173,569 results match your criteria review body

Continual learning for recurrent neural networks: An empirical evaluation.

Neural Netw 2021 Jul 22;143:607-627. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3, 56127, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Learning continuously during all model lifetime is fundamental to deploy machine learning solutions robust to drifts in the data distribution. Advances in Continual Learning (CL) with recurrent neural networks could pave the way to a large number of applications where incoming data is non stationary, like natural language processing and robotics. However, the existing body of work on the topic is still fragmented, with approaches which are application-specific and whose assessment is based on heterogeneous learning protocols and datasets. Read More

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Animal Models of Metastatic Lesions to the Spine: a Focus on Epidural Spinal Cord Compression.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

Epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) secondary to spine metastases is one of the most devastating sequelae of primary cancer as it may lead to muscle weakness, paresthesia, pain, and paralysis. Spine metastases occur through a multi-step process that can result in eventual ESCC; however, the lack of a preclinical model to effectively recapitulate each step of this metastatic cascade and the symptom burden of ESCC has limited our understanding of this disease process. In this review, we discuss animal models that best recapitulate ESCC; we start with a broad discussion of commonly used models of bone metastasis and end with a focused discussion of models used to specifically study ESCC. Read More

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Effects of probiotics on digestive enzymes of fish (finfish and shellfish); status and prospects: A mini review.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jul 31:110653. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management, Faculty of Biosciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana. Electronic address:

Digestive enzymes are enzymes found in the digestive tract of animals functioning by assisting in the breakdown of larger food molecules into more easily absorbed particles that can then be used by the body. The ability of fish to break down a diet is highly dependent on the availability of suitable digestive enzymes which mediate specific degradation pathways and on both the physical and chemical nature of food. Probiotics are known to produce helpful enzymes that aid in digestion and protect the GIT of animals (Sumon et al. Read More

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Immune Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorder: A Translational Framework.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

While the immune system is essential for survival, an excessive or prolonged inflammatory response, such as that resulting from sustained heavy alcohol use, can damage the host and contribute to psychiatric disorders. A growing body of literature indicates that the immune system plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorder (AUD). As such, there is enthusiasm for treatments that can restore healthy levels of inflammation as a mechanism to reduce drinking and promote recovery. Read More

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Dysregulation of energy homeostasis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

University of Strasbourg, INSERM, UMR-S1118, Central and Peripheral Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration, Strasbourg, France School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease targeting upper and lower motor neurons, inexorably leading to an early death. Defects in energy metabolism have been associated with ALS, including weight loss, increased energy expenditure, decreased body fat mass and increased use of lipid nutrients at the expense of carbohydrates. We review here recent findings on impaired energy metabolism in ALS, and its clinical importance. Read More

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How Do Register-Based Studies Contribute to Our Understanding of Alcohol's Harms to Family Members? A Scoping Review of Relevant Literature.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2021 Jul;82(4):445-456

Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Objective: This review maps the research literature on register-based studies of alcohol's harms to family members and identifies areas for future research.

Method: Using a scoping review methodology, the PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched in August 2019 with keywords to identify studies that included register-based outcome sources, a family relationship, and an exposure to heavy drinking. In total, 5,961 records were screened, 403 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 91 studies were included in the final review. Read More

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A deep dive into the darning effects of biomaterials in infarct myocardium: current advances and future perspectives.

Heart Fail Rev 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, CSIR- Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai, 600020, India.

Myocardial infarction (MI) occurs due to the obstruction of coronary arteries, a major crux that restricts blood flow and thereby oxygen to the distal part of the myocardium, leading to loss of cardiomyocytes and eventually, if left untreated, leads to heart failure. MI, a potent cardiovascular disorder, requires intense therapeutic interventions and thereby presents towering challenges. Despite the concerted efforts, the treatment strategies for MI are still demanding, which has paved the way for the genesis of biomaterial applications. Read More

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Hydroxyproline in animal metabolism, nutrition, and cell signaling.

Amino Acids 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline is highly abundant in collagen (accounting for about one-third of body proteins in humans and other animals). This imino acid (loosely called amino acid) and its minor analogue trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline in their ratio of approximately 100:1 are formed from the post-translational hydroxylation of proteins (primarily collagen and, to a much lesser extent, non-collagen proteins). Besides their structural and physiological significance in the connective tissue, both trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline and trans-3-hydroxy-L-proline can scavenge reactive oxygen species and have both structural and physiological significance in animals. Read More

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Concise review: how do red blood cells born, live, and die?

Ann Hematol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Josep Carreras International Leukaemia Foundation, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

The average life cycle of a human RBC is approximately 120 days. Generally, by this point, the cell is worn out and damaged. RBCs pass through both the spleen and liver, where specialised immune cells called macrophages are found. Read More

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Prognostic factors in adult brainstem glioma: a tertiary care center analysis and review of the literature.

J Neurol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: Adult brainstem gliomas (BSGs) are rare central nervous system tumours characterized by a highly heterogeneous clinical course. Median survival times range from 11 to 84 months. Beyond surgery, no treatment standard has been established. Read More

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Towards bioengineered skeletal muscle: recent developments in vitro and in vivo.

Essays Biochem 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Biomedical and Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia.

Skeletal muscle is a functional tissue that accounts for approximately 40% of the human body mass. It has remarkable regenerative potential, however, trauma and volumetric muscle loss, progressive disease and aging can lead to significant muscle loss that the body cannot recover from. Clinical approaches to address this range from free-flap transfer for traumatic events involving volumetric muscle loss, to myoblast transplantation and gene therapy to replace muscle loss due to sarcopenia and hereditary neuromuscular disorders, however, these interventions are often inadequate. Read More

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Osteoporotic Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebra: Diagnosis and Conservative Treatment-A Systematic Review.

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2021 Oct 8(Forthcoming). Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Background: The prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral body fractures in Europe is 18-26%. Although most of these injuries can be treated conservatively, the underlying concepts have not been defined clearly or uniformly. In this article, we present the current state of the evidence on the diagnosis and conservative treatment of osteoporotic fractures of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Read More

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October 2021

New-onset Nephrotic Syndrome after Janssen COVID-19 Vaccination: a Case Report and Literature Review.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Aug 2;36(30):e218. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea.

Various coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are being developed, which show practical preventive effects. Here, we report a 51-year-old healthy man with nephrotic syndrome secondary to minimal change disease (MCD) after Ad26.COV. Read More

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The impact of environmental and social factors on learning abilities: a meta-analysis.

Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, P217 Biological Sciences Building, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R3, Canada.

Since the 1950s, researchers have examined how differences in the social and asocial environment affect learning in rats, mice, and, more recently, a variety of other species. Despite this large body of research, little has been done to synthesize these findings and to examine if social and asocial environmental factors have consistent effects on cognitive abilities, and if so, what aspects of these factors have greater or lesser impact. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis examining how different external environmental features, including the social environment, impact learning (both speed of acquisition and performance). Read More

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Visible Body Human Anatomy Atlas: Innovative Anatomy Learning.

J Digit Imaging 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, 2300 M St, Washington, DC, 20037, USA.

Visible Body Human Anatomy Atlas is a subscription-based learning tool for health science students and clinicians to build and strengthen knowledge of human anatomy. This app contains thousands of 3D models of gross anatomy and microanatomy, cadaver lab simulations, comparisons to diagnostic imaging, quizzes, and patient education videos. Here we explore the app's strengths and weaknesses through discussion of its features and usability. Read More

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Effects of temperature on the locomotor performance and contraction properties of skeletal muscle from two Phrynocephalus lizards at high and low altitude.

J Comp Physiol B 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Animal and Biomedical Sciences, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, No. 222 Tianshui South Road, Lanzhou, 730000, Gansu, China.

Locomotor performance and skeletal muscle contraction are critical for animals and are susceptible to changes in the external thermal environment, especially for ectotherms. Phrynocephalus erythrurus, which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, is known for living at the highest elevation among all reptiles in the world (4500-5300 m). In this study, which compares P. Read More

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Emerging liver organoid platforms and technologies.

Cell Regen 2021 Aug 3;10(1):27. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Laboratory of precision disease therapeutics, Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, Singapore, 138672, Singapore.

Building human organs in a dish has been a long term goal of researchers in pursue of physiologically relevant models of human disease and for replacement of worn out and diseased organs. The liver has been an organ of interest for its central role in regulating body homeostasis as well as drug metabolism. An accurate liver replica should contain the multiple cell types found in the organ and these cells should be spatially organized to resemble tissue structures. Read More

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[Nutrition in old age-key to maintaining functionality and quality of life].

Jürgen M Bauer

Gastroenterologe 2021 Jul 29:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Geriatrisches Zentrum am Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg und Netzwerk Altersforschung, Universität Heidelberg, Rohrbacher Straße 149, 69126 Heidelberg, Deutschland.

In persons beyond age 70 a decrease of muscle mass and an increase of fat mass are regularly observed. These changes of body composition constitute a relevant predisposition for the imminent loss of functionality and autonomy in older age. In this context adequate nutrition and the prevention of malnutrition play an essential role. Read More

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The obesity paradox in heart failure: What is the role of cardiorespiratory fitness?

Cleve Clin J Med 2021 Aug 2;88(8):449-458. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Co-director, Center for Blood Pressure Disorders, Section of Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation, Heart, Vascular, and Thoracic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH

The obesity paradox describes a survival benefit for higher body mass index in patients with heart failure. But other factors like cardiorespiratory fitness may play a role in heart failure development, severity, and survival. Although more research is needed to better understand the relationships between body mass index and fitness in patients with heart failure, evidence indicates that recommending weight loss and an exercise program is appropriate for most patients. Read More

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BMAL1 dephosphorylation determines the pace of the circadian clock.

