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A Literature Overview on Epilepsy and Inflammasome Activation.

Brain Res Bull 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

CNR Neuroscience Institute, Milan, Italy.

Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent serious brain disorders worldwide. Accumulating evidence has suggested that inflammation participates in the progression and pathogenesis of epilepsy. During inflammation, a cytosolic multimolecular complex called the "inflammasome" is activated, driving the innate immune response. Read More

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Imaging developmental cell cycles.

Biophys J 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University. Princeton NJ, USA.

The last decade has seen a major expansion in development of live biosensors, the tools needed to genetically encode them into model organisms, and the microscopic techniques used to visualize them. When combined, these offer us powerful tools with which to make fundamental discoveries about complex biological processes. In this review we summarize the availability of biosensors to visualize an essential cellular process-the cell cycle-and the techniques for single cell tracking and quantification of these reporters. Read More

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The anti-cancer properties of neem () through its antioxidant activity in the liver; its pharmaceutics and toxic dosage forms; a literature review.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objectives: The neem () have been used in herbal medicine for the treatment of multiple diseases, particularly cancer. The mechanism of anti-cancer properties of neem are far from clear. However, it is well accepted that anti-cancer effects of neem is mediated via its hepatic anti-oxidant activity. Read More

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Recent Research Advances in Small Regulatory RNAs in Streptococcus.

Curr Microbiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Food Microbiology, School of Medical Instrument and Food Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200093, China.

Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) are a class of regulatory RNAs 20-500 nucleotides in length, which have recently been discovered in prokaryotic organisms. sRNAs are key regulators in many biological processes, such as sensing various environmental changes and regulating intracellular gene expression through binding target mRNAs or proteins. Bacterial sRNAs have recently been rapidly mined, thus providing new insights into the regulatory network of biological functions in prokaryotes. Read More

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Nanoparticle-based approaches to target the lymphatic system for antitumor treatment.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan, China.

Immunotherapies have been established as safe and efficient modalities for numerous tumor treatments. The lymphatic system, which is an important system, can modulate the immune system via a complex network, which includes lymph nodes, vessels, and lymphocytes. With the deepening understanding of tumor immunology, a plethora of immunotherapies, which include vaccines, photothermal therapy, and photodynamic therapy, have been established for antitumor treatments. Read More

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Epigenetic dysregulation of immune-related pathways in cancer: bioinformatics tools and visualization.

Exp Mol Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

Cancer immune evasion is one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis. Cancer cells employ multiple mechanisms to avoid immune recognition and suppress antitumor immune responses. Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that immune-related pathways are epigenetically dysregulated in cancer. Read More

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Insights into the mechanisms of alveolarization - Implications for lung regeneration and cell therapies.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Mar 29:101243. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Sinclair Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) and CHEO Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Although the lung has extensive regenerative capacity, some diseases affecting the distal lung result in irreversible loss of pulmonary alveoli. Hitherto, treatments are supportive and do not specifically target tissue repair. Regenerative medicine offers prospects to promote lung repair and regeneration. Read More

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EphA2: A promising therapeutic target in breast cancer.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China; KIZ-CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China; Affiliated Cancer Hospital & Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510095, China. Electronic address:

EphA2 (ephrin type-A receptor 2), a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in human breast cancers often linked to poor patient prognosis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that EphA2 plays important roles in several critical processes associated with malignant breast progression, such as proliferation, survival, migration, invasion, drug resistance, metastasis, and angiogenesis. As its inhibition through multiple approaches can inhibit the growth of breast cancer and restore drug sensitivity, EphA2 has become a promising therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. Read More

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Targeting programmed cell death in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD): a promising new therapy.

Cell Mol Biol Lett 2021 May 7;26(1):17. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Liver Diseases, Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 528, Zhangheng Road, Shanghai, China.

Most currently recommended therapies for metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) involve diet control and exercise therapy. We searched PubMed and compiled the most recent research into possible forms of programmed cell death in MAFLD, including apoptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis and ferroptosis. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge on the signaling mechanisms for each type and, based on their characteristics, discuss how they might be relevant in MAFLD-related pathological mechanisms. Read More

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Venous Thromboembolism among Noncritically Ill Hospitalized Children: Key Considerations for the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Specialist.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and preventable harm among noncritically ill hospitalized children. Several clinical factors relevant to the noncritically ill hospitalized child significantly increase the risk of VTE including the presence of central venous catheters, systemic inflammation, and prolonged immobilization. Although risk mitigation strategies have been described, the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VTE require standardization of institutional practices combined with multidisciplinary collaboration among pediatric hospitalists, hematologists, and other care providers. Read More

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A systematic review of population pharmacokinetic analyses of polyclonal immunoglobulin G therapy.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 4;97:107721. Epub 2021 May 4.

Centre for Quality Management of Medicines, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Background: Population pharmacokinetics (popPK) using the nonlinear mixed-effect (NLME) modeling approach is an essential tool for guiding dose individualization. Several popPK analyses using the NLME have been conducted to characterize the pharmacokinetics of immunoglobulin G (IgG).

Objective: To summarize the current information on popPK of polyclonal IgG therapy. Read More

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The biology of combination immunotherapy in recurrent metastatic head and neck cancer.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 May 4:106002. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; Department of Medical Oncology, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University & Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Preclinical data suggest that head and neck cancer is an intrinsically immunosuppressive disease with abnormal inflammatory components in the tumor microenvironment. The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are monoclonal antibodies capable of inhibiting immune suppressive signals to prime anticancer immunity, has revolutionized the therapeutic landscape in recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. However, patients with head and neck cancer present primary resistance to immunotherapy. Read More

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Adenosine Kinase: An Epigenetic Modulator in Development and Disease.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 4:105054. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Department of Neurosurgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102; Brain Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854. Electronic address:

Adenosine kinase (ADK) is the key regulator of adenosine and catalyzes the metabolism of adenosine to 5'-adenosine monophosphate. The enzyme exists in two isoforms: a long isoform (ADK-long, ADK-L) and a short isoform (ADK-short, ADK-S). The two isoforms are developmentally regulated and are differentially expressed in distinct subcellular compartments with ADK-L localized in the nucleus and ADK-S localized in the cytoplasm. Read More

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Sepsis: deriving biological meaning and clinical applications from high-dimensional data.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2021 May 7;9(1):27. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Amsterdam UMC, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Noord-Holland, Amsterdam, 1105 AZ, The Netherlands.

The pathophysiology of sepsis is multi-facetted and highly complex. As sepsis is a leading cause of global mortality that still lacks targeted therapies, increased understanding of its pathogenesis is vital for improving clinical care and outcomes. An increasing number of investigations seeks to unravel the complexity of sepsis through high-dimensional data analysis, enabled by advances in -omics technologies. Read More

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Aspirin, Statins, and Primary Prevention: Opportunities for Shared Decision Making in the Face of Uncertainty.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 May 7;23(6):67. Epub 2021 May 7.

Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 227 East 30th Street, TRB 851, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The utility of aspirin and statins for primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains ambiguous in older adults. Current guidelines and recent data are vague and inconclusive. This review seeks to summarize the landscape of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in older adults and explore the role of shared decision making. Read More

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Management of Hypertension and Blood Pressure Dysregulation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease-a Systematic Review.

Curr Hypertens Rep 2021 May 7;23(5):26. Epub 2021 May 7.

Cardiology Department, Hippokration General Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this review article was to summarize the cardiovascular and blood pressure profile regarding Parkinson disease patients and to provide an update on the recent advancements in the field of the diagnosis and management of blood pressure abnormalities in these patients. Our goal was to guide physicians to avoid pitfalls in current practice while treating patients with Parkinson disease and blood pressure abnormalities. For this purpose, we searched bibliographic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar) for all publications published on blood pressure effects in Parkinson disease until May 2020. Read More

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Nuclear Imaging for the Assessment of Cardiotoxicity from Chemotherapeutic Agents in Oncologic Disease.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 May 7;23(6):65. Epub 2021 May 7.

