269,986 results match your criteria retinal

Protective effects of 4-octyl itaconate against inflammatory response in angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress in human primary retinal pigment epithelium.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 13;557:77-84. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Chongqing Eye Institute, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

4-octyl itaconate (OI) is one kind of cell-permeable derivative of itaconate to regulate inflammation and oxidative stress. However, its effects on the angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress in human primary retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) cells as well as its underlying mechanisms were unclear. In this study, we found that OI suppressed changes in pro-inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-6) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) via activation of Nrf2 signaling in Ang II-treated hRPE cells. Read More

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The posterior parietal cortex processes visuo-spatial and extra-retinal information for saccadic remapping: A case study.

Cortex 2021 Mar 19;139:134-151. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

IMPACT Team, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, INSERM, U1028, CNRS, UMR5292, University of Lyon, Bron Cedex, France. Electronic address:

Optimally collecting information and controlling behaviour require that we constantly scan our visual environment through eye movements. How the dynamic interaction between short-lived retinal images and extra-retinal signals of eye motion results in our subjective experience of visual stability remains a major issue in Cognitive Neuroscience. The present study aimed to assess and determine the nature of the contribution of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) to the saccadic remapping mechanisms which contribute to such perceptual visual constancy. Read More

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[Central serous chorioretinopathy].

Ophthalmologe 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Klinik für Augenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg, Killianstr. 5, 79106, Freiburg, Deutschland.

Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) is the fourth most common disease of the macula after age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion and a cause of irreversible visual loss. This article gives an overview of the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, multimodal imaging and discusses current therapeutic options for CSC. Read More

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The double-edged role of internal limiting membrane peeling during primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair.

Justus G Garweg

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Berner Augenklinik am Lindenhofspital , Bremgartenstrasse 119, CH - 3012, Bern, Switzerland.

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Association of disorganization of retinal inner layers with optical coherence tomography angiography features in branch retinal vein occlusion.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, E-7, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Purpose: To examine the associations between the disorganization of the retinal inner layers (DRIL) and optical coherence tomography angiography characteristics and visual acuity (VA) outcomes in eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).

Methods: In this single-center cross-sectional cohort study, the data of 43 patients with macular edema secondary to BRVO that received pro re nata anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy were analyzed. B-scan and en face angiographic images were obtained by swept-source-based wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography performed at a single visit 1 month after the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy session and evaluated. Read More

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Evaluation of the neuronal and microvascular components of the macula in patients with diabetic retinopathy.

Doc Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ulucanlar Eye Training and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: To investigate whether abnormal retinal microcirculation correlates with retinal neuronal changes in untreated diabetic eyes without macular edema.

Methods: This study enrolled 29 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR), 18 patients with mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 15 patients with moderate NPDR, 14 patients with severe NPDR, 27 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and 25 healthy control subjects. Pattern electroretinography (PERG) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) tests were performed. Read More

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Effectively Intervening Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells With a Combination of ROCK and TGF-β Signaling Inhibitors.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Apr;62(4):21

Department of Ophthalmology of Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, and Tongji Eye Institute, and Department of Pharmacology, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a key pathological event in proliferative retinal diseases such as proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). This study aimed to explore a new method to reverse EMT in RPE cells to develop an improved therapy for proliferative retinal diseases.

Methods: In vitro, human embryonic stem cell-derived RPE cells were passaged and cultured at low density for an extended period of time to establish an EMT model. Read More

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Light Environment Influences Developmental Programming of the Metabolic and Visual Systems in Mice.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Apr;62(4):22

Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Healthcare System, Decatur, Georgia, United States.

Purpose: Light is a salient cue that can influence neurodevelopment and the immune system. Light exposure out of sync with the endogenous clock causes circadian disruption and chronic disease. Environmental light exposure may contribute to developmental programming of metabolic and neurological systems but has been largely overlooked in Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) research. Read More

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The impact of vaping on ocular health: a literature review.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Hoopes Vision Research Center, 11820 State Street Suite #200, Draper, UT, 84020, USA.

