J Craniofac Surg 2011 Nov;22(6):2148-52
Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Azienda Ospedaliera Maggiore della Carità, University of Piemonte Orientale Amedeo Avogadro, Novara, Italy.
Background: The aging process is characterized by multiple signs affecting the upper, the middle, and the lower third of the face; coventionally, face-lift procedures and structural fat grafting are performed to create a younger face. During the life, craniofacial skeleton atrophies, leading to a reduction of the facial height and depth, while increasing the facial width. Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) by orthognathic surgery restores the lost space dimension, projecting the cheeks, the mouth, and the nose. Read More