Westchester Medical Center, Heart and Vascular Institute, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Purpose Of Review: In this review, we summarize the major known cardiac toxicities of common chemotherapeutic agents and the role of nuclear cardiac imaging for the surveillance and assessment of cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction in routine clinical practice.

Recent Findings: Cardiotoxicity from chemotherapy causes a significant mortality and limits potentially life-saving treatment in cancer patients. Close monitoring of cardiac function during chemotherapy is an accepted method for reducing these adverse effects especially in patients with cancer therapeutics-related cardiac dysfunction. Read More

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Na leak-current channel (NALCN) at the junction of motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Toxicology and Neuroscience, LSU Health Shreveport, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA, 71130, USA.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating movement disorder often accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms that stem from the loss of dopaminergic function in the basal ganglia and altered neurotransmission more generally. Akinesia, postural instability, tremors and frozen gait constitute the major motor disturbances, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms include altered circadian rhythms, disordered sleep, depression, psychosis and cognitive impairment. Evidence is emerging that the motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms may share etiologic factors. Read More

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The Ste20-like kinase - a Jack of all trades?

J Cell Sci 2021 May 7;134(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8L1, Canada.

Over the past 20 years, the Ste20-like kinase (SLK; also known as STK2) has emerged as a central regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Reorganization of the cytoskeleton is necessary for a plethora of biological processes including apoptosis, proliferation, migration, tissue repair and signaling. Several studies have also uncovered a role for SLK in disease progression and cancer. Read More

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Colchicine and the heart.

Eur Heart J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

GenesisCare, 3/140 Mounts Bay Rd, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Colchicine is a unique, sophisticated anti-inflammatory agent that has been used for decades for the prevention of acute inflammatory flares in gout and familial Mediterranean fever. In recent years, clinical trials have demonstrated its potential in a range of cardiovascular (CV) conditions. Colchicine is avidly taken up by leucocytes, and its ability to bind to tubulin and interfere with microtubular function affects the expression of cytokines and interleukins, and the ability of neutrophils to marginate, ingress, aggregate, express superoxide, release neutrophil extracellular traps, and interact with platelets. Read More

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Contaminated flexible endoscopes: Review of impact of channel sampling methods on culture results and recommendations for root-cause analysis.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 May 7:1-16. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Recently, infection transmission risk associated with contaminated, patient-ready flexible endoscopes has attracted attention. Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms resulting in infection and/or colonization have been particularly concerning. Recent CDC and FDA recommendations focus on reducing "exogenous" infection transmission and specifically recommend that endoscopy sites have quality systems in place for endoscope reprocessing. Read More

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Teledermatology in 2020: past, present and future perspectives.

Ital J Dermatol Venerol 2021 Apr;156(2):198-212

Unit of Dermatology, Department of Medical, Surgical and Neurosciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.

Born in 1995, teledermatology (TD) turns 25 years old today. Since then, TD evolved according to patients and physicians needs. The present review aimed to summarize all the efforts and experiences carried out in the field of TD and its subspecialties, the evolution and the future perspectives. Read More

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Liquid biopsies to distinguish malignant from benign pulmonary nodules.

Thorac Cancer 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Over the past decades, low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) screening has been widely used for the early detection of lung cancer. Increasing numbers of indeterminate pulmonary nodules are now being discovered. However, it remains challenging to distinguish malignant from benign pulmonary nodules, especially those considered to be small or ground-glass (GGN) nodules. Read More

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Measurement of screen time among young children aged 0-6 years: A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2021 May 7:e13260. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Faculty of Health, Centre for Children's Health Research (CCHR), Queensland University of Technology (QUT), South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

The impact of screen-based devices on children's health and development cannot be properly understood without valid and reliable tools that measure screen time within the evolving digital landscape. This review aimed to summarize characteristics of measurement tools used to assess screen time in young children; evaluate reporting of psychometric properties; and examine time trends related to measurement and reporting of screen time. A systematic review of articles published in English across three databases from January 2009 to April 2020 was undertaken using PROSPERO protocol (registration: CRD42019132599) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Read More

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Contribution of the Gut Microbiome to Drug Disposition, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Variability.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0657, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, 90293-0657, USA.

The trillions of microbes that make up the gut microbiome are an important contributor to health and disease. With respect to xenobiotics, particularly orally administered compounds, the gut microbiome interacts directly with drugs to break them down into metabolic products. In addition, microbial products such as bile acids interact with nuclear receptors on host drug-metabolizing enzyme machinery, thus indirectly influencing drug disposition and pharmacokinetics. Read More

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Biological and clinical significance of quorum sensing alkylquinolones: current analytical and bioanalytical methods for their quantification.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Nanbiotechnology for Diagnostics (Nb4D), Department of of Surfactants and Nanobiotechnology, Institute for Advanced Chemistry of Catalonia (IQAC) of the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, Spain.

Quorum sensing (QS) is a sophisticated bacterial communication system which plays a key role in the virulence and biofilm formation of many pathogens. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS network consists of four sets of connected systems (las, rlh, pqs and iqs) hierarchically organized. The pqs system involves characteristic autoinducers (AI), most of them sharing an alkylquinolone (AQ) structure, and is able to carry out several relevant biological functions besides its main signalling activity. Read More

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Chloroplast dismantling in leaf senescence.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, Universidad de Sevilla and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Avda, Américo Vespucio 49, 41092-Sevilla, Spain.

In photosynthetic plant cells, chloroplasts act as factories of metabolic intermediates that support plant growth. Chloroplast performance is highly influenced by environmental cues; thus, these organelles have the additional function of sensing ever changing environmental conditions, thereby playing a key role in harmonizing the growth and development of the different organs of the plant and its acclimation to the environment. Moreover, these organelles constitute an excellent source of metabolic intermediates that are remobilized to sink tissues during senescence so that chloroplast dismantling is a tightly regulated process that plays a key role in plant development. Read More

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Review of the COVID-19 Risk in Multiple Sclerosis.

J Cell Immunol 2021 ;3(2):68-77

Department of Neurology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.

The ongoing pandemic of the novel coronavirus of 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in over 1 million deaths, primarily affecting older patients with chronic ailments. Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been deemed particularly vulnerable given their high rates of disability and increased susceptibility to infections. There have also been concerns regarding disease-modifying therapy (DMT) during the pandemic as many DMTs may increase the risk of infection due to some of their immunosuppressive properties. Read More

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January 2021

Heart Transplantation in Mustard Patients Bridged With Continuous Flow Systemic Ventricular Assist Device - A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 20;8:651496. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Krannert Institute of Cardiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Thirty four-year-old male with history of D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) who underwent Mustard operation at 14 months of age presented in cardiogenic shock secondary to severe systemic right ventricular failure. Catheterization revealed significantly increased pulmonary pressures. Due to the patient's inotrope dependence and prohibitive pulmonary hypertension, he underwent implantation of a Heart Ware HVAD® for systemic RV support. Read More

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Sweet Melody or Jazz? Transcription Around DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:655786. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Genomic integrity is continuously threatened by thousands of endogenous and exogenous damaging factors. To preserve genome stability, cells developed comprehensive DNA damage response (DDR) pathways that mediate the recognition of damaged DNA lesions, the activation of signaling cascades, and the execution of DNA repair. Transcription has been understood to pose a threat to genome stability in the presence of DNA breaks. Read More

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