137 results match your criteria review archeological

Genomics in the Horse Industry: Discovering New Questions at Every Turn.

J Equine Vet Sci 2021 May 26;100:103456. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Animal Sciences and the UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville Fl. Electronic address:

The sheer diversity of heritable physiological traits, and the ingenuity of genome derived research technologies, extends the study of genetics to impact diverse scientific fields. Equine science is no exception, experiencing a number of genome-enabled discoveries that spur further research in areas like nutrition, reproduction, and exercise physiology. Yet unexpected findings, especially those that over-turn commonly held beliefs in the horse industry, can create challenges in outreach, education and communication with stakeholders. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Do Males Affect Twinning Events? A Review of Current Findings/Twin Research Reviews: Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Parkinson's Disease; Fetal Loss in Twin Pregnancies Following Prenatal Diagnosis; Uterine Rupture and Repair in an Early Twin Pregnancy; Twin Study of Affectionate Communication/Human Interest: Conjoined Twins in a Triplet Set; Identical Twin Nurses Deliver Identical Twins; Identical Twins Discordant for COVID-19 Recovery Course; Identical Twins Pass Away from COVID-19; Archeological Finds of Oldest Identical Twins.

Nancy L Segal

Twin Res Hum Genet 2021 Mar 19:1-5. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Psychology, California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA.

Research into the origins of twinning has focused mostly on contributions from the female side of the family. A review of current findings suggests that possible male contributions to twinning events have been overlooked. This section is followed by brief reviews of twin research concerning monozygotic twins discordant for Parkinson's disease, fetal loss in twin pregnancies following prenatal diagnosis, uterine rupture and repair in an early twin pregnancy and a twin study of affectionate communication. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reimagining the relationship between Gondwanan forests and Aboriginal land management in Australia's "Wet Tropics".

iScience 2021 Mar 16;24(3):102190. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Archaeology and History, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

The "Wet Tropics" of Australia host a unique variety of plant lineages that trace their origins to the super-continent of Gondwanaland. While these "ancient" evolutionary records are rightly emphasized in current management of the region, multidisciplinary research and lobbying by Rainforest Aboriginal Peoples have also demonstrated the significance of the cultural heritage of the "Wet Tropics." Here, we evaluate the existing archeological, paleoenvironmental, and historical evidence to demonstrate the diverse ways in which these forests are globally significant, not only for their ecological heritage but also for their preservation of traces of millennia of anthropogenic activities, including active burning and food tree manipulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Shivering in the Pleistocene. Human adaptations to cold exposure in Western Europe from MIS 14 to MIS 11.

J Hum Evol 2021 Apr 10;153:102966. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH), Paseo Sierra de Atapuerca 3, 09002, Burgos, Spain. Electronic address:

During the mid-Middle Pleistocene MIS 14 to MIS 11, humans spread through Western Europe from the Mediterranean peninsulas to the sub-Arctic region, and they did so not only during the warm periods but also during the glacial stages. In doing so, they were exposed to harsh environmental conditions, including low or extremely low temperatures. Here we review the distribution of archeological assemblages in Western Europe from MIS 14 to MIS 11 and obtain estimates of the climatic conditions at those localities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Next-Generation Sequencing and the CRISPR-Cas Nexus: A Molecular Plant Virology Perspective.

Front Microbiol 2020 12;11:609376. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman.

In recent years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and contemporary Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated (Cas) technologies have revolutionized the life sciences and the field of plant virology. Both these technologies offer an unparalleled platform for sequencing and deciphering viral metagenomes promptly. Over the past two decades, NGS technologies have improved enormously and have impacted plant virology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Ancient protein analysis in archaeology.

Jessica Hendy

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 15;7(3). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

BioArCh, Department of Archaeology, University of York, York, UK.

The analysis of ancient proteins from paleontological, archeological, and historic materials is revealing insights into past subsistence practices, patterns of health and disease, evolution and phylogeny, and past environments. This review tracks the development of this field, discusses some of the major methodological strategies used, and synthesizes recent developments in archeological applications of ancient protein analysis. Moreover, this review highlights some of the challenges faced by the field and potential future directions, arguing that the development of minimally invasive or nondestructive techniques, strategies for protein authentication, and the integration of ancient protein analysis with other biomolecular techniques are important research strategies as this field grows. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

How Replicates Can Inform Potential Users of a Measurement Procedure about Measurement Error: Basic Concepts and Methods.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jan 22;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense University Hospital, 5000 Odense, Denmark.