Purpose: Vaping, or the use of electronic cigarettes, was initially introduced as a step toward smoking cessation, but has become an increasingly popular option for smokers. Though advertised as safer than conventional cigarettes, these devices have been found to contain carcinogenic chemicals, air pollutants, and heavy metals. The purpose of this article is to shed light on the known effects of vaping on the ocular setting and raise the discussion about additional potential effects that may call for further investigation. Read More

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The N-terminal Leu-Pro-Gln sequence of Rab34 is required for ciliogenesis in hTERT-RPE1 cells.

Small GTPases 2021 Apr 16:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Integrative Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

We have previously shown that Rab34 is an important regulator of ciliogenesis and that its unique long N-terminal region (amino acids 1-49) is essential for ciliogenesis in certain cultured mammalian cells. In the present study, we performed an in-depth deletion analysis of the N-terminal region of Rab34 together with Ala-based site-directed mutagenesis to identify the essential amino acids that are required for serum-starvation-induced ciliogenesis in hTERT-RPE1 cells. The results showed that a Rab34 mutant lacking an N-terminal 18 amino acids and a Rab34 mutant carrying an LPQ-to-AAA mutation (amino acids 16-18) failed to rescue a Rab34-KO phenotype (i. Read More

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Photoreceptor phosphodiesterase (PDE6): activation and inactivation mechanisms during visual transduction in rods and cones.

Rick H Cote

Pflugers Arch 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, 46 College Rd., Durham, NH, 03824, USA.

Rod and cone photoreceptors of the vertebrate retina utilize cGMP as the primary intracellular messenger for the visual signaling pathway that converts a light stimulus into an electrical response. cGMP metabolism in the signal-transducing photoreceptor outer segment reflects the balance of cGMP synthesis (catalyzed by guanylyl cyclase) and degradation (catalyzed by the photoreceptor phosphodiesterase, PDE6). Upon light stimulation, rapid activation of PDE6 by the heterotrimeric G-protein (transducin) triggers a dramatic drop in cGMP levels that lead to cell hyperpolarization. Read More

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3D Surface-Based Geometric and Topological Quantification of Retinal Microvasculature in OCT-Angiography via Reeb Analysis.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2019 10;11764:57-65. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, University of Southern California (USC), Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

3D optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is a novel, non-invasive imaging modality for studying important retina-related diseases. Current works have been mainly focusing on the microvascular analysis of 2D enface OCT-A projections while direct 3D analysis using rich depth-resolved microvascular information is rarely considered. In this work, we aim to set up an innovative 3D microvascular modeling framework via Reeb analysis to explore rich geometric and topological information. Read More

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October 2019

Multiple Evanescent White Dot Syndrome Presenting After Initiation of Empagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor.

Cureus 2021 Mar 12;13(3):e13853. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Ophthalmology, University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Galveston, USA.

Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS) is an inflammatory condition of the retina that typically presents unilaterally with multiple gray-white spots in the outer retina or retinal pigmented epithelium and granular changes within the fovea. We report a case of new-onset MEWDS in a patient closely after the initiation of empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitor medicine for his type II diabetes mellitus. Read More

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Purtscher-Like Retinopathy in a Patient with COVID-19.

Case Rep Ophthalmol Med 2021 20;2021:6661541. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

The Retina Institute, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The emerging literature on the novel coronavirus pandemic has reported several cases of varied retinal findings in patients with COVID-19. We report the case of a 59-year-old male who presented with complaint of bilateral blurry vision following hospital discharge after prolonged hospitalization for severe COVID-19 illness. On ocular exam, the patient demonstrated bilateral cotton wool spots localized to the posterior pole of each eye. Read More

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Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending the Diabetic Clinic of the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.

J Ophthalmol 2021 31;2021:6696548. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Objective: To investigate the level of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients attending the University of Gondar Hospital (UGH) Diabetic Clinic, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: An audit was carried out involving a total of 739 T2DM patients attending at the diabetic clinic of UGH. They represented approximately 90% and 50% of all T2DM patients under regular review at the urban and rural diabetic clinics of UGH, respectively. Read More

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Peripapillary Vessel Density in Eyes with Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment after Pars Plana Vitrectomy.

J Ophthalmol 2021 23;2021:6621820. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai General Hospital (Shanghai First People's Hospital), Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To investigate the vascular density of the optic nerve head (ONH) and macula using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients undergoing vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and to evaluate associations with visual outcomes.

Methods: Patients with RRD, successfully treated with a pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and a minimum three-month follow-up were included in this study. The vessel density (VD) of the ONH and peripapillary regions, foveal avascular zone (FAZ), foveal flow density (FFD), and parafoveal flow density (PFD) were evaluated using OCTA and compared to the fellow eye. Read More

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Exosome-mediated delivery of an anti-angiogenic peptide inhibits pathological retinal angiogenesis.

Theranostics 2021 5;11(11):5107-5126. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, 300070, Tianjin, China.

Pathological angiogenesis is the hallmark of many vision-threatening diseases. Anti-VEGF is a primary treatment with substantial beneficial effects. However, such agents require frequent intravitreal injections. Read More

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Cut-Off Values of Foveal Vascular Indices in Exfoliation Glaucoma.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 9;15:1453-1462. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Batıgöz Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Purpose: To compare the vascular measurements obtained from fovea including foveal avascular zone (FAZ) with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) between patients with exfoliation glaucoma (XFG) and healthy controls.

Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study included 54 XFG patients and 94 healthy subjects. All subjects were given a complete ophthalmological examination including visual field testing, retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell complex analysis. Read More

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The anisotropic field of ensemble coding.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8212. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Human observers can accurately estimate statistical summaries from an ensemble of multiple stimuli, including the average size, hue, and direction of motion. The efficiency and speed with which statistical summaries are extracted suggest an automatic mechanism of ensemble coding that operates beyond the capacity limits of attention and memory. However, the extent to which ensemble coding reflects a truly parallel and holistic mode of processing or a non-uniform and biased integration of multiple items is still under debate. Read More

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Real-life medium term follow-up data for intravitreal dexamethasone implant in retinal vein occlusion.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8303. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, University Medical Center, Greifswald, Germany.

Macular edema (ME) is the most frequent vision threatening consequence after retinal vein occlusion (RVO). In this study, we evaluate the effect of dexamethasone intravitreal implants (DII, Ozurdex) in a real-life cohort of 99 patients with ME due to RVO. All patients who received DII for ME following RVO between 2011 and 2016 at the University Eye Hospital Freiburg, Germany and who had fully accessible electronic medical records were eligible for this study. Read More

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EX-vivo whole blood stimulation with A2E does not elicit an inflammatory cytokine response in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 15;11(1):8226. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Clinical Eye Research Division, Department of Ophthalmology, Zealand University, Hospital Roskilde, Roskilde, Denmark.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a highly prevalent degenerative disease and a leading cause of vision loss worldwide. Evidence for an inflammatory component in the development of AMD exists, yet the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Bisretinoid N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) in retinal pigmental epithelial (RPE) cells, and in extracellular deposits constitutes a hallmark of AMD, but its role in the pathology of AMD is elusive. Read More

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A complement factor H homolog, heparan sulfation, and syndecan maintain inversin compartment boundaries in cilia.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Center for Biomedical Engineering and Technology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201;

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the elderly. Canonical disease models suggest that defective interactions between complement factor H (CFH) and cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) result in increased alternative complement pathway activity, cytolytic damage, and tissue inflammation in the retina. Although these factors are thought to contribute to increased disease risk, multiple studies indicate that noncanonical mechanisms that result from defective CFH and HS interaction may contribute to the progression of AMD as well. Read More

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Bilateral exudative retinal detachment and choroidopathy as the presenting signs of malignant hypertension.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 15;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Ophthalmology, Dr Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.

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Retained iron intraocular foreign body with late onset siderotic glaucoma: a clinical challenge.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 15;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Vitreoretina Services, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Siderotic glaucoma is a rare and challenging clinical scenario caused by a retained iron intraocular foreign body (IOFB), which results in irreversible vision loss. Presented here is a case of secondary open-angle glaucoma in a 36-year-old man that was refractory to maximal medical therapy. A meticulous history and careful clinical examination revealed that he had a penetrating trauma 15 years ago, a self-sealed corneal entry wound, open angles, a retained encapsulated metallic IOFB and siderosis bulbi. Read More

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Autoantibodies Against Methylglyoxal-Modified Apolipoprotein B100 and ApoB100 Peptide Are Associated With Less Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis and Retinopathy in Long-Term Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: Methylglyoxal (MGO), a reactive aldehyde forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs), is increased in diabetes and recognized by the immune system, resulting in anti-AGE-specific autoantibodies. The association of these immune responses with macro- and microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes remains unclarified. We investigated associations between MGO-modified apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) and apoB100 peptide 5 (MGO-p5) autoantibodies and coronary atherosclerosis and retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. Read More

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Peaks ofcircumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer and associations in healthy eyes: the Beijing Eye Study 2011.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China.

Aims: To investigate the distribution and associations of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) profile, characterised as peak height and peak position, in healthy eyes.

Methods: 667 healthy participants (294 male) were randomly selected from the Beijing Eye Study 2011. RNFLT was measured at 768 points at 3. Read More

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[A striking neovascular seafan in a superior branch retinal vein occlusion].

J Fr Ophtalmol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Service d'Ophtalmologie, CHU de Saint-Étienne, avenue Albert-Raimond, 42270 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez, France; Biologie, Ingénierie et Imagerie de la Greffe de Cornée (BiiGC), Campus Santé Innovation, 10, rue de Marandière, 42270 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez, France; Institut Universitaire de France, boulevard Saint-Michel, Paris, France.

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Versatility of use of fibrin glue in wound closure and vitreo-retinal surgery.

Int J Retina Vitreous 2021 Apr 15;7(1):33. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Retina and Vitreus Department, Asociacion para Evitar la Ceguera en México, IAP, Vicente García Torres 46, Col. Barrio San Lucas, Coyoacan, 04030, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Fibrin glue is an absorbable blood-derived product, a biological tissue adhesive which imitates the final stages of the coagulation cascade, it produces a firm clot, forming a seal along the whole length of the wound, the resultant fibrin clot degrades physiologically into granulation tissue 2 weeks after the application. Biological glue has been used extensively in many forms of surgical procedures. Its use in eye surgery has grown lately as we have evidence that showed it was effective in securing conjunctival grafts in pterygium surgery, in securing wounds after glaucoma surgery and more importantly in 20G and 23G vitrectomy. Read More

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Associations between attainment of incentivised primary care indicators and incident diabetic retinopathy in England: a population-based historical cohort study.

BMC Med 2021 Apr 16;19(1):93. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Ophthalmology, UCL and NIHR Moorfields Biomedical Retinal Research, UCL and Moorfields Eye Hospital, 162, City Road, London, EV1V 2PD, UK.

Background: The associations between England's incentivised primary care-based diabetes prevention activities and hard clinical endpoints remain unclear. We aimed to examine the associations between attainment of primary care indicators and incident diabetic retinopathy (DR) among people with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A historical cohort (n = 60,094) of people aged ≥ 18 years with type 2 diabetes and no DR at baseline was obtained from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Read More

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Mild Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in a Western European family due to the rare Asian m.14502T>C variant in the gene.

Ophthalmic Genet 2021 Apr 16:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial neurodegenerative disease. The majority (>90%) is related to three primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants: m.3460G>A, m. Read More

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