43,209 results match your criteria retrovirus type


A Therapeutic Strategy to Combat HIV-1 Latently Infected Cells With a Combination of Latency-Reversing Agents Containing DAG-Lactone PKC Activators.

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:636276. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

National Center for Global Health and Medicine Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan.

Advances in antiviral therapy have dramatically improved the therapeutic effects on HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, even with potent combined antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 latently infected cells cannot be fully eradicated. Latency-reversing agents (LRAs) are considered a potential tool for eliminating such cells; however, recent and studies have raised serious concerns regarding the efficacy and safety of the "shock and kill" strategy using LRAs. Read More

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Ablation of Acid Ceramidase Impairs Autophagy and Mitochondria Activity in Melanoma Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 23;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Retrovirus Center and Virology Section, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy.

Cutaneous melanoma is often resistant to therapy due to its high plasticity, as well as its ability to metabolise chemotherapeutic drugs. Sphingolipid signalling plays a pivotal role in its progression and metastasis. One of the ways melanoma alters sphingolipid rheostat is via over-expression of lysosomal acid ceramidase (AC), which catalyses the hydrolysis of pro-apoptotic long-chain ceramides into sphingosine and fatty acid. Read More

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Epitope-based universal vaccine for Human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1).

PLoS One 2021 2;16(4):e0248001. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Bioinformatics Division, Disease Biology and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Chattogram, Bangladesh.

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus identified in humans which infects at least 10-15 million people worldwide. Large HTLV-1 endemic areas exist in Southern Japan, the Caribbean, Central and South America, the Middle East, Melanesia, and equatorial regions of Africa. HTLV-1 TAX viral protein is thought to play a critical role in HTLV-1 associated diseases. Read More

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Eukaryotic viruses in the fecal virome at the onset of type 1 diabetes: A study from four geographically distant African and Asian countries.

Pediatr Diabetes 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

Objectives: Studies of the fecal virome in type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been limited to populations of Europe and the United States. We therefore sought to characterize the stool virome in children after onset of T1D and in matched control subjects from four geographically distant African and Asian countries.

Methods: Samples of stool were collected from 73 children and adolescents shortly after T1D onset (Azerbaijan 19, Jordan 20, Nigeria 14, Sudan 20) and 105 matched control subjects of similar age and locale. Read More

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Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type W Envelope from Multiple Sclerosis Demyelinating Lesions Shows Unique Solubility and Antigenic Characteristics.

Virol Sin 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

GeNeuro Innovation, Lyon, 69008, France.

In multiple sclerosis (MS), human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope protein, pHERV-W ENV, limits remyelination and induces microglia-mediated neurodegeneration. To better understand its role, we examined the soluble pHERV-W antigen from MS brain lesions detected by specific antibodies. Physico-chemical and antigenic characteristics confirmed differences between pHERV-W ENV and syncytin-1. Read More

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Two Randomized Trials of Neutralizing Antibodies to Prevent HIV-1 Acquisition.

N Engl J Med 2021 03;384(11):1003-1014

From the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (L.C., P.B.G., M.J., S.T.K., A.C.C., E.R., Y.H., K.E.M., J. Hural, M.J.M.E., C.B., S.T., N.E., A.K.R., N.K., D.J.D., J.G.K., G.G.), and the Departments of Global Health, Microbiology, and Medicine, University of Washington (J.I.M.), Seattle; the Department of Surgery and Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center (D.C.M.), and FHI 360 (N.S., P.A.), Durham, and the Institute for Global Health and Infectious Disease, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (M.S.C.) - both in North Carolina; the National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service (L.M.) and the Antibody Immunity Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences (L.M.), and the Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences (F.L., E.M.L., S.T.), University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, the Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Department of Medicine and Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine (C.O.), and the Division of Medical Virology (C.W.), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, the School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (S.T.), and the South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg (G.G.) - all in South Africa; the Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University, Atlanta (S.E.); the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences Clinical Trials Research Centre, Harare, Zimbabwe (N.M.M., P.G.M.); Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo (P.G.), Asociación Civil Via Libre (R.C.), Asociación Civil Impacta Salud y Educación (J.R.L.), and Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas, Biomédicas y Medioambientales, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (J.S.), Lima, and Association Civil Selva Amazónica, Clinical Research Site, Iquitos (J. Hinojosa) - both in Peru; the Infectious Diseases Division, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (I.F.); the Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York (M.E.S.); Botswana Harvard AIDS Institute, Gaborone, Botswana (J.M.); Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (L.R.B.); and the Vaccine Research Program, Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rockville (M.M.G.L.), the Prevention Sciences Program, Division of AIDS (D.N.B.), and the Vaccine Research Center (J.E.L., J.R.M.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (E.P.-M.) - all in Maryland.

Background: Whether a broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) can be used to prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition is unclear.

Methods: We enrolled at-risk cisgender men and transgender persons in the Americas and Europe in the HVTN 704/HPTN 085 trial and at-risk women in sub-Saharan Africa in the HVTN 703/HPTN 081 trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive, every 8 weeks, infusions of a bnAb (VRC01) at a dose of either 10 or 30 mg per kilogram (low-dose group and high-dose group, respectively) or placebo, for 10 infusions in total. Read More

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Endogenous retrovirus expression activates type-I interferon signaling in an experimental mouse model of mesothelioma development.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jun 10;507:26-38. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Lungen- und Thoraxonkologie Zentrum, University Hospital Zurich, Sternwartstrasse 14, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Early events in an experimental model of mesothelioma development include increased levels of editing in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). We hypothesised that expression of endogenous retroviruses (ERV) contributes to dsRNA formation and type-I interferon signaling. ERV and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) expression were significantly higher in tumor compared to non-tumor samples. Read More

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N6-methyladenosine modification of HIV-1 RNA suppresses type-I interferon induction in differentiated monocytic cells and primary macrophages.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 10;17(3):e1009421. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States of America.

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a prevalent RNA modification that plays a key role in regulating eukaryotic cellular mRNA functions. RNA m6A modification is regulated by two groups of cellular proteins, writers and erasers that add or remove m6A, respectively. HIV-1 RNA contains m6A modifications that modulate viral infection and gene expression in CD4+ T cells. Read More

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Baby's best Foe-riend: Endogenous retroviruses and the evolution of eutherian reproduction.

Placenta 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

March of Dimes Prematurity Research Center Ohio Collaborative, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Division of Human Genetics, Center for Prevention of Preterm Birth, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Burroughs Wellcome Fund, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Electronic address:

High maternal investment in pregnancy and the perinatal period are prominent features of eutherian reproduction. Viviparity increases offspring survival, favoring high maternal prenatal investment. Matrotrophy through the placenta reduces maternal investment at early pregnancy, allowing the mother to abort embryos of subpar quality, therefore reducing resources wastage. Read More

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February 2021

Specificity of HTLV screening tests and its impact on health care program costs: The perspective of antenatal screening in Brazil.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2021 8;54. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Imperial College London, Section of Virology, Department of Infectious Disease, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Brazil ranks first in the number of HTLV-1/-2-infected individuals worldwide. The high morbidity and mortality of HTLV-1-associated diseases, especially following infection in infancy, requires strong action to reduce vertical transmission.

Methods: To facilitate the appraisal of the implementation of the HTLV antenatal screening program by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, we determined the costs in distinct scenarios according to HTLV seroprevalence, specificity of the screening test, and type of confirmatory test. Read More

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Endogenization of a Prosimian Retrovirus during Lemur Evolution.

Viruses 2021 02 27;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomes, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.

Studies of viruses that coevolved with lemurs provide an opportunity to understand the basal traits of primate viruses and provide an evolutionary context for host-virus interactions. Germline integration of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are fossil evidence of past infections. Hence, characterization of novel ERVs provides insight into the ancient precursors of extant viruses and the evolutionary history of their hosts. Read More

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February 2021

Liquid Biomolecular Condensates and Viral Lifecycles: Review and Perspectives.

Viruses 2021 02 25;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cell Biology of Viral Infection Lab, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal.

Viruses are highly dependent on the host they infect. Their dependence triggers processes of virus-host co-adaptation, enabling viruses to explore host resources whilst escaping immunity. Scientists have tackled viral-host interplay at differing levels of complexity-in individual hosts, organs, tissues and cells-and seminal studies advanced our understanding about viral lifecycles, intra- or inter-species transmission, and means to control infections. Read More

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February 2021

Anti-human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibody assays in cerebrospinal fluid for the diagnosis of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Division of Neuroimmunology, Joint Research Center for Human Retrovirus Infection, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima City, 890-8544, Japan.

Anti-human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibody assay has been changed from particle agglutination (PA) method to chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). These assays were validated in serum but not in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, anti-HTLV-1 antibody positivity in CSF is a requisite for diagnosing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Read More

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Elucidating the Antiviral Mechanism of Different MARCH Factors.

mBio 2021 03 2;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA

The membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) proteins belong to a family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, whose main function is to remove transmembrane proteins from the plasma membrane. Recent work has shown that the human MARCH1, 2, and 8 are antiretroviral factors that target the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins by reducing their incorporation in the budding virions. Nevertheless, the dearth of information regarding the antiviral mechanism of this family of proteins necessitates further examination. Read More

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A significant association between CXCL10 -1447 A > G and IL18 -607 C > A gene polymorphism with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM-TSP), a case-control report from city of Mashhad, Iran.

J Neurovirol 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Allergy Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the first isolated retrovirus from humans, and 2-3% of infected individuals suffer from HTLV-1 associated myelopathy tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM-TSP). Previous studies indicated that the risk of HAM-TSP could be correlated with the individuals' genetic alterations. Mashhad is one of the areas infected with HTLV-1 in Iran. Read More

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Virus-associated ribozymes and nano carriers against COVID-19.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2021 Dec;49(1):204-218

Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a zoo tonic, highly pathogenic virus. The new type of coronavirus with contagious nature spread from Wuhan (China) to the whole world in a very short time and caused the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 has turned into a global public health crisis due to spreading by close person-to-person contact with high transmission capacity. Read More

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December 2021

Evaluation of HIV-1 derived lentiviral vectors as transductors of Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV a fibroblasts.

Gene 2021 May 23;780:145527. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Institute for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Faculty of Science, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, D.C, Colombia. Electronic address:

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA) is a lysosomal storage disease produced by the deficiency of the N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) enzyme, leading to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) accumulation. Since currently available treatments remain limited and unspecific, novel therapeutic approaches are essential for the disease treatment. In an attempt to reduce treatment limitations, gene therapy rises as a more effective and specific alternative. Read More

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Lentivirus-mediated gene therapy for Fabry disease.

Nat Commun 2021 02 25;12(1):1178. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Enzyme and chaperone therapies are used to treat Fabry disease. Such treatments are expensive and require intrusive biweekly infusions; they are also not particularly efficacious. In this pilot, single-arm study (NCT02800070), five adult males with Type 1 (classical) phenotype Fabry disease were infused with autologous lentivirus-transduced, CD34-selected, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells engineered to express alpha-galactosidase A (α-gal A). Read More

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February 2021

Inhibiting HTLV-1 Protease: A Viable Antiviral Target.

ACS Chem Biol 2021 03 23;16(3):529-538. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, United States.

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that can cause severe paralytic neurologic disease and immune disorders as well as cancer. An estimated 20 million people worldwide are infected with HTLV-1, with prevalence reaching 30% in some parts of the world. In stark contrast to HIV-1, no direct acting antivirals (DAAs) exist against HTLV-1. Read More

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Single-nucleotide methylation specifically represses type I interferon in antiviral innate immunity.

J Exp Med 2021 Mar;218(3)

Key Laboratory for Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education, Institute of Life Sciences, Jiangsu Province High-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-Medical Research, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Frequent outbreaks of viruses have caused a serious threat to public health. Previous evidence has revealed that DNA methylation is correlated with viral infections, but its role in innate immunity remains poorly investigated. Additionally, DNA methylation inhibitors promote IFN-I by upregulating endogenous retrovirus; however, studies of intrinsically demethylated tumors do not support this conclusion. Read More

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[Leukemia associated to human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection and intrafamily transmission in Santiago del Estero].

Medicina (B Aires) 2021 ;81(1):111-114

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas en Retrovirus y SIDA (INBIRS), CONICET- Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail:

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an hematological disease caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) that develops after 20 years of incubation preferentially when the infection is acquired by vertical transmission. In cases of transmission by transfusion or organ transplant, this time is reduced from 3 months to 3 years. Acute ATLL is difficult to diagnose because it is unusual and has a rapid progression to death. Read More

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February 2021

Metformin restores hippocampal neurogenesis and learning and memory via regulating gut microbiota in the obese mouse model.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan 430074, China; Institute for Brain Research, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China. Electronic address:

Numerous studies have shown that over-nutritional obesity may lead to pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline. As the degree of metabolic disorders increases, the cognitive decline is getting worse. However, the cellular events that cause this cognitive dysfunction is yet to be clarified. Read More

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February 2021

Type I and III IFN-mediated antiviral actions counteracted by SARS-CoV-2 proteins and host inherited factors.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2021 04 9;58:55-65. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Instituto de Inmunología, Genética y Metabolismo (INIGEM). Universidad de Buenos Aires, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 is a recently identified coronavirus accountable for the current pandemic disease known as COVID-19. Different patterns of disease progression infer a diverse host immune response, with interferon (IFN) being pivotal. IFN-I and III are produced and released by virus-infected cells during the interplay with SARS-CoV-2, thus establishing an antiviral state in target cells. Read More

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Exploring novel and potent cell penetrating peptides in the proteome of SARS-COV-2 using bioinformatics approaches.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(2):e0247396. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Hepatitis and AIDS, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Among various delivery systems for vaccine and drug delivery, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been known as a potent delivery system because of their capability to penetrate cell membranes and deliver some types of cargoes into cells. Several CPPs were found in the proteome of viruses such as Tat originated from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), and VP22 derived from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). In the current study, a wide-range of CPPs was identified in the proteome of SARS-CoV-2, a new member of coronaviruses family, using in silico analyses. Read More

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Iota-carrageenan neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and inhibits viral replication in vitro.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(2):e0237480. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Marinomed Biotech AG, Korneuburg, Austria.

In the absence of a vaccine and other effective prophylactic or therapeutic countermeasures the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains a significant public health threat. Attachment and entry of coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 is mainly mediated by the spike glycoprotein. Here, we show that iota-carrageenan can inhibit the cell entry of the SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped lentivirus in a dose dependent manner. Read More

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Comprehensive genomic analysis identifying heterogeneity in peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

Cancer Sci 2021 Apr 25;112(4):1339-1347. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous entity generally with a poor prognosis. Recent genomic analyses have characterized genomic alterations and described gene expression profiling and epigenetic mechanisms in PTCL, leading to reveal molecular pathophysiology in detail. One of several important findings is that heterogeneities exist in both the disease and in individuals. Read More

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Ficus pumila L. improves the prognosis of patients infected with HTLV-1, an RNA virus.

Nutr J 2021 02 11;20(1):16. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima, 960-1295, Japan.

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 was isolated as the retrovirus to be identified in humans. Here, we focused on Ficus pumila L. as a factor that be effective against human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Read More

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February 2021

Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors Are Effective Anti-HIV Drugs.

Viruses 2021 01 29;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are currently recommended for the first line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection. The first-generation INSTIs are effective but can select for resistant viruses. Recent advances have led to several potent second-generation INSTIs that are effective against both wild-type (WT) HIV-1 integrase and many of the first-generation INSTI-resistant mutants. Read More

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January 2021

A Rat Model of EcoHIV Brain Infection.

J Vis Exp 2021 01 21(167). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Program in Behavioral Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina;

It has been well studied that the EcoHIV infected mouse model is of significant utility in investigating HIV associated neurological complications. Establishment of the EcoHIV infected rat model for studies of drug abuse and neurocognitive disorders, would be beneficial in the study of neuroHIV and HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In the present study, we demonstrate the successful creation of a rat model of active HIV infection using chimeric HIV (EcoHIV). Read More

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January 2021

[Antiviral activity of extracts of basidiomycetes and humic compounds substances against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Retroviridae: Orthoretrovirinae: Lentivirus: Human immunodeficiency virus 1) and Herpes Simplex Virus (Herpesviridae: Simplexvirus: Human alphaherpesvirus 1)].

Vopr Virusol 2020 Nov 14;65(5):276-283. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

FBU State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology «Vector» of Rospotrebnadzor.

Introduction: One of the most urgent problem of modern medicine is the fight against the disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) - HIV infection. The chemical compounds have improved the situation for infected people, but they are toxic, disrupt the metabolism and cannot eliminate the integrated virus from the body. The emergence of resistant HIV strains makes these treatments ineffective. Read More

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November 2020