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Current perspectives on defining and mitigating frailty in relation to critical illness.

Clin Nutr 2021 Sep 17;40(11):5430-5437. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, Brazil.

Up to half of ICU survivors, many of whom were premorbidly well, will have residual functional and/or cognitive impairment and be vulnerable to future health problems. Frailty describes vulnerability to poor resolution of homeostasis after a stressor event but it is not clear whether the vulnerability seen after ICU correlates with clinical measures of frailty. In clinical practice, the scales most commonly used in critically ill patients are based on the assessment of severity and survival. Read More

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September 2021

Do animals dream?

Conscious Cogn 2021 Oct 13;95:103214. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Institute of Culture & Environment, Alaska Pacific University, Anchorage, AK, USA. Electronic address:

The understanding of biological functions of sleep has improved recently, including an understanding of the deep evolutionary roots of sleep among animals. However, dreaming as an element of sleep may be particularly difficult to address in non-human animals because in humans dreaming involves a non-wakeful form of awareness typically identified through verbal report. Here, we argue that parallels that exist between the phenomenology, physiology, and sleep behaviors during human dreaming provide an avenue to investigate dreaming in non-human animals. Read More

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October 2021

Mammary basal cells: Stars of the show.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Oct 12:119159. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

EMBL Australia Node in Single Molecule Science, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; School of Pharmacy, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Aarhus Institute of Advanced Studies, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:

Nearly all mammals rely on lactation to support their young and to ensure the continued survival of their species. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about how milk is produced and how it is ejected from the lumen of mammary alveoli and ducts. This review focuses on the latter. Read More

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October 2021

Splice correction therapies for familial hypercholesterolemic patients with low-density lipoprotein receptor mutations.

Curr Opin Lipidol 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Perron Institute for Neurological and Translational Science, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia Centre for Molecular Medicine and Innovative Therapeutics, Health Futures Institute, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia School of Medicine, University of Western Australia Lipid Disorders Clinic, Department of Cardiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: Antisense oligomers (ASOs) have been available for decades: however, only recently have these molecules been applied clinically. This review aims to discuss the possible development of antisense-mediated splice correction therapies as precision medicines for familial hypercholesterolemic patients carrying mutations that compromise normal splicing of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene transcript.

Recent Findings: Three antisense drugs are currently being assessed in ongoing clinical trials for dyslipidemias, aiming to lower the plasma concentrations of lipoproteins that lead to end-organ damage, principally coronary artery disease. Read More

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October 2021

Systematic review of synchronous contralateral axillary metastases in breast cancer: really M1 disease?

Breast Cancer 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de Salamanca, Institute for Biomedical Research (IBSAL), Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.

Objective: The objective of the study is to assess and quantify the effect of the appearance of synchronous contralateral axillary on breast cancer survival. Breast cancer with contralateral axillary metastases (CAM) is classified as a metastatic disease. There are few cases reported and a lack of evidence of the significance of CAM when synchronous appearance with a primary tumor and no other site of disease. Read More

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October 2021

Family involvement in transitional care from hospital to home and its impact on older patients, families, and health care providers: a mixed methods systematic review protocol.

JBI Evid Synth 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA Faculty of Nursing, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Objective: The goal of this review is to synthesize the available evidence on family involvement in transitional care and its impact on patients' and family caregivers' health as well as health care providers' satisfaction.

Introduction: Involving families in transitional care from hospital to home has been undertaken to improve care quality, patient safety, and well-being. Successful family involvement in care depends on interaction between the health care system and health care providers. Read More

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October 2021

A critical review of the 2020 EPA risk assessment for chrysotile and its many shortcomings.

Crit Rev Toxicol 2021 Oct 15:1-31. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Paustenbach and Associates, Boulder, CO, USA.

From 2018 to 2020, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed a risk evaluation of chrysotile asbestos to evaluate the hazards of asbestos-containing products (e.g. encapsulated products), including brakes and gaskets, allegedly currently sold in the United States. Read More

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October 2021

Association Between Self-Reported Kinesiophobia and Single-Leg Hop for Distance in Patients With ACL Reconstruction:A Systematic Review.

Sports Health 2021 Oct 15:19417381211049357. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Context: Psychological readiness is a significant factor in determining successful return to sport (RTS) and physical activities after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Knowing the influence of kinesiophobia on physical tests that are used to guide RTS, such as the single-leg hop for distance (SLHD), would contribute to advancing clinical practice.

Objective: To investigate the association between kinesiophobia and SLHD performance in patients after ACL reconstruction. Read More

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October 2021

Child-father attachment in early childhood and behavior problems: A meta-analysis.

New Dir Child Adolesc Dev 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Calgary and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

This meta-analytic study examined the associations between child-father attachment in early childhood and children's externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Based on 15 samples (N = 1,304 dyads), the association between child-father attachment insecurity and externalizing behaviors was significant and moderate in magnitude (r = 0.18, 95% CI: 0. Read More

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October 2021

Assessing cognitive toxicity in early Phase Trials - What are we missing?

Psychooncology 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Royal Marsden Hospital Downs Rd Sutton Surrey Sm2 5PT.

Objectives: Novel therapies, such as, small protein molecule inhibitors and immunotherapies are first tested clinically in Phase I trials. Moving on to later phase trials and ultimately standard practice. A key aim of these early clinical trials is to define a toxicity profile; however, the emphasis is often on safety. Read More

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October 2021

Cognitive and social cognition deficits in Huntington's disease differ between the prodromal and the manifest stages of the condition: A scoping review of recent evidence.

Br J Clin Psychol 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technology, CNR, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Huntington's disease (HD) is a dramatic neurodegenerative disorder encompassing severe motor symptoms coupled to significant cognitive and social cognition deficits. However, it is not clear whether and how patients' neuropsychological profile changes between the prodromal and the manifest stages of the condition. The aim of the present in-depth review is to consider cognitive and social cognition impairment in HD patients by differentiating deficits arising before diagnosis from those evident from the manifest phase onwards. Read More

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October 2021

Oral Immunotherapy for Food-Allergic Children: A Pro-Con Debate.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:636612. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Allergy Unit, CHU de Montpellier, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

The prevalence of food allergy has increased in recent years, especially in children. Allergen avoidance, and drugs in case of an allergic reaction, remains the standard of care in food allergy. Nevertheless, increasing attention has been given to the possibility to treat food allergy, through immunotherapy, particularly oral immunotherapy (OIT). Read More

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September 2021

Benefits outweigh the risks: a consensus statement on the risks of physical activity for people living with long-term conditions.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Moving Medicine, Faculty of Sport And Exercise Medicine, Edinburgh, UK

Introduction: The benefits of physical activity for people living with long-term conditions (LTCs) are well established. However, the risks of physical activity are less well documented. The fear of exacerbating symptoms and causing adverse events is a persuasive barrier to physical activity in this population. Read More

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October 2021

Functional dystonia: A pitfall for the foot and ankle surgeon.

Authors:
Dishan Singh

Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex HA7 4LP, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Functional dystonia represents a condition where psychological distress is being expressed as involuntary muscle contractions. In the foot and ankle, it most commonly presents as a sudden onset of a painful fixed ankle/hindfoot deformity in a female patient with a history of trivial trauma or surgery. The "fixed deformity" found on clinical examination is usually correctable under general anesthesia. Read More

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October 2021

Does the rate of orthodontic tooth movement change during the estrus cycle? A systematic review based on animal studies.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Oct 14;21(1):526. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Hamdan Bin Mohammed College of Dental Medicine (HBMCDM), Mohammed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health Sciences (MBRU), Building 34, Dubai Healthcare City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

Background: As the fluctuation of sex hormone levels in menstruating women results in periodical effects in bone metabolism, understanding the implications for tooth movement could be of benefit to the orthodontist. This type of research presents practical and ethical problems in humans, but animal models could provide useful information. Our objective was to systematically investigate the available evidence on the question whether the rate of orthodontic tooth movement varies between the different stages of the estrus cycle in animals. Read More

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October 2021

Resveratrol (RV): A pharmacological review and call for further research.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Nov 2;143:112164. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

Department of Human Anatomy, Medical College of Qinghai University, 810000 Xining, China. Electronic address:

Resveratrol (RV) is a well-known polyphenolic compound in various plants, including grape, peanut, and berry fruits, which is quite famous for its association with several health benefits such as anti-obesity, cardioprotective neuroprotective, antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidants, anti-age effects, and glucose metabolism. Significantly, promising therapeutic properties have been reported in various cancer, neurodegeneration, and atherosclerosis and are regulated by several synergistic pathways that control oxidative stress, cell death, and inflammation. Similarly, RV possesses a strong anti-adipogenic effect by inhibiting fat accumulation processes and activating oxidative and lipolytic pathways, exhibiting their cardioprotective effects by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Read More

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November 2021

HPLC-UV assay of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in human plasma containing other drugs potentially co-administered to participants in a paediatric population pharmacokinetic study.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Oct 7;1184:122971. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Division of Pharmacy, School of Allied Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia. Electronic address:

Multimodal analgesia is employed in paediatric pain management to maximise analgesia and minimise side effects. Tramadol is dosed at 1-1.5 mg/kg to treat severe pain in children but the assay for tramadol in plasma samples for pharmacokinetic and toxicology studies does not often consider concurrently administered medications. Read More

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October 2021

Intracranial tuberculomas: A case report of clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Oct 8;88:106477. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Intracranial tuberculomas are uncommon yet devastating forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis with a high mortality rate and morbidity risk. A high level of suspicion is required for a prompt diagnosis and treatment.

Case Description: A 67-year-old male, medically free, presented at the Emergency Department with a 1-day history of nausea and vomiting, and a 15-day history of imbalance and dizziness. Read More

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October 2021

Possible Benefits of Zinc supplement in CVD and COVID-19 Comorbidity.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Oct 4;14(11):1686-1692. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia. Electronic address:

As far as comorbidity is concerned, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) appear to be accounted for the highest prevalence, severity, and fatality among COVID 19 patients. A wide array of causal links connecting CVD and COVID-19 baffle the overall prognosis as well as the efficacy of the given therapeutic interventions. At the centre of this puzzle lies ACE2 that works as a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2, and functional expression of which is also needed to minimize vasoconstriction otherwise would lead to high blood pressure. Read More

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October 2021

How learning unfolds in the brain: toward an optimization view.

Neuron 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Neuroscience Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

How do changes in the brain lead to learning? To answer this question, consider an artificial neural network (ANN), where learning proceeds by optimizing a given objective or cost function. This "optimization framework" may provide new insights into how the brain learns, as many idiosyncratic features of neural activity can be recapitulated by an ANN trained to perform the same task. Nevertheless, there are key features of how neural population activity changes throughout learning that cannot be readily explained in terms of optimization and are not typically features of ANNs. Read More

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October 2021

Do patients' characteristics influence their healthcare concerns?-A hospital care survey.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(10):e0258618. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Family Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, United States of America.

Background: Hospital performance is often monitored by surveys that assess patient experiences with hospital care. Certain patient characteristics may shape how some aspects of hospital care are viewed and reported on surveys.

Objective: The aim of the study was to examine factors considered important to patients and determine whether there were differences in answers based on age, gender, or educational level. Read More

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October 2021

mTOR-dependent immunometabolism as Achilles' heel of anticancer therapy.

Eur J Immunol 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Center of Pathobiochemistry and Genetics, Institute of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Immune cells are important constituents of the tumor microenvironment and essential in eradicating tumor cells during conventional therapies or novel immunotherapies. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway senses the intra- and extracellular nutrient status, growth factor supply and cell stress-related changes to coordinate cellular metabolism and activation dictating effector and memory functions in mainly all hematopoietic immune cells. In addition, the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2 are frequently deregulated and become activated in cancer cells to drive cell transformation, survival, neovascularization, and invasion. Read More

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October 2021

Bifurcations in flows of complex fluids around microfluidic cylinders.

Lab Chip 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan.

Flow around a cylinder is a classical problem in fluid dynamics and also one of the benchmarks for testing viscoelastic flows. The problem is of wide relevance to understanding many microscale industrial and biological processes and applications, such as porous media and mucociliary flows. In recent years, we have developed model microfluidic geometries consisting of very slender cylinders fabricated in glass by selective laser-induced etching. Read More

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October 2021

Strategies to enhance pediatric clinical trial participation: A systematic review with narrative synthesis.