Measurement procedures are not error-free. Potential users of a measurement procedure need to know the expected magnitude of the measurement error in order to justify its use, in particular in health care settings. Gold standard procedures providing exact measurements for comparisons are often lacking. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

The challenges of documenting coevolution and niche construction: The example of domestic spaces.

Mary C Stiner

Evol Anthropol 2021 Jan 31;30(1):63-70. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

This essay delves into some of the challenges of studying the coevolution of humans and domestic spaces. These constructed arenas center on food preparation, and as part of the heritable niche they can shift the opportunities for, and constraints on, social interaction and cooperation in evolutionary time. Domestic spaces are widely evidenced in the archeological record, but investigators have made little progress in demonstrating causal links between proposed feedback spirals and constructed spaces of any sort. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Taking Advantage of Plant Defense Mechanisms to Promote Human Health. Exploitation of Plant Natural Products for Preventing or Treating Human Disease. Second of Two Parts.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, School of Medicine, University of Bari, Bari. Italy.

Background: Plants have represented an essential source of foods for human beings, as confirmed by archeological studies that have revealed on old pottery the presence of proteins from cereal and legumes.

Specific Aims: In this review, major healthy effects derived from the consumption of plant fibers, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and polyphenols, respectively, will be described with special emphasis on their mechanisms of action, both at cellular and molecular levels. Dietary compounds: Fibers exhibit a prevalent prebiotic effect, acting on the intestinal microbiota with the production of protective metabolites, such as short chain fatty acids. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Bantu-speaker migration and admixture in southern Africa.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr;30(R1):R56-R63

Palaeo-Research Institute, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa.

The presence of Early and Middle Stone Age human remains and associated archeological artifacts from various sites scattered across southern Africa, suggests this geographic region to be one of the first abodes of anatomically modern humans. Although the presence of hunter-gatherer cultures in this region dates back to deep times, the peopling of southern Africa has largely been reshaped by three major sets of migrations over the last 2000 years. These migrations have led to a confluence of four distinct ancestries (San hunter-gatherer, East-African pastoralist, Bantu-speaker farmer and Eurasian) in populations from this region. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Therapeutic Approach against 2019-nCoV by Inhibition of ACE-2 Receptor.

Drug Res (Stuttg) 2021 Apr 12;71(4):213-218. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Chemistry, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.

The continued spread of 2019-nCoV has prompted widespread concern around the world. WHO formally named COVID-19 and International Committee on Taxonomy called it Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to this viral attack, the whole world is in lockdown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Reconstructing prehistoric demography: What role for extant hunter-gatherers?

Evol Anthropol 2020 Nov 26;29(6):332-345. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Demography is central to biological, behavioral, and cultural evolution. Knowledge of the demography of prehistoric populations of both Homo sapiens and earlier members of the genus Homo is, therefore, key to the study of human evolution. Unfortunately, demographic processes (fertility, mortality, migration) leave little mark on the archeological and paleoanthropological records. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2020

Wild Sorghum as a Promising Resource for Crop Improvement.

Front Plant Sci 2020 17;11:1108. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia.

(L.) Moench is a multipurpose food crop which is ranked among the top five cereal crops in the world, and is used as a source of food, fodder, feed, and fuel. The genus consists of 24 diverse species. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Issues of theory and method in the analysis of Paleolithic mortuary behavior: A view from Shanidar Cave.

Evol Anthropol 2020 Sep 11;29(5):263-279. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Mortuary behavior (activities concerning dead conspecifics) is one of many traits that were previously widely considered to have been uniquely human, but on which perspectives have changed markedly in recent years. Theoretical approaches to hominin mortuary activity and its evolution have undergone major revision, and advances in diverse archeological and paleoanthropological methods have brought new ways of identifying behaviors such as intentional burial. Despite these advances, debates concerning the nature of hominin mortuary activity, particularly among the Neanderthals, rely heavily on the rereading of old excavations as new finds are relatively rare, limiting the extent to which such debates can benefit from advances in the field. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry for the analysis of acylglycerols in art and archeology.

