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COVID-19 and the Kidney: Should Nephrologists Care about COVID-19 rather than Maintaining Their Focus on Renal Patients?

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-15. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, IRCCS, Bergamo, Italy.

Clinical Background: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread globally from late 2019, reaching pandemic proportions. Epidemiology: The related disease, COVID-19, exacerbates and progresses due to patients' abnormal inflammatory/immune responses, widespread endothelial damage, and complement-induced blood clotting with microangiopathy. COVID-19 manifests mainly as a respiratory illness. Read More

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Toxin-Related Acute Kidney Injury.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-12. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Post-Graduate Program of Medical Sciences, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Clinical Background: Nephrotoxic acute kidney injury or toxin-related acute kidney injury (ToxAKI) is a relevant and relatively common category of kidney damage. Exogenous toxins and venomous animals with epidemiologic variations across the world are some nephrotoxic agents. Epidemiology: The epidemiologic features of the toxic agent-related acute kidney injury are associated with different culture, biodiversity of the tropics, and economic status. Read More

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When Anxiety and Depression Coexist: The Role of Differential Diagnosis Using Clinimetric Criteria.

Psychother Psychosom 2021 1;90(5):308-317. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Psychiatry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, New York, New York, USA.

Depressive and anxiety disorders are frequently associated. Depression may be a complication of anxiety and anxiety can complicate depression. The nature of their relationship has been a source of controversy. Read More

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Neglected Tropical Diseases and the Kidneys.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-28. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Medical Sciences Graduate Program, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Clinical Background: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), a major public health problem, frequently affect the kidneys. In this chapter, we discuss the NTDs which have been most studied in terms of renal involvement and present a summary of current knowledge regarding kidney disease in all NTDs, through a literature review. Epidemiology: There are more than 1 billion people in the world affected by NTDs. Read More

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Smoking and Kidney Disease: Risk Factors, Challenges, and Preventive Strategies.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Nephrology Department, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Clinical Background: Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) and smoking are both associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, the interplay between the two is not widely understood. Epidemiology: The incidence of CKD progression has been shown to be significantly higher among current and former smokers, and continued smoking thereafter has been associated with a nearly twofold higher risk of death. Challenges: Because it is a silent disease, CKD is often diagnosed in advanced stages, which underscores the importance of targeted, active screening for CKD. Read More

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Prescription Drug Overdose, Depression, and Other Mental Disorders in the Context of Kidney Disease.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Post-Graduation Program, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Clinical Background: Mental disorders, especially depression, are associated with several comorbidities in the kidneys. Depression is the psychiatric disorder that mostly affects individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease. Epidemiology: The mainly prescribed drugs involved in overdose cases are opioids, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants. Read More

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Regional and Racial Disparities in HIV-Related Kidney Disease.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine and Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Clinical Background and Epidemiology: Worldwide, an estimated 38 million people are living with HIV infection. The classic kidney disease of HIV infection, commonly known as HIV-associated nephropathy, is a collapsing form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis that almost exclusively affects individuals of African descent with advanced HIV disease. People living with HIV are also at risk for immune-complex kidney diseases, antiretroviral nephrotoxicity, and kidney disease due to co-infections and comorbidities. Read More

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Stroke and Chronic Kidney Disease.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-11. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with the full spectrum of cerebrovascular disease including ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, small vessel disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Shared conventional vascular risk factors such as age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus may account for many of these associations, but novel renal-specific risk factors such as uraemia-related coagulopathy or endothelial dysfunction have also been proposed. In this chapter, we will explore the impact of CKD on stroke risk, mechanisms, and outcomes. Read More

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Aging-Related Kidney Diseases.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Nephrology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Clinical Background: Older age has been associated with higher prevalence and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The presence of CKD leads to an increased risk of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular diseases, and death. Epidemiology: Progressive aging of the population is accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of CKD worldwide. Read More

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Sickle Cell Disease and the Kidney: Pathophysiology and Novel Biomarkers.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Public Health and Medical Sciences Graduate Programs, School of Medicine, University of Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Clinical Background: Renal involvement in sickle cell disease (SCD), called sickle cell nephropathy (SCN), includes several renal manifestations, such as renal acidification defect, distal nephron dysfunction, renal papillary necrosis, and proteinuria related to glomerular injury, leading to end-stage renal disease. Epidemiology: Many patients with SCD have a defect in urinary concentration, a problem caused by the destruction of the renal medulla that initiates in childhood. The presence of proteinuria in SCD is age-related and starts as microalbuminuria in adolescence and progresses to macroalbuminuria. Read More

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Sepsis and Kidney Injury.

