7,813 results match your criteria reverse cholesterol


Multicomponent Exercise Program for Improvement of Functional Capacity and Lipidic Profile of Older Women with High Cholesterol and High Triglycerides.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Oct 13;18(20). Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Sciences and Technology Department, Superior School of Education, Polytechnic Institute of Setubal, 2910-761 Setúbal, Portugal.

Background: Physical inactivity is a primary cause of most chronic diseases. In addition, the negative effects of aging, physical inactivity and dyslipidemia are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases of older women. Exercise is considered fundamental for the treatment and prevention due to the benefits in the health of this population, but detraining periods after exercise can reverse them. Read More

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October 2021

Rosmarinic Acid Exhibits a Lipid-Lowering Effect by Modulating the Expression of Reverse Cholesterol Transporters and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

Biomolecules 2021 Oct 6;11(10). Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52727, Korea.

Hyperlipidemia is a potent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process has been shown to alleviate hyperlipidemia and protect against cardiovascular diseases. Recently, rosmarinic acid was reported to exhibit lipid-lowering effects. Read More

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October 2021

Methylmercury chronic exposure affects the expression of DNA single-strand break repair genes, induces oxidative stress, and chromosomal abnormalities in young dyslipidemic APOE knockout mice.

Toxicology 2021 Oct 17:152992. Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Cancer Cytogenomics Laboratory, Drug Research, and Development Center, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants, especially when methylated, forming methylmercury (MeHg). MeHg affects DNA repair, increases oxidative stress, and predisposes to cancer. MeHg neurotoxicity is well-known, but recently MeHg-associated cardiovascular effects were recognized. Read More

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October 2021

Hsa_circRNA_102682 is closely related to lipid metabolism in gestational diabetes mellitus.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2021 Oct 19:1-5. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Obstetrics, Li Huili Hospital, Ningbo Medical Center, Ningbo, P. R. China.

Objective: To explore the relationship between circular RNA (circRNA) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and the metabolic profile at the molecular level, and find a biological marker that can predict GDM early.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted using data and samples from women treated at a hospital in China between January 10 2018 and February 20 2019. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression level of hsa_circRNA_102682 in serum and analyze its correlation with lipid metabolism parameters. Read More

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October 2021

High-density lipoproteins: A promising tool against cancer.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Oct 13;1867(1):159068. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Centro Enrica Grossi Paoletti, Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are well known for their protective role against the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Atheroprotection is mainly due to the key role of HDL within the reverse cholesterol transport, and to their ability to exert a series of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Through the same mechanisms HDL could also affect cancer cell proliferation and tumor progression. Read More

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October 2021

Promotion of chemerin in rat diabetic kidney disease through enhancement of TGF-β1/Smads/CTGF pathway.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(9):10206-10217. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Integration of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin First Central Hospital Tianjin, China.

Objective: Although increasing evidence shows that the adipokine chemerin is involved in diabetic kidney disease (DKD), it is still unclear whether the chemerin acts as a critical element in renal function through the signaling pathways of transforming growth factor β1/Smads/connective tissue growth factor (TGF-β1/Smads/CTGF) in the context of DKD. Therefore, we sought to determine the role of chemerin and TGF-β1/Smads/CTGF signaling pathway in the development and/or progression of DKD.

Methods: We used rat renal mesangial cells (RMCs) and a DKD rat model as study subjects. Read More

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September 2021

Nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 2 (NR5A2): role in health and diseases.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Rishikesh, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India.

Nuclear receptors are the regulatory molecules that mediate cellular signals as they interact with specific DNA sequences. NR5A2 is a member of NR5A subfamily having four members (Nr5a1-Nr5a4). NR5A2 shows involvement in diverse biological processes like reverse cholesterol transport, embryonic stem cell pluripotency, steroidogenesis, development and differentiation of embryo, and adult homeostasis. Read More

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October 2021

HDL and reverse cholesterol transport in humans and animals: Lessons from pre-clinical models and clinical studies.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Oct 9;1867(1):159065. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Division of Translational Medicine & Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, 3600 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

The ability to accept cholesterol from cells and to promote reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) represents the best characterized antiatherogenic function of HDL. Studies carried out in animal models have unraveled the multiple mechanisms by which these lipoproteins drive cholesterol efflux from macrophages and cholesterol uptake to the liver. Moreover, the influence of HDL composition and the role of lipid transporters have been clarified by using suitable transgenic models or through experimental design employing pharmacological or nutritional interventions. Read More

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October 2021

Matrine ameliorates the inflammatory response and lipid metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells through the NF-κB pathway.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Nov 16;22(5):1309. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yidu Central Hospital of Weifang, Weifang, Shandong 262500, P.R. China.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with inflammatory responses and the uncontrolled proliferation and excessive apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. However, the effects of matrine on the inflammatory response, abnormal lipid metabolism and cell proliferation and apoptosis marker proteins in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAVSMCs) have not been elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of matrine on an model of atherosclerosis using HAVSMCs. Read More

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November 2021

Apolipoproteins in vascular biology and atherosclerotic disease.

Nat Rev Cardiol 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Center for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Section on Cardiovascular Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Apolipoproteins are important structural components of plasma lipoproteins that influence vascular biology and atherosclerotic disease pathophysiology by regulating lipoprotein metabolism. Clinically important apolipoproteins related to lipid metabolism and atherogenesis include apolipoprotein B-100, apolipoprotein B-48, apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein C-II, apolipoprotein C-III, apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein(a). Apolipoprotein B-100 is the major structural component of VLDL, IDL, LDL and lipoprotein(a). Read More

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October 2021

High-density lipoproteins (HDL): Novel function and therapeutic applications.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 Oct 5:159058. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), UMRS 1166, ICAN, Faculty of Medicine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Sorbonne University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The failure of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-raising agents to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) together with recent findings of increased cardiovascular mortality in subjects with extremely high HDL-cholesterol levels provide new opportunities to revisit our view of HDL. The concept of HDL function developed to explain these contradictory findings has recently been expanded by a role played by HDL in the lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) by lipoprotein lipase. According to the reverse remnant-cholesterol transport (RRT) hypothesis, HDL critically contributes to TGRL lipolysis via acquirement of surface lipids, including free cholesterol, released from TGRL. Read More

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October 2021

Targeting cholesterol homeostasis in hematopoietic malignancies.

Blood 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Cholesterol is a vital lipid for cellular functions. It is necessary for membrane biogenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition to maintaining cell integrity and permeability, increasing evidence indicates a strict link between cholesterol homeostasis, inflammation and haematological tumors. Read More

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October 2021

Knockdown of mesenchymal stem cell‑derived exosomal LOC100129516 suppresses the symptoms of atherosclerosis via upregulation of the PPARγ/LXRα/ABCA1 signaling pathway.

Int J Mol Med 2021 Dec 5;48(6). Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Medicine, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, P.R. China.

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has potential applications in treating atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CAD). Previous studies have demonstrated that MSCs are the most preferable sources of therapeutic exosomes, which carry long non‑coding RNAs and participate in the progression of atherosclerosis. The results of our previous bioinformatics study demonstrated that the levels of LOC100129516 were significantly upregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from patients with CAD. Read More

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December 2021

Remodelin, a N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10) inhibitor, alters mitochondrial lipid metabolism in cancer cells.

J Cell Biochem 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Remodelin is a small molecule inhibitor of N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10), reported to reverse the effect of cancer conditions such as epithelial to mesenchymal transition, hypoxia, and drug resistance. We analysed RNA seq data of siNAT10 and found many metabolic pathways were altered, this made us perform unbiased metabolic analysis. Here we performed untargeted metabolomics in Remodelin treated cancer cells using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Read More

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October 2021

The role and transformative potential of IL-19 in atherosclerosis.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Cancer Institute, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao University, Qingdao Cancer Institute, Qingdao, Shandong 266071, China; School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Traditionally, IL-19 was thought to be expressed in only immune cells, but studies revealed that IL-19 is also expressed in multiple atherosclerotic plaque cell types, but not normal arteries, in humans and mice. IL-19 reduces the development of atherosclerosis via multiple mechanisms, including balancing cholesterol metabolism; enhancing Th2 immune cell polarization; reducing the inflammatory response; and reducing the proliferation, migration and chemotaxis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Read More

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September 2021

Effectiveness of ezetimibe in human immunodeficiency virus patients treated for hyperlipidaemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2021 Sep 30:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Hirsh Health Sciences Library, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: Systematic review and meta-analysis of lipid outcomes for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive or HIV-infected patients treated with ezetimibe.

Methods: We conducted a literature search from 1946 to 2021 for trials studying the effectiveness of ezetimibe in hyperlipidaemic HIV patients. We included trials of all designs in which HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)/non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) therapy had hyperlipidaemia, were treated with ezetimibe, and reported lipid outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

Controlled Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Hyaline Cartilage in miR-140-Activated Collagen Hydrogel.

Cartilage 2021 Sep 28:19476035211047627. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Centre for Stem Cell Research, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Objective: Hypertrophic cartilage formation is a major setback in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-mediated cartilage repair, and overcoming it requires optimization of differentiation. Here, we tested the miR-140 activated collagen hydrogel for the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs and to produce hyaline cartilage.

Methods: Bone marrow MSCs isolated from 3 patients were pretreated with miR-140 and then chondrogenic differentiated. Read More

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September 2021

Lysis reagents, cell numbers, and calculation method influence high-throughput measurement of HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity.

J Lipid Res 2021 Sep 24:100125. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Genetics and Pharmacology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address:

HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) may protect against cardiovascular disease. However, CEC assays are not standardized, hampering their application in large cohorts and comparison between studies. To improve standardization, we systematically investigated technical differences between existing protocols that influence assay performance that have not been previously addressed. Read More

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September 2021

Serum epithelial membrane protein 1 serves as a feasible biomarker in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Int J Biol Markers 2021 Sep 27:17246008211035142. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Chongqing University Three Gorges Hospital, China.

Background: Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy that originates from bile duct epithelium with an unfavorable prognosis. Epithelial membrane protein 1 was first discovered in 1995, functioning as an oncogene or anti-tumor gene in various cancers. However, the clinical role of epithelial membrane protein 1 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma remained unclear. Read More

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September 2021

Dyslipidemia in Chronic Kidney Disease: Contemporary Concepts and Future Therapeutic Perspectives.

Am J Nephrol 2021 Sep 17:1-9. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Nephrology, General Hospital of Nikaia-Piraeus, Athens, Greece.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly prevalent disease state met with great morbidity and mortality primarily resulting from the high incidence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Therapeutic strategies in this patient population aim at controlling modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, including dyslipidemia.

Summary: In this review article, we first provide the latest pathophysiologic evidence regarding the altered dyslipidemia pattern in CKD, followed by its contemporary management according to the latest guidelines. Read More

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September 2021

Trimethylamine N-oxide-a marker for atherosclerotic vascular disease.

Rev Cardiovasc Med 2021 Sep;22(3):787-797

Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Affiliated Hospital, 300120 Tianjin, China.

As a potential causative factor in various cardiovascular diseases, the gut microbe-generated metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has courted considerable research interest as a potential biomarker. TMAO is a small molecule considered to be beneficial for the health of deep-water animals due to its ability to protect proteins against hydrostatic pressure stress. However, it may cause deleterious effects in humans as mounting evidence suggests that TMAO may enhance atherosclerosis, independent of traditional risk factors. Read More

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September 2021

Bioinformatic Analysis of Gene Expression in Smoking and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Aug 31;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Ryazan State Medical University, 390026 Ryazan, Russia.

Smoking is a key modifiable risk factor for developing the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). When smoking, many processes, including the reverse transport of cholesterol mediated by the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) protein are disrupted in the lungs. Changes in the cholesterol content in the lipid rafts of plasma membranes can modulate the function of transmembrane proteins localized in them. Read More

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Combined LXR and RXR Agonist Therapy Increases ABCA1 Protein Expression and Enhances ApoAI-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux in Cultured Endothelial Cells.

Metabolites 2021 Sep 18;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Food, Nutrition, and Packaging Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA.

Endothelial ABCA1 expression protects against atherosclerosis and this atheroprotective effect is partially attributed to enhancing apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux. ABCA1 is a target gene for LXR and RXR; therefore, treating endothelial cells with LXR and/or RXR agonists may increase ABCA1 expression. We tested whether treating cultured immortalized mouse aortic endothelial cells (iMAEC) with the endogenous LXR agonist 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, synthetic LXR agonist GW3965, endogenous RXR agonist 9-cis-retinoic acid, or synthetic RXR agonist SR11237 increases ABCA1 protein expression. Read More

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September 2021

Inhibition of chylomicron assembly leads to dissociation of hepatic steatosis from inflammation and fibrosis.

J Lipid Res 2021 Sep 23:100123. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Regulating dietary fat absorption may impact progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here we asked if inducible inhibition of chylomicron assembly, as observed in intestine-specific microsomal triglyceride transfer protein knockout mice (Mttp-IKO), could retard NAFLD progression and/or reverse established fibrosis in two dietary models. Mttp-IKO mice fed a methionine/choline deficient (MCD) diet exhibited reduced hepatic triglycerides (TG), inflammation and fibrosis, associated with reduced oxidative stress and downstream activation of JNK and NFκB signaling pathways. Read More

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September 2021

Role of Cholesterol-Associated Steatohepatitis in the Development of NASH.

Hepatol Commun 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USA.

The rising prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and NAFLD-related cirrhosis in the United States and globally highlights the need to better understand the mechanisms causing progression of hepatic steatosis to fibrosing steatohepatitis and cirrhosis in a small proportion of patients with NAFLD. Accumulating evidence suggests that lipotoxicity mediated by hepatic free cholesterol (FC) overload is a mechanistic driver for necroinflammation and fibrosis, characteristic of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), in many animal models and also in some patients with NASH. Diet, lifestyle, obesity, key genetic polymorphisms, and hyperinsulinemia secondary to insulin resistance are pivotal drivers leading to aberrant cholesterol signaling, which leads to accumulation of FC within hepatocytes. Read More

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Cholesterol efflux capacity and its association with prevalent metabolic syndrome in a multi-ethnic population (Dallas Heart Study).

PLoS One 2021 21;16(9):e0257574. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by adiposity and atherogenic dyslipidemia consisting of elevated triglyceride and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels however, cholesterol concentration alone does not reflect HDL functionality. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) captures a key anti-atherosclerotic function of HDL; studies linking CEC to MetS have yielded inconsistent findings and lacked racial/ethnic diversity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between CEC and MetS in a large multi-ethnic population utilizing two different CEC assays interrogating overlapping but distinct reverse cholesterol transport pathways. Read More

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September 2021

Knockdown of lnc-KCNC3-3:1 Alleviates the Development of Atherosclerosis Downregulation of JAK1/STAT3 Signaling Pathway.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 3;8:701058. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China.

Atherosclerosis is a major cause of coronary artery disease (CAD), and CAD is one of the main causes leading to death in most countries. It has been reported that lncRNAs play important roles in the development of atherosclerosis; thus, we aimed to explore lncRNAs that are closely related to the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. The data GSE113079 from the GEO database was used to explore the dysregulated lncRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) between 93 patients with CAD and 48 healthy controls. Read More

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September 2021

Network pharmacology-based investigation to explore the effect and mechanism of Erchen decoction against the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Nov 18;304(11):2605-2619. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Endoscopy Center, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China.

This study aimed to uncover the potential mechanism of Erchen decoction (ECD) on the amelioration of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Network pharmacology and bioinformatics were used to determine the active components of ECD and its potential target in treating NAFLD. High fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD mice model was used. Read More

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November 2021

Triclosan elicited biochemical and transcriptomic alterations in Labeo rohita larvae.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Sep 14;88:103748. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Italy.

In the current study, Triclosan (TCS, a commonly used antimicrobial agent) induced alterations in biochemical parameters and gene expression were recorded in the larvae of Labeo rohita after 96 h exposure and 10 days recovery period to find out health status biomarkers. 96 h exposure to 0.06, 0. Read More

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September 2021

Dietary Protein From Different Sources Exerted a Great Impact on Lipid Metabolism and Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation in Rat Liver.

Front Nutr 2021 26;8:719144. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Key Laboratory of Meat Processing and Quality Control MOE, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Associations between meat diets and human health have been widely considered. In this study, we focused on long-term effects of different sources of meat protein on liver metabolic enzymes. For 90 days, rats were fed with semisynthetic diets that differed only with protein source. Read More

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