Ueli Schibler

Genes Dev 2021 Aug;35(15-16):1076-1078

Department of Molecular Biology, Sciences III, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland

In mammals, virtually all body cells harbor cell-autonomous and self-sustained circadian oscillators that rely on delayed negative feedback loops in gene expression. Transcriptional activation and repression play a major role in keeping these clocks ticking, but numerous post-translational mechanisms-and particularly the phosphorylation of core clock components by protein kinases-are also critically involved in setting the pace of these timekeepers. In this issue of , Klemz and colleagues (pp. Read More

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Proteomics of pseudoexfoliation materials in the anterior eye segment.

Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2021 26;127:271-290. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States; Vision Science and Investigative Ophthalmology Graduate Program, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States; Miami Integrative Metabolomics Research Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States. Electronic address:

Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is characterized by the production of white extracellular fluffy clumps of microfibrillar material that aggregates in various organs throughout the body but is known to cause disease in the eye. The accumulation of PEX material (PEXM) in the anterior segment ocular structures is believed to cause an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) resulting in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG). The onset of PEXG is often bilateral but asymmetric-one eye often presents with glaucoma prior to the other eye. Read More

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Metabolic side effects of antipsychotic drugs in individuals with schizophrenia during medium- to long-term treatment: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Syst Rev 2021 Aug 2;10(1):214. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Straße 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Background: Antipsychotic drugs and especially the newer compounds are known to cause metabolic side effects. However, a comprehensive comparison of the different substances regarding their propensity to cause metabolic side effects in medium- to long-term treatment of schizophrenia is lacking.

Methods: We will conduct a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA). Read More

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Social determinants of overweight and obesity in Paraguayan adults using quantile regression.

J Public Health Res 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Health Administration, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, Wonjum .

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) defines the double burden of malnutrition as the new face of malnutrition. This is a serious problem in Latin American countries, especially Paraguay, which has a high obesity rate. This study aimed to gather data to inform a national strategy for confronting the double-burden challenge in Paraguay by 1) identifying whether the body mass index (BMI) of study subjects differed significantly according to social determinants, and 2) assessing the factors affecting BMI and the extent of their impact according to BMI quantile levels. Read More

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Factors that influence the implementation of health and social care Standards: a systematic review and meta-summary protocol.

HRB Open Res 2021 24;4:24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Health Information and Quality Authority, Unit 1301, Citygate, Mahon, Cork, T12 Y2XT, Ireland.

Health and social care Standards are evidence-based statements that demonstrate a desired level of care. Setting Standards for health and social care is a mechanism by which quality improvements can be achieved. Limited evidence exists on appropriate implementation strategies to overcome challenges with implementing Standards. Read More

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Targeting immunosuppressor cells with nanoparticles in autoimmunity: How far have we come to?

Cell Immunol 2021 Jul 27;368:104412. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Autoimmunity is the assault of immune response towards self-antigens, resulting to inflammation and tissue injury. It is staged into three phases and caused by malfunction of immune tolerance. In our body, immune tolerance is synchronized by several immunosuppressor cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells as well as myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are prominently dysregulated in autoimmunity. Read More

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Intact circadian rhythm despite cortisol hypersecretion in Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jul 26;132:105367. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 648 Cherry St. NW, Atlanta GA 30313, USA. Electronic address:

Hypersecretion of the glucocorticoid steroid hormone cortisol by individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been suspected for several decades, during which time dozens of examinations of this phenomenon have been conducted and published. The goals of this investigation were to summarize this sizeable body of literature, test whether participant and methodological characteristics modify the magnitude of the AD-associated basal cortisol hypersecretion, and examine whether cortisol circadian rhythmicity is maintained among individuals with AD. To this end, the present meta-analysis and systematic review examined over 300 comparisons of indices of basal HPA-axis functioning between individuals with AD and cognitively normal older adults. Read More

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Osteocyte Calcium Signaling - A Potential Translator of Mechanical Load to Mechanobiology.

Karl J Lewis

Bone 2021 Jul 30:116136. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Electronic address:

Osteocytes are embedded dendritic bone cells; by virtue of their position in bone tissue, ability to coordinate bone building osteoblasts and resorbing osteoclasts, and sensitivity to tissue level mechanical loading, they serve as the resident bone mechanosensor. The mechanisms osteocytes use to change mechanical loading into biological signals that drive tissue level changes has been well studied over the last 30 years, however the ways loading parameters are encoded at the cellular level are still not fully understood. Calcium signaling is a first messenger signal exhibited by osteocytes in response to mechanical forces. Read More

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Towards the Translation of Electroconductive Organic Materials for Regeneration of Neural Tissues.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611, Florida. Electronic address:

Carbon-based conductive and electroactive materials (e.g., derivatives of graphene, fullerenes, polypyrrole, polythiophene, polyaniline) have been studied since the 1970s for use in a broad range of applications. Read More

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Bone mineral density surveillance for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors: evidence-based recommendations from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology CHU Nord, University Hospital Saint-Etienne, Saint-Priest en Jarez, France; 28U1059 Sainbiose, University Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, France.

Childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density. Clinical practice surveillance guidelines are important for timely diagnosis and treatment of these survivors, which could improve bone mineral density parameters and prevent fragility fractures. Discordances across current late effects guidelines necessitated international harmonisation of recommendations for bone mineral density surveillance. Read More

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