Jay L Koyner

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-15. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Clinical Background: Clinical infections and its most severe forms sepsis and septic shock are commonly associated with changes in kidney function. This acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Epidemiology: Recent standardized, separate consensus definitions of sepsis and AKI have informed the epidemiology of these 2 distinct processes. Read More

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Reasons for Disparities in Access to Kidney Transplantation.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-10. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Clinical Background: Kidney transplantation (KT) is the best treatment for most patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), providing better survival and quality of life and lower cost when compared to dialysis. Epidemiology: Despite robust evidence showing the superiority of KT over dialysis, a significant percentage of ESKD patients worldwide do not access this treatment. Challenges: Barriers resulting in inequalities and inequities in access to KT involves chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis and management, including difficulties in accessing dialysis therapy before KT; suboptimal referral and enlistment to KT; and imbalance between supply and demand for organs. Read More

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Herbal Nephropathy.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-12. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Departamento de Nefrología y Metabolismo Mineral, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.

An estimated one-third of adults in developed countries and more than 80% of the population in many low- and middle-income countries use herbal and traditional medicines to promote health or for the treatment of common diseases. Herbal medicines can cause kidney damage as a result of intrinsic toxicity, adulteration, contamination, replacement, misidentification, mistaken labeling, and unfavorable herb-drug interactions. The kidneys, due to their high blood flow rate, large endothelial surface area, high metabolic activity, active uptake by tubular cells, medullary interstitial concentration, and low urine pH are particularly vulnerable to development of toxic injury in the form of different syndromes like acute kidney injury, nephrolithiasis, chronic interstitial fibrosis, or uroepithelial cancer. Read More

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Nutrition and Obesity Impacts on Kidney Health.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-19. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Clinical Background and Epidemiology: Nutrition and obesity are both important and common clinical issues in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Protein-energy wasting predicts adverse clinical outcomes in CKD. Obesity is associated with poor health outcomes. Read More

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Digital Health and Possible Solutions to Improve the Care in the Field of Nephrology.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-15. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Public Health and Medical Sciences Graduate Programs, School of Medicine, University of Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Digital health is an area that emerges from the association between health needs and technological solutions. With the growing access of people to the internet and the ease of acquiring equipment that allows internet connection, we are observing an exponential increase in the strategies that use technology to connect patients and healthcare providers. Telenephrology is a channel of communication that facilitates the access to the nephrologist for both primary care physicians and patients and has been implemented in several countries. Read More

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Physical Activity and Health in Chronic Kidney Disease.

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Clinical Background and Epidemiology: Low physical activity is a common phenotype in individuals living with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It increases as renal function declines and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes and a poor quality of life (QOL). Both behavioral and disease-related factors contribute to the low physical activity levels in CKD. Read More

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Air Pollution and Kidney Diseases: PM2.5 as an Emerging Culprit.

Yu An Zhi-Hong Liu

Contrib Nephrol 2021 Aug 3;199:1-11. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Clinical Background: As a result of modern industrialization, air pollution has become a potential contributor to global burden of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and kidney disease. Epidemiology: Emerging epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with an increased risk for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CKD-related mortality. Exposure to PM2. Read More

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Religion, spirituality, and epilepsy.

Ian Bone Simon Dein

Epilepsy Behav 2021 Jul 31;122:108219. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Psychiatry and Anthropology, Queen Mary College, University of London, Consultant Psychiatrist Princess Alexandra Hospital, Harlow, Essex CM20 1QX UK.

This review provides responses to four questions on epilepsy, religion, and spirituality. Firstly, have early religious beliefs and writings stigmatized and discriminated against epilepsy and if so, what has been done to correct this? We provide textual evidence suggesting an affirmative response. Secondly, which religious luminaries, gods, saints, and religious symbols have connections with epilepsy? We argue that the evidence to suggest that St Paul, Joan of Arc, the Prophet Mohammed, and others had epilepsy is weak and emphasizes the limitations of imposing contemporary neurological frameworks upon them. Read More

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How strand exchange protein function benefits from ATP hydrolysis.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2021 Jul 31;71:120-128. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Molecular Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Members of the RecA family of strand exchange proteins carry out the central reaction in homologous recombination. These proteins are DNA-dependent ATPases, although their ATPase activity is not required for the key functions of homology search and strand exchange. We review the literature on the role of the intrinsic ATPase activity of strand exchange proteins. Read More

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Covalent organic frameworks-based smart materials for mitigation of pharmaceutical pollutants from aqueous solution.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 29;286(Pt 2):131710. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Monterrey, 64849, Mexico. Electronic address:

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emergent group of crystalline porous materials that have gained incredible interest in recent years. With foreseeable controllable functionalities and structural configurations, the constructions and catalytic properties of these organic polymeric materials can be controlled to fabricate targeted materials. The specified monomer linkers and pre-designed architecture of COFs facilitate the post-synthetic modifications for introducing novel functions and useful properties. Read More

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Sawdust, a versatile, inexpensive, readily available bio-waste: From mother earth to valuable materials for sustainable remediation technologies.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 22;295:102492. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark NJ 07102, USA.

Sawdust or wood shaving is a relatively abundant and inexpensive lignocellulosic compound, which is provided by mother nature. It is a waste of industry and agriculture, that is found in large quantities and has disposal problems. Nowadays, waste management (like sawdust) and research on converting it to different compounds for special applications and goals have been receiving tremendous attention. Read More

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Engineering of the current nucleoside-modified mRNA-LNP vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 23;142:111953. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Laboratorio de Investigación en Genómica, Genética y Bioinformática, Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address:

Currently, there are over 230 different COVID-19 vaccines under development around the world. At least three decades of scientific development in RNA biology, immunology, structural biology, genetic engineering, chemical modification, and nanoparticle technologies allowed the accelerated development of fully synthetic messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines within less than a year since the first report of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. mRNA-based vaccines have been shown to elicit broadly protective immune responses, with the added advantage of being amenable to rapid and flexible manufacturing processes. Read More

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Tumorigenesis and diagnostic practice applied in two oncogenic viruses: Epstein Barr virus and T-cell lymphotropic virus-1-Mini review.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 31;142:111974. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Biotechnology, Science Campus, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamil Nadu, India.

To date, seven viruses have been reliably connected to various forms of human cancer: Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV), Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1). This mini-review summarizes two of these viruses, EPV and HTLV-1, in terms of their general pathway of infection, the key mechanism of cancer induction, and the prominent technologies used to detect the infections. EBV is the first discovered human oncovirus and HTLV - I is the first human retrovirus and both were discovered from patient with distinct lymphoma clinical condition. Read More

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Radiomics and radiogenomics in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: Potential contribution to patient management and challenges.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Jul 26;99:102263. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Medical Oncology, INCLIVA Biomedical Research Institute, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; CIBERONC, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

The application of imaging biomarkers in oncology is still in its infancy, but with the expansion of radiomics and radiogenomics a revolution is expected in this field. This may be of special interest in head and neck cancer, since it can promote precision medicine and personalization of treatment by overcoming several intrinsic obstacles in this pathology. Our goal is to provide the medical oncologist with the basis to approach these disciplines and appreciate their main uses in clinical research and clinical practice in the medium term. Read More

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Artificial intelligence-driven assessment of radiological images for COVID-19.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jul 21;136:104665. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Departments of Radiology and Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Integrative Oncology, BC Cancer Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods have significant potential for diagnosis and prognosis of COVID-19 infections. Rapid identification of COVID-19 and its severity in individual patients is expected to enable better control of the disease individually and at-large. There has been remarkable interest by the scientific community in using imaging biomarkers to improve detection and management of COVID-19. Read More

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Delirium-related distress in the ICU: A qualitative meta-synthesis of patient and family perspectives and experiences.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Jul 3;122:104030. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

School of Nursing Sydney, The University of Notre Dame Australia, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; The Cunningham Centre for Palliative Care, St Vincent's Health Network Sydney, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; University of Technology Sydney, IMPACCT - Improving Palliative, Aged and Chronic Care through Research and Translation, Faculty of Health, Ultimo, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Better understanding of patient and family member experiences of delirium and related distress during critical care is required to inform the development of targeted nonpharmacologic interventions.

Objective: To examine and synthesize qualitative data on patient and family member delirium experiences and relieving factors in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).

Design: We conducted a systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis. Read More

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Progress and prospects in mitigation of landfill leachate pollution: Risk, pollution potential, treatment and challenges.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 12;421:126627. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Ecosphere Resilience Research Center, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka. Electronic address:

The escalating loads of municipal solid waste (MSW) end up in open dumps and landfills, producing continuous flows of landfill leachate. The risk of incorporating highly toxic landfill leachate into environment is important to be evaluated and measured in order to facilitate decision making for landfill leachate management and treatment. Leachate pollution index (LPI) provides quantitative measures of the potential environmental pollution by landfill leachate and information about the environmental quality adjacent to a particular landfill. Read More

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Home-Based Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review with Implications for Future Research.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 27;55:103177. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: Substantial evidence supports the benefits of supervised exercise training (ET) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, there are limitations such as transportation problems preventing physical activity for some people with MS. One opportunity for increasing physical activity participant in people with MS is home-based exercise training (HBET), yet we are unaware of a systematic review of HBET in people with MS. Read More

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Team effort: Combinatorial control of seed maturation by transcription factors.

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2021 Jul 31;63:102091. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada. Electronic address:

Seed development is under tight spatiotemporal regulation. Here, we summarize how transcriptional regulation helps shape the major traits during seed maturation, which include storage reserve accumulation, dormancy, desiccation tolerance, and longevity. The regulation is rarely a solo task by an individual transcription factor (TF). Read More

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Computational Fluid Dynamics in Intracranial Atherosclerosis - Lessons from Cardiology: A Review of CFD in Intracranial Atherosclerosis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 31;30(10):106009. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Medicine and Neurology, Melbourne Brain Centre at the Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Grattan St, Parkville 3052, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Intracranial atherosclerosis is a common cause of stroke with a high recurrence rate. Haemodynamically significant lesions are associated with a particularly high risk of recurrence. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a tool that has been investigated to identify haemodynamically significant lesions. Read More

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