Mass Spectrom Rev 2021 Jul 9;40(4):381-407. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via Giuseppe Moruzzi 13, Pisa, 56124, Italy.

Lipid characterization in art and archeology, together with the study of lipid degradation processes, is an important research area in heritage science. Lipid-based materials have been used as food since ancient times, but also employed as illuminants and as ingredients in cosmetic, ritual, and pharmaceutical preparations. Both animal and plant lipids have also been processed to produce materials used in art and crafts, such as paint binders, varnishes, waterproofing agents, and coatings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The phallus of the greatest archeological finding of the new millenia: an untold story of Gobeklitepe dated back 12 milleniums.

Int J Impot Res 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

University of Health Sciences, Medical Faculty, Istanbul Samatya Hospital Dept. of Obstet. & Gyn, Istanbul, Turkey.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evolutionary Perspectives on the Developing Skeleton and Implications for Lifelong Health.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 4;11:99. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Osteoporosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in contemporary populations. This common disease of aging results from a state of bone fragility that occurs with low bone mass and loss of bone quality. Osteoporosis is thought to have origins in childhood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

The Paleolithic in the Nihewan Basin, China: Evolutionary history of an Early to Late Pleistocene record in Eastern Asia.

Evol Anthropol 2020 May 20;29(3):125-142. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

The Nihewan Basin of China preserves one of the most important successions of Paleolithic archeological sites in Eurasia. Stratified archeological sites and mammalian fossils, first reported in the 1920s, continue to be recovered in large-scale excavation projects. Here, we review key findings from archeological excavations in the Nihewan Basin ranging from ~1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Middle/Later Stone Age transition and cultural dynamics of late Pleistocene East Africa.

Evol Anthropol 2019 Sep;28(5):267-282

Department of Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut.

The Middle to Later Stone Age (MSA/LSA) transition is a prominent feature of the African archeological record that began in some places ~30,000-60,000 years ago, historically associated with the origin and/or dispersal of "modern" humans. Unlike the analogous Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Eurasia and associated Neanderthal extinction, the African MSA/LSA record remains poorly documented, with its potential role in explaining changes in the behavioral diversity and geographic range of Homo sapiens largely unexplored. I review archeological and biogeographic data from East Africa, show regionally diverse pathways to the MSA/LSA transition, and emphasize the need for analytical approaches that document potential ancestor-descendent relationships visible in the archeological record, needed to assess independent invention, population interaction, dispersal, and other potential mechanisms for behavioral change. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2019

Coevolution of language and symbolic meaning: Co-opting meaning underlying the initial arts in early human culture.

Dahlia W Zaidel

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 2020 Mar 9;11(2):e1520. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California.

Many of language's components, including communicating symbolic meaning, have neurobiological roots that go back millions of years in evolutionary time. The intersection with the human social survival strategy spawned additional adaptive meaning systems. Under conditions threatening survival in socially oriented human groups, extra-language meaning systems co-opted and adapted to facilitate unity, including the early formats of the arts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Review of Coccidioidomycosis in California: Exploring the Intersection of Land Use, Population Movement, and Climate Change.

Epidemiol Rev 2019 01;41(1):145-157

Air and Climate Epidemiology Section, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, California.

California has seen a surge in coccidioidomycosis (valley fever), a disease spread by the Coccidioides immitis fungus found in soil throughout the state, particularly in the San Joaquin Valley. We reviewed epidemiologic studies in which outbreak and sporadic cases of coccidioidomycosis were examined, and we considered the possible relationship of these cases to environmental conditions, particularly the state's increasing aridity, drought, and wildfire conditions. Most of the studies we reviewed pertained to cases occupationally acquired in construction, military, archeological, and correctional institutional settings where workers were exposed to dust in C. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2019

The antiquity and evolution of the neural bases of rhythmic activity.

Philip Lieberman

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2019 10 1;1453(1):114-124. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

The evolution of the anatomy and neural circuits that regulate the rhythm of speech can be traced back to the Devonian age, 400 million years ago. Epigenetic processes 100 million years later modified these circuits. Natural selection on similar genetic processes occurred during the evolution of archaic hominins and humans. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2019

A Multifaceted Overview of Apple Tree Domestication.