Pediatr Dermatol 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Division of Pediatrics, Section of Dermatology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background/objectives: Recruitment has been identified as a key barrier to conducting pediatric trials. However, no current guidelines have been used for evidence-based strategies to optimize the recruitment of children. In this review, we identify and codify strategies to enhance pediatric clinical trial participation in the current literature for future study in implementation trials. Read More

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October 2021

Conducting Plant Experiments in Space and on the Moon.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2368:165-198

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA.

The growth and development of plants during spaceflight have important implications for both basic and applied research supported by NASA and other international space agencies. While there have been many reviews of plant space biology, this chapter attempts to fill a gap in the literature on the actual process and methods of performing plant research in the spaceflight environment. One of the authors (JZK) has been a principal investigator on eight spaceflight projects. Read More

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January 2022

MDMA-Assisted Therapy as a Means to Alter Affective, Cognitive, Behavioral, and Neurological Systems Underlying Social Dysfunction in Social Anxiety Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2021 27;12:733893. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Portland Psychotherapy Clinic, Research, and Training Center, Portland, OR, United States.

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and often debilitating psychiatric disorder that can assume a chronic course even when treated. Despite the identification of evidence-based pharmacological and behavioral treatments for SAD, much room for improved outcomes exists and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been proposed as a promising adjunctive treatment to psychological interventions for disorders characterized by social dysfunction. A small randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MDMA-assisted therapy (MDMA-AT) for social anxiety in autistic adults offered encouraging results, but more research is sorely needed to explore the potential for MDMA-AT in treating SAD. Read More

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September 2021

Infectious disease in an era of global change.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA.

The twenty-first century has witnessed a wave of severe infectious disease outbreaks, not least the COVID-19 pandemic, which has had a devastating impact on lives and livelihoods around the globe. The 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak, the 2009 swine flu pandemic, the 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak, the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa and the 2015 Zika virus disease epidemic all resulted in substantial morbidity and mortality while spreading across borders to infect people in multiple countries. At the same time, the past few decades have ushered in an unprecedented era of technological, demographic and climatic change: airline flights have doubled since 2000, since 2007 more people live in urban areas than rural areas, population numbers continue to climb and climate change presents an escalating threat to society. Read More

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October 2021

Effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions to manage anxiety in adolescents in the perioperative period: a systematic review protocol.

JBI Evid Synth 2021 Feb 16;19(10):2863-2869. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Nursing School of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Objective: This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions to manage anxiety in adolescents in the perioperative period.

Introduction: Adolescents undergoing surgery suffer considerable levels of anxiety and distress before surgery, which are maintained beyond the procedure. Although the benefit of non-pharmacological interventions in this area is significant, their efficacy is still under-studied. Read More

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February 2021

Use of three-dimensional printing as a rehabilitation tool for individuals with deafblindness or vision impairment: a scoping review protocol.

JBI Evid Synth 2021 Feb 16;19(10):2790-2800. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Optometry, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objective: This scoping review aims to synthesize evidence on the practices involving additive manufacturing, also known as three-dimensional printing, as a rehabilitation tool to assist individuals with deafblindness or vision impairment, and to identify which International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health domains of functioning can be improved by its use. The goal is to inform health care professionals and family caregivers on how additive manufacturing may enhance the quality of life of people with deafblindness or vision impairment.

Introduction: Deafblindness and vision impairment impact many life domains, such as access to information, communication, and mobility. Read More

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February 2021

Neuroimmune multi-hit perspective of coronaviral infection.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Oct 13;18(1):231. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canada.

It is well accepted that environmental stressors experienced over a one's life, from microbial infections to chemical toxicants to even psychological stressors, ultimately shape central nervous system (CNS) functioning but can also contribute to its eventual breakdown. The severity, timing and type of such environmental "hits", woven together with genetic factors, likely determine what CNS outcomes become apparent. This focused review assesses the current COVID-19 pandemic through the lens of a multi-hit framework and disuses how the SARS-COV-2 virus (causative agent) might impact the brain and potentially interact with other environmental insults. Read More

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October 2021