and poorer prognosis. These gender disparities have prompted to investigate sex hormones and their cognitive receptors in bladder cancer. Read More

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Who is Biking for? Urban Bikeshare Networks' Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic, Disparities in Bikeshare Access, and a Way Forward.

Yale J Biol Med 2021 03 31;94(1):159-164. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Center for Emergency Care and Policy Research, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Black, Latinx, and Indigenous people have contracted the SARS-CoV-2 virus and died of COVID-19 at higher rates than White people. Individuals rated public transit, taxis, and ride-hailing as the modes of transportation putting them at greatest risk of COVID-19 infection. Cycling may thus be an attractive alternative for commuting. Read More

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Telemedicine in Urology: The Socioeconomic Impact.

Urol Clin North Am 2021 May 12;48(2):215-222. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Orange County Urology, 23961 Calle De La Magdalena, Laguna Hills, CA 92653, USA.

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent public health emergency (PHE) have propelled telemedicine several years into the future. With the rapid adoption of this technology came socioeconomic inequities as minority communities disproportionately have yet to adopt telemedicine. Telemedicine offers solutions to patient access issues that have plagued urology, helping address physician shortages in rural areas and expanding the reach of urologists. Read More

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Women in Urology.

Urol Clin North Am 2021 May 10;48(2):187-194. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

AAUrology, PA, Annapolis, MD, USA.

The presence of women in genitourinary (GU) specialty training and practice has lagged significantly behind other fields. Current challenges include maternity leave, sexual harassment, and pay disparities. Despite these obstacles, the prevalence of women in GU specialty training has risen rapidly. Read More

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Disparities in H1N1 Vaccination Rates: a Systematic Review and Evidence Synthesis to Inform COVID-19 Vaccination Efforts.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

VA Evidence Synthesis Program, VA Portland Health Care System, 3710 SW US Veterans Hospital Rd, Portland, OR, 97239, USA.

Background: Data suggest that there were disparities in H1N1 vaccine uptake, and these may inform COVID-19 vaccination efforts. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate disparities in H1N1 vaccine uptake, factors contributing to disparities, and interventions to reduce them.

Methods: We searched English-language articles in MEDLINE ALL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from database inception through May 8, 2020. Read More

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Patient-Derived Xenografts as an Innovative Surrogate Tumor Model for the Investigation of Health Disparities in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle) 2020 24;1(1):383-392. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Section of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Despite a decline in overall incidence rates for cancer in the past decade, due in part to impressive advancements in both diagnosis and treatment, breast cancer (BC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women. BC alone accounts for ∼30% of all new cancer diagnoses in women worldwide. Triple-negative BC (TNBC), defined as having no expression of the estrogen or progesterone receptors and no amplification of the HER2 receptor, is a subtype of BC that does not benefit from the use of estrogen receptor-targeting or HER2-targeting therapies. Read More

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September 2020

Sexual health (excluding reproductive health, intimate partner violence and gender-based violence) and COVID-19: a scoping review.

Sex Transm Infect 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed and exacerbated existing socioeconomic and health disparities, including disparities in sexual health and well-being. While there have been several reviews published on COVID-19 and population health disparities generally-including some with attention to HIV-none has focused on sexual health (ie, STI care, female sexual health, sexual behaviour). We have conducted a scoping review focused on sexual health (excluding reproductive health (RH), intimate partner violence (IPV) and gender-based violence (GBV)) in the COVID-19 era, examining sexual behaviours and sexual health outcomes. Read More

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Same Chance of Accessing Resection? Impact of Socioeconomic Status on Resection Rates Among Patients with Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma-A Systematic Review.

Health Equity 2021 22;5(1):143-150. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

UMR INSERM 1086 UCN 'ANTICIPE,' Caen, France.

The incidence of pancreatic cancer is growing and the survival rate remains one of the worst in oncology. Surgical resection is currently a crucial curative option for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA). Socioeconomic factors could influence access to surgery. Read More

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