Trends Plant Sci 2019 08 8;24(8):770-782. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (ILVO), Plant Sciences Unit, Caritasstraat 39, 9090 Melle, Belgium; Ghent University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Technologiepark 71, 9052 Ghent, Belgium.

The apple is an iconic tree and a major fruit crop worldwide. It is also a model species for the study of the evolutionary processes and genomic basis underlying the domestication of clonally propagated perennial crops. Multidisciplinary approaches from across Eurasia have documented the pace and process of cultivation of this remarkable crop. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Minimalist Program and the Origin of Language: A View From Paleoanthropology.

Ian Tattersall

Front Psychol 2019 2;10:677. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, United States.

In arguing that articulate language is underpinned by an algorithmically simple neural operation, the Minimalist Program (MP) retrodicts that language emerged in a short-term event. Because spoken language leaves no physical traces, its ancient use must be inferred from archeological proxies. These strongly suggest that modern symbolic human behavior patterns - and, by extension, cognition - emerged both abruptly and late in time (subsequent to the appearance of as an anatomical entity some 200 thousand years kyr ago). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Going big versus going small: Lithic miniaturization in hominin lithic technology.

Evol Anthropol 2019 Mar 29;28(2):72-85. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Anthropology Department & Turkana Basin Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York.

Lithic miniaturization was one of our Pleistocene ancestors' more pervasive stone tool production strategies and it marks a key difference between human and non-human tool use. Frequently equated with "microlith" production, lithic miniaturization is a more complex, variable, and evolutionarily consequential phenomenon involving small backed tools, bladelets, small retouched tools, flakes, and small cores. In this review, we evaluate lithic miniaturization's various technological and functional elements. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Autopsy and Forensic Study on a Rare Human Corpse Preserved Over Two Thousand Years: The Mawangdui Ancient Cadaver.

Biopreserv Biobank 2019 Apr 28;17(2):105-112. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

1 Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Central South University Xiangya School of Medicine, Changsha, Hunan, China.

In 1972, an enormous tomb site was found in the eastern suburb of Changsha, the capital city of Hunan Province, which led to the discovery of Mawangdui tomb No. 1, and soon thereafter tombs Nos. 2 and 3. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Social science perspectives on drivers of and responses to global climate change.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Clim Change 2019 Jan-Feb;10(1):e554. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

USDA-National Institute of Food and Agriculture Washington DC.

This article provides a review of recent anthropological, archeological, geographical, and sociological research on anthropogenic drivers of climate change, with a particular focus on drivers of carbon emissions, mitigation and adaptation. The four disciplines emphasize cultural, economic, geographic, historical, political, and social-structural factors to be important drivers of and responses to climate change. Each of these disciplines has unique perspectives and makes noteworthy contributions to our shared understanding of anthropogenic drivers, but they also complement one another and contribute to integrated, multidisciplinary frameworks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2018

Role of Radiology in the Assessment of Skeletons from Archeological Sites.

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2019 Feb 13;40(1):12-17. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Department of Radiology, CTO Hospital, Azienda Ospedaliera dei Colli, Naples, Italy.

Radiology is an indispensable investigative tool for physical anthropologists and paleopathologists. Since its birth in 1895, X-ray has been useful in studying archeobiological finds. As a nondestructive technique of investigations, radiology allows for analysis of archeological finds without damaging them. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2019

Pharmacies for pain and trauma in ancient Greece.

Int Orthop 2019 06 9;43(6):1529-1536. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Pharmacology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece.

Purpose: To summarize pharmacies for pain and trauma in ancient Greece, to present several pharmaceutical/therapeutical methods reported in myths and ancient texts, and to theorize on the medical explanation upon which these pharmacies were used.

Method: A thorough literature search was undertaken in PubMed and Google Scholar as well as in physical books in libraries to summarize the pharmacies and pain practices used for trauma in ancient Greece.

Results: Archeological findings and historical texts have revealed that humans have always suffered from diseases and trauma that were initially managed and healed by priests and magicians. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF