1,084,736 results match your criteria retrospective cohort


Estimating population-based incidence of community-acquired pneumonia and acute otitis media in children and adults in Ontario and British Columbia using health administrative data, 2005-2018: a Canadian Immunisation Research Network (CIRN) study.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2022 Jun;9(1)

Centre for Vaccine Preventable Diseases, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Background: There is a paucity of data on the burden of the full spectrum of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute otitis media (AOM) from outpatient and inpatient settings across the age spectrum.

Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective study in Ontario and British Columbia (BC), Canada, to estimate the incidence rate of CAP and AOM in children and adults over a 14-year period using health administrative databases. CAP and AOM cases were identified from outpatient physician consultation and hospitalisation data in both provinces, and from emergency department visit data in Ontario. Read More

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Molecular subclassification of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: reproducibility and prognostic significance of a novel surgical technique.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Division of Gynecologic Pathology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Objectives: Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is subclassified into three prognostically relevant groups: (i) human papillomavirus (HPV) associated, (ii) HPV independent p53 abnormal (mutant pattern), and (iii) HPV independent p53 wild type. Immunohistochemistry for p16 and p53 serve as surrogates for HPV viral integration and mutational status. We assessed the reproducibility of the subclassification based on p16 and p53 immunohistochemistry and evaluated the prognostic significance of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma molecular subgroups in a patient cohort treated by vulvar field resection surgery. Read More

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Predictors of Respiratory Support Use in Emergency Department Patients With COVID-19-Related Respiratory Failure.

Respir Care 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; and Department of Emergency Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Background: Given the known downstream implications of choice of respiratory support on patient outcomes, all factors influencing these decisions, even those not limited to the patient, warrant close consideration. We examined the effect of emergency department (ED)-specific system factors, such as work load and census, on the use of noninvasive versus invasive respiratory support.

Methods: We conducted a multi-center retrospective cohort study of all adult subjects with severe COVID-19 requiring an ICU admission from 5 EDs within a single urban health care system. Read More

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Impact of Changes in Early Respiratory Support Management on Respiratory Outcomes of Preterm Infants.

Respir Care 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Neonatology, Guangdong Women and Children Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Background: In the period immediately after birth, preterm infants are highly susceptible to lung injury. Ventilator-induced lung injury has been recognized as a major contributing factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) could decrease lung injury, and early respiratory support management might affect pulmonary outcomes. Read More

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Management and clinical outcomes of Lyme disease in acute care facilities in 2 endemic regions of Quebec, Canada: a multicentre retrospective cohort study.

CMAJ Open 2022 Apr-Jun;10(2):E570-E576. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (Musonera, Valiquette, Marcoux, Bedard-Dallaire, Pelletier, Haraoui, Carignan), Department of Community Health Sciences (Baron, Milord) and Faculté de médecine et des Sciences de la santé (Lachance, Bourget, Cantin, Abbasi), Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Que.; Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (Thivierge), Montréal, Que.; Université Laval (Simard), Québec, Que.

Background: Despite increases in cases of Lyme disease, little is known about the management and clinical course of the disease in Canada. We aimed to describe the management and clinical course of Lyme disease in patients treated in acute care facilities in Quebec and to assess adherence to the 2006 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guideline.

Methods: This retrospective multicentre cohort study included pediatric and adult patients with serologically confirmed Lyme disease treated in acute care facilities (12 community hospitals and 2 tertiary care centres) of 2 endemic regions of Quebec (Estrie and Montérégie), from 2004 to 2017. Read More

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Arterial Anastomosis Using Microsurgical Techniques in Adult Live Donor Liver Transplant: A Focus on Technique and Outcomes at a Single Institution.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background:  Microvascular hepatic artery reconstruction (MHAR) is associated with decreased rates of hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). There is a paucity of literature describing the learning points and invitation of this technique at the institutional level. The objective of this study is to report our institutional experience using MHAR in adult LDLT with a focus on technique and outcomes. Read More

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COELIAC INCORPORATION STRATEGY IMPACTS VISCERAL BRANCH VESSEL STABILITY IN FENESTRATED ENDOVASCULAR ANEURYSM REPAIR.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Endovascular and Cardiovascular Surgery, St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK; Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London. Electronic address:

Objective: During fenestrated endovascular repair (FEVAR), mesenteric vessels may be incorporated with a scallop or fenestration. The benefits/harms of techniques to incorporate the coeliac axis (CA) have not been assessed for their impact on procedural complexity versus perioperative and longer-term outcomes; this assessment may instruct a balanced operative strategy for the CA and complex FEVAR, minimizing adverse intra/perioperative events, and maximizing durability.

Design: Retrospective Cohort MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing fenestrated or scalloped CA incorporation during FEVAR for a juxtarenal/pararenal/suprarenal aortic aneurysm (January 2015-December 2019) were reviewed (n=159) for demographics, intra-procedural/perioperative outcomes, and reinterventions to 5 years. Read More

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PD-L1 and PD-L2 mRNA measured using closed system qRT-PCR are associated with outcome and high negative predictive value in immunotherapy-treated non-small cell lung cancer.

J Thorac Oncol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Department of Internal Medicine (Medical Oncology), Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Electronic address:

Introduction: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become standard of care in lung cancer management, but only a relatively small percentage of patients treated respond. Current predictive biomarkers, including immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of PD-L1, are insufficient for determining who will respond or, more importantly in the adjuvant setting, who will not respond to ICI therapy. Here, we investigate an alternative method of assessment of PD-L1 to predict non-response. Read More

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A comprehensive analysis of the association between placental pathology and recurrent preterm birth.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

NorthShore University Health System, Evanston IL; University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Background: Histologic examination of the placenta is often performed following a preterm delivery. Although placental examination cannot change the index pregnancy outcome, it may inform risk of adverse outcome in a subsequent pregnancy. Prior research has examined the association between individual histologic lesions and pregnancy outcomes without consistent results. Read More

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Post-operative atrial fibrillation and risk of heart failure hospitalization.

Eur Heart J 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Division of Neurocritical Care, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Aims: Post-operative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with stroke and mortality. It is unknown if POAF is associated with subsequent heart failure (HF) hospitalization. This study aims to examine the association between POAF and incident HF hospitalization among patients undergoing cardiac and non-cardiac surgeries. Read More

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Improved Survival in a Cohort of Patients 75 years and over with FIT-Detected Colorectal Cancer.

Dis Colon Rectum 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Surgery, University of Calgary.

Background: Fecal immunochemical testing is an accepted form of colorectal cancer screening and is recommended for adults up to the age of 75 in Canadian guidelines. However, many individuals 75 years and older continue to receive fecal immunochemical testing despite being outside accepted guidelines.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether patients 75 years and older with screen detected cancer demonstrated improved outcomes and survival compared to patients with non-screen detected cancer. Read More

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Impact of sites of metastatic dissemination on survival in advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Oncology 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Background: Metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA) is a heterogeneous disease with an overall poor prognosis. The impact of sites of metastatic dissemination on survival is not well characterized. This study aims to evaluate whether certain sites of metastatic disease impacts survival. Read More

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Association between sentinel lymph node biopsy and micrometastasis in endometrial cancer.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2022 Jun 24;275:91-96. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Objective: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is increasingly utilized at surgical staging for early endometrial cancer. This study examined the association between SLN biopsy and micrometastasis in endometrial cancer.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study examining the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Program. Read More

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Incidence and Trends in the Use of Palliative Care among Patients with Reduced, Middle-Range, and Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure.

J Palliat Med 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Yale School of Nursing, West Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Clinical practice guidelines recommend integrating palliative care (PC) into the care of patients with heart failure (HF) to address their many palliative needs. However, the incidence rates of PC use among HF subtypes are unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with the following HF subtypes in the Department of Veterans Affairs: reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), mid-range ejection fraction (HFmEF), and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Read More

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Transsynaptic Ganglion Cell Degeneration in Adult Patients After Occipital Lobe Stroke.

J Neuroophthalmol 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences (LD, EM), Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; University of Western Ontario (MC), London, Canada; and Department of Medicine (EM), Division of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Loss of retinal ganglion cells after occipital lobe damage is known to occur through transsynaptic retrograde degeneration in congenital lesions; however, studies of this phenomenon in acquired pathology, such as strokes affecting postgenicular visual pathway, are scant. We studied a cohort of adult patients with known onset of occipital lobe stroke to look for the presence, rate, and timing of macular ganglion cell loss on optical coherence tomography.

Methods: Retrospective review of patients seen in tertiary neuro-ophthalmology practice with homonymous hemianopia secondary to occipital lobe stroke of known onset. Read More

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Treatment Outcomes and Roles of Transplantation and Maintenance Rituximab in Patients With Previously Untreated Mantle Cell Lymphoma: Results From Large Real-World Cohorts.

J Clin Oncol 2022 Jun 28:JCO2102698. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Commonly used first-line (1L) treatments for mantle cell lymphoma include high-dose cytarabine-based induction followed by autologous stem-cell transplant (ASCT) for younger patients and several chemoimmunotherapy regimens for older patients. Continuous debates exist on the role of ASCT in younger patients and maintenance rituximab (MR) after bendamustine plus rituximab (BR).

Methods: Retrospective data from 4,216 patients with mantle cell lymphoma in the Flatiron Health electronic record-derived deidentified database diagnosed between 2011 and 2021, mostly in US community oncology settings, were evaluated for treatment patterns and outcomes. Read More

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Timing of Monovalent Vaccine Administration in Infants Receiving DTaP-based Combination Vaccines in the United States.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, New Jersey.

Background: The recommended US infant immunization schedule includes doses of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and hepatitis B virus (HepB) during the first 6 months of life. Little information is available about the timing of associated, complementary monovalent vaccine administration in infants receiving DTaP-based pentavalent combination vaccines.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of infants born between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2018, in the US MarketScan commercial claims and encounters database. Read More

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Could Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organizer Regions count mirror DNA Ploidy in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors?

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2022 Jun 1;23(6):1983-1992. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Minia University, Al Minia, Egypt.

Objective: Nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) are DNA coils that transcribe to ribosomal RNA. The NOR-associated protein, termed argyrophilic NOR (AgNOR), was visible within the nucleus by staining with silver nitrate examination via the light microscope. AgNOR counting is a proliferation marker and may help in the diagnosis and prognosis of various neoplastic lesions. Read More

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Survival Rate and Prognostic Factors for Colorectal Cancer in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia: A Retrospective Cohort of a Population-Based Study.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2022 Jun 1;23(6):1885-1892. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Background: Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem with significant number of cases and death in the population. This study aimed to determine the 5-year overall survival rate and the prognostic factors for colorectal cancer patients in Sabah.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted using secondary data from Malaysian National Cancer Registry (MNCR) database. Read More

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Association of obstructive sleep apnea and opioids use on adverse health outcomes: A population study of health administrative data.

PLoS One 2022 28;17(6):e0269112. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute/The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Rationale: Despite the high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and concurrent use of opioid therapy, no large-scale population studies have investigated whether opioid use and pre-existing OSA may interact synergistically to increase the risk of adverse health consequences. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a retrospective cohort study using provincial health administrative data to evaluate whether the combined presence of opioid use and OSA increases the risk of adverse health consequences, such as mortality, hospitalizations, and emergency department (ED) visits; and if it does, whether this co-occurrence has synergistic clinical relevance.

Methods: We included all adults who underwent a diagnostic sleep study in Ontario, Canada, between 2013 and 2016. Read More

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Diagnostic Accuracy of Preoperative CT and Endoscopy Staging in Early Laryngeal Cancer.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 Jun 28:1945998221109819. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Center Sestre milosrdnice, Zagreb, Croatia.

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative endoscopic tumor staging with regard to histopathologic staging in patients with early laryngeal cancer.

Study Design: A retrospective nonrandomized single-institution comparative cohort study including 109 patients.

Setting: A tertiary surgical center. Read More

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Monopolar Cautery Use in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 Jun 28:1945998221108051. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Objectives: To determine the incidence and impact of monopolar cautery use in a cohort of pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users.

Study Design: Case series from a retrospective chart review and a systematic review of the literature.

Setting: Tertiary academic referral center. Read More

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Postoperative Complications After Total Thyroidectomy for Patients With Graves' Disease.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 Jun 28:1945998221108050. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Otolaryngology, SUNY Downstate School of Medicine, Brooklyn, New York, USA.

Objective: To identify the rates and types of postoperative complications in patients with and without Graves' disease undergoing total thyroidectomy using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: All hospitals participating in NSQIP from 2007 to 2017. Read More

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Increased Risk of Injury in Ménière's Disease and Effects of Treatment: Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 Jun 28:1945998221106628. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Medical Education and Research, Cardinal Tien Hospital, New Taipei City.

Objective: To investigate the risk of injury in patients with Ménière's disease (MD) and the effects of treatment.

Study Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Data were collected from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005, containing the information of 2 million randomly selected individuals in Taiwan. Read More

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Hemorrhage Risk Among Patients With Breast Cancer Receiving Concurrent Direct Oral Anticoagulants With Tamoxifen vs Aromatase Inhibitors.

JAMA Netw Open 2022 Jun 1;5(6):e2219128. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa at the Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Tamoxifen is commonly used as adjuvant therapy in breast cancer and is proposed to interfere with cytochrome P450 enzyme and P-glycoprotein pathways. Concurrent use with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) poses the threat of a potentially dangerous drug-drug interaction by leading to an increase in hemorrhage risk.

Objective: To assess the risk of hemorrhage in patients with breast cancer coprescribed a DOAC and tamoxifen compared with a DOAC and an aromatase inhibitor (AI). Read More

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Is Prophylactic Splenectomy Necessary for Proximal Advanced Gastric Cancer Invading the Greater Curvature with Clinically Negative Splenic Hilar Lymph Node Metastasis? A Multi-Institutional Cohort Study (YCOG2003).

Ann Surg Oncol 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Prophylactic splenectomy for hilar lymph node (#10) dissection has shown no survival benefit for patients with proximal advanced gastric cancer that does not invade the greater curvature. However, the survival benefit of prophylactic splenectomy for proximal advanced gastric cancer invading the greater curvature side, particularly for clinically negative #10 lymph node metastasis (#10[-]) cases remains controversial.

Methods: This multi-institutional retrospective study enrolled 146 consecutive patients with proximal advanced gastric cancers invading the greater curvature side with clinical #10(-) who underwent R0 total gastrectomy. Read More

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Does stress shielding after radial head arthroplasty affect functional outcomes?

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gumi CHA Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Sinsi-ro 10gil 12, Gumi-si, Kyungsangbuk-do, 39314, Republic of Korea.

Background: Various complications related to the prosthesis, such as implant loosening and stress shielding phenomenon, could develop after prosthetic replacement of the radial head. Stress shielding is known to occur around rigidly fixed implants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical influence and causative factors of the stress shielding phenomenon after radial head arthroplasty (RHA). Read More

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Could retrograde intrarenal surgery be a safe and effective alternative to mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy ın the management of relatively large (20-30 mm) stones? A critical evaluation.

Int Urol Nephrol 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Urology, Biruni University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purpose: To compare the outcomes of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mPCNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) in patients with renal stones sizing 2-3 cm.

Methods: A total of 566 patients from 6 institutions who underwent mPCNL (n = 440) and RIRS (n = 126) procedures were enrolled in our study. The retrospective patient cohort was reviewed and compared. Read More

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Unusual perfusion patterns on perfusion-only SPECT/CT scans in COVID-19 patients.

Ann Nucl Med 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Scanomed Ltd. Nuclear Medicine Center Debrecen, Nagyerdei Boulevard Number 98, 4032, Debrecen, Hungary.

Purpose: We aimed at examining both the incidence and extent of different lung perfusion abnormalities as well as the relationship between them on Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) perfusion-only SPECT/CT scans in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: Ninety-one patients (71.4 ± 13. Read More

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Primary Sjögren's syndrome is not associated with poor outcomes after total hip arthroplasty: a retrospective case-control study with a matched cohort of osteoarthritis patients.

Clin Rheumatol 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, No.1, Shuaifuyuan Wangfujing, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Introduction: The number of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (PSS) requiring total hip arthroplasty (THA) is expected to increase, but few studies have detailed their outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a THA cohort of patients with avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) who had PSS and to compare their outcomes with those of matched patients with osteoarthritis.

Method: A case-control study using data from a single-institution arthroplasty registry was performed. Read More

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