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Activation of the ABCB1-amplicon promotes cellular viability and resistance to docetaxel and cabazitaxel in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Mol Cancer Ther 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Urologic Surgery, University of California, Davis

Docetaxel and cabazitaxel based taxane chemotherapy are critical components in the management of advanced prostate cancer. However, their efficacy is hindered due to de novo presentation with or the development of resistance. Characterizing models of taxane resistant prostate cancer will lead to creation of strategies to overcome insensitivity. Read More

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Comparative evaluation of clinical findings and prognostic outcome parameters in hospitalized, critically ill neonatal foals and crias.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts.

Objective: Species-related differences in the prevalence, manifestation, and outcome of neonatal illness may impact management practices of neonatal intensive care. The study aimed to elucidate similarities between disease manifestations and mortality risks of critically ill (CI) neonatal crias and foals admitted to the same referral center.

Design: A comparative, retrospective cohort evaluation of two species (camelid and equine). Read More

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Focal Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Complications and Their Treatment.

Front Surg 2021 12;8:696242. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Urology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Focal therapy is a modern alternative to selectively treat a specific part of the prostate harboring clinically significant disease while preserving the rest of the gland. The aim of this therapeutic approach is to retain the oncological benefit of active treatment and to minimize the side-effects of common radical treatments. The oncological effectiveness of focal therapy is yet to be proven in long-term robust trials. Read More

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Family Psychoeducation as an Intervention Tool in the Management of Schizophrenia and the Psychological Wellbeing of Caregivers.

Indian J Community Med 2021 Apr-Jun;46(2):304-308. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha, India.

Background: Caregivers need to be imparted with specialized skills to retain their psychological well-being and to manage the patient with schizophrenia effectively.

Aim: This study aims to understand the role of family psychoeducation (FPE) in the management of schizophrenia and the well-being of caregiver.

Materials And Methods: The sample included 40 caregivers and patients, 20 each assigned randomly in treatment group (psychoeducation given) and the control group. Read More

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Cardiovascular Diseases: Consider Netosis.

Curr Probl Cardiol 2021 Jul 3:100929. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, Carlo Poma Hospital, Mantova Italy.

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are net-like chromatin fibers that are released from dying neutrophils during infections. NETs are a sort of scaffold, ideal to retain microbes. The main function of NETs is the trapping and killing pathogens, as such as bacteria, fungi, viruses (including SARS-CoV-2) and protozoa. Read More

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FASSNet: fast apnea syndrome screening neural network based on single-lead electrocardiogram for wearable devices.

Physiol Meas 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, Beijing, CHINA.

Objective: Sleep apnea (SA) is a chronic condition that fragments sleep and results in intermittent hypoxemia, which in long run leads to cardiovascular diseases like stroke. Diagnosis of sleep apnea through polysomnography is costly, inconvenient, and has long waiting list. Wearable devices provide a low-cost solution to the ambulatory detection of SA syndrome for undiagnosed patients. Read More

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[Comparative study on effectiveness of posterior-posterior triangulation technique and anteroposterior approach for arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Jul;35(7):823-828

Department of Sports Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming Yunnan, 650032, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of the posterior-posterior triangulation technique for arthroscopic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction by comparing with the anteroposterior approach.

Methods: Retrospective analysis was performed on 40 patients who underwent arthroscopic PCL reconstruction between February 2016 and February 2020. The PCLs were reconstructed via anteroposterior approach in 20 patients (anteroposterior approach group) and posterior-posterior triangulation technique in 20 patients (posterior-posterior triangulation technique group). Read More

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The Potential Role of fNIRS in Evaluating Levels of Consciousness.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 8;15:703405. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Imaging Program, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON, Canada.

Over the last few decades, neuroimaging techniques have transformed our understanding of the brain and the effect of neurological conditions on brain function. More recently, light-based modalities such as functional near-infrared spectroscopy have gained popularity as tools to study brain function at the bedside. A recent application is to assess residual awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness, as some patients retain awareness albeit lacking all behavioural response to commands. Read More

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A Clinical Investigation of the Performance and Safety of Epaderm, an Emollient Cream.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2021 16;14:909-920. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Mölnlycke® Health Care, Gothenburg, 402 52, Sweden.

Introduction: Emollients provide an occlusive barrier for dry and atopic skin, retain moisture, protect it from irritants, and form the basis of eczema treatment.

Methods And Analysis: A prospective interventional single arm study to evaluate the performance and safety of Epaderm Cream, an emollient and cleanser containing 25% (w/w) paraffin and 5% (w/w) glycerine (thereafter, an emollient cream), in patients with dry skin conditions. The primary outcome measure was participant evaluation of skin moisturisation after treatment with an emollient cream for up to 4 weeks. Read More

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Moral determinants of health: An overview of disparities in healthcare.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Aug;74(2S):2S-5S

Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill.

Healthcare disparities are a serious problem that shorten the lives of many Americans, even after accounting for social, cultural, and economic factors and correcting for confounders such as the lack of medical insurance and access to healthcare, black Americans and other minority groups receive worse medical care and experience worse outcomes as a result. Healthcare does not occur in a vacuum; surgeons cannot serve our patients' needs isolated in a bubble and cocooned from larger societal concerns. Although disparities rooted in race likely have the greatest negative effects on our patients' health, plenty of groups exist that have not historically received equal opportunities and acceptance within the surgical world. Read More

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Effects of Racial Trauma on Black Doctor of Pharmacy Students.

Am J Pharm Educ 2021 Jul 22:8558. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

University of Tennessee Health Science Center (UTHSC), College of Pharmacy, Memphis, Tennessee.

In the wake of several high-profile police killings, the United States has begun another reckoning with structural racism, injustice, and violence against Black Americans. The objectives of this project were to explore the impact of racialized sociopolitical events on Black Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Focus groups were conducted with second to fourth-year Black PharmD students enrolled at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Pharmacy. Read More

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Undisclosed probing into decision-making capacity: a dilemma in secondary care.

Authors:
Sandip Talukdar

BMC Med Ethics 2021 Jul 23;22(1):100. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Cumbria, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS Foundation Trust, Carleton Clinic, Cumwhinton Drive, Carlisle, Cumbria, CA1 3SX, UK.

Background: The assessment of patients' decision-making capacity is ubiquitous in contemporary healthcare. This paper examines the ethics of undisclosed probing of capacity by psychiatrists. The discussion will refer to the law in England and Wales, though the highlighted issues are likely to be relevant in similar jurisdictions. Read More

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Visual Performances of a New Extended Depth-of-Focus Intraocular Lens with a Refractive Design: A Prospective Study After Bilateral Implantation.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2021 16;17:727-738. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Eye Clinic, Policlinico Umberto 1, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the visual outcome of a new extended depth-of-focus (EDOF) intraocular lens (IOL) after bilateral implantation. A qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed and data were compared with those given by other studies regarding multifocal IOLs, which have the same purpose of giving spectacle independence to the patients.

Methods: The study enrolled 40 eyes of 20 patients who underwent cataract surgery with bilateral implantation of an EDOF IOL (Evolve Soleko, Rome, Italy). Read More

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Patient understanding of and participation in infection-related care across surgical pathways: a scoping review.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Infectious Diseases & HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, UK. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the existing evidence on patient understanding of and/or participation in infection-related care in surgical specialties.

Method: A scoping review of literature was conducted. PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and grey literature sources were searched using predefined search criteria for policies, guidelines and studies in English. Read More

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Diagnosing heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: The need for accuracy and speed.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Jul;43 Suppl 1:96-102

Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic condition resulting from pathogenic antibodies to complexes of heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4). The diagnosis of HIT can be challenging due to the widespread use of heparin and the frequency of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients. Laboratory testing for HIT typically includes an immunoassay to detect antibodies to PF4-heparin and a functional assay. Read More

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Did King Yeongjo (1694-1776) of Joseon Dynasty Korea suffer dementia during the last decade of his reign?

J Hist Neurosci 2021 Jul 20:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Neurology, Korea University Anam-hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

King Yeongjo, the 21st king of Joseon (18th Century Korea), reigned during the prime years of the dynasty and was its oldest king. Despite his many accomplishments, debate surrounds his reputed display of the symptoms of dementia during the last years of his life.  The King showed signs of dementia after 40 years of his regency in 1762 at the age of 69 years, including disorientation, cognitive impairment, amnestic disorder and so on. Read More

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Pathogenicity and genomic features of vapN-harboring Rhodococcus equi isolated from human patients.

Int J Med Microbiol 2021 Jul 2;311(6):151519. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, Kitasato University School of Veterinary Medicine, Aomori, Japan.

Rhodococcus equi is a saprophytic soil bacterium and intracellular pathogen that causes refractory suppurative pneumonia in foals and has emerged as a pathogenic cause of zoonotic disease. Several studies have reported human infections caused by R. equi harboring a recently described third type of virulence plasmid, the ruminant-associated pVAPN, which carries the vapN virulence determinant. Read More

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Study on the interaction mechanism between and platelets in the development of acute myocardial infarction.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(12):1012

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College, Qiqihar, China.

Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is the single most critical event in coronary disease. Platelets are involved in the processes of acute MI (AMI). They lack nuclear DNA but retain megakaryocyte mRNAs, hence, their transcriptome could provide information preceding coronary events. Read More

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Experience Summary of Laparoscopic Treatment for Pediatric Ureteral Polyps.

Front Pediatr 2021 30;9:689842. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

To investigate surgical techniques and challenges of laparoscopic in treating pediatric ureteral polyps under laparoscopy. The clinical data of 7 of pediatric ureteral polyps patients who were admitted to the hospital from July 2015 to January 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 6 males and 1 female from 7. Read More

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PTEN regulates adipose progenitor cell growth, differentiation, and replicative aging.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 14:100968. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

University Hospital for Children & Adolescents, Center for Pediatric Research, Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany; Institute for Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) negatively regulates the insulin signaling pathway. Germline PTEN pathogenic variants cause PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome (PHTS), associated with lipoma development in children. Adipose progenitor cells (APCs) lose their capacity to differentiate into adipocytes during continuous culture, while APCs from PHTS patients' lipomas retain their adipogenic potential over a prolonged period. Read More

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Ileal Derived Organoids From Crohn's Disease Patients Show Unique Transcriptomic and Secretomic Signatures.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine & Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: We used patient-derived organoids (PDOs) to study the epithelial-specific transcriptional and secretome signatures of the ileum during Crohn's disease (CD) with varying phenotypes to screen for disease profiles and potential druggable targets.

Methods: RNA sequencing was performed on isolated intestinal crypts and 3-week-old PDOs derived from ileal biopsies of CD patients (n = 8 B1, inflammatory; n = 8 B2, stricturing disease) and non-inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) controls (n = 13). Differentially expressed (DE) genes were identified by comparing CD vs control, B1 vs B2, and inflamed vs non-inflamed. Read More

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An insert with less than spherical medial conformity causes a loss of passive internal rotation after calipered kinematically aligned TKA.

Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, 451 E. Health Sciences Drive, Room 2303, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Introduction: In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the level of conformity, a medial stabilized (MS) implant, needs to restore native (i.e., healthy) knee kinematics without over-tensioning the flexion space when the surgeon chooses to retain the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is unknown. Read More

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Creating idiometric short-form measures of cognitive appraisal: balancing theory and pragmatics.

J Patient Rep Outcomes 2021 Jul 13;5(1):57. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Background: The Rapkin and Schwartz appraisal theory and measure provided a path toward documenting response-shift effects and describing individual differences in ways of thinking about quality of life (QOL) that distinguished people in different circumstances. Recent work developed and validated the QOL Appraisal Profile (QOLAP), an 85-item measure that taps response-shift-detection domains of Frame of Reference, Standards of Comparison, Sampling of Experience, and Combinatory Algorithm. Recent theoretical work proposed that appraisal measurement constitutes a new class of measurement (idiometric), distinct from psychometric and clinimetric. Read More

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The Promise of Patient-Derived Colon Organoids to Model Ulcerative Colitis.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Divisions of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States.

Physiologic, molecular, and genetic findings all point to impaired intestinal epithelial function as a key element in the multifactorial pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). The lack of epithelial-directed therapies is a conspicuous weakness of our UC therapeutic armamentarium. However, a critical barrier to new drug discovery is the lack of preclinical human models of UC. Read More

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Pilot Study of Dacomitinib for Patients With Metastatic -Mutant Lung Cancers With Disease Progression After Initial Treatment With Osimertinib.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 22;5. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Thoracic Oncology Service, Division of Solid Tumor Oncology, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Patients with mutant lung cancer have no approved targeted therapies after disease progression on first-line osimertinib, a third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Preclinical studies suggest that tumors with both -sensitizing alteration and acquired second-site EGFR resistance alterations after treatment with osimertinib retain sensitivity to second-generation EGFR TKIs. We hypothesized that dacomitinib, a pan-human epidermal growth factor receptor TKI, may be effective in this setting. Read More

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Adapting clinical skills volunteer patient recruitment and retention during COVID-19.

Can Med Educ J 2021 Jun 30;12(3):166-168. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Vancouver Fraser Medical Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada.

Implication Statement Institutions have been faced with the unique challenge of continuing to deliver medical education to students in a COVID-19 environment. Clinical skills teaching must be adapted to the pandemic environment, which begins with retaining Volunteer Patient (VP) engagement to facilitate the development of students' patient care aptitudes. The number of available VPs has been significantly reduced by the pandemic. Read More

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Treatment of periodontal diseases by the local drug delivery system using 1% chlorhexidine gel: A randomized clinical trial.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Jan;34(1):41-45

Crown Dental Clinic, Karachi, Pakistan.

The idea of the local drug delivery system is getting popular nowadays to treat gingivitis and periodontitis. The method of delivering the drug locally is quite easy and requires minimal intervention. This delivery system not only treats the periodontal diseases effectively but also prevents the side effects linked with the use of the drugs which are used orally for longer periods to cure these diseases. Read More

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January 2021

Anemia: A Connection Between Heart Failure and Kidney Failure.

Cardiol Clin 2021 Aug;39(3):319-333

Division of Nephrology, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Piazza Miraglia, Naples 22100, Italy.

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have improved the quality of life and reduced the need for transfusions in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, randomized trials showed no benefit but possible safety issues following high doses of ESAs given to reach normal hemoglobin levels. Iron therapy is used together with ESA; when given proactively, it may reduce the risk of mortality and cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients. Read More

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Chronically Activated T-cells Retain Their Inflammatory Properties in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Center for Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht and Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Immune dysregulation complications cause significant morbidity and mortality in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), but the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood. While CVID is primarily considered a B-cell defect, resulting in the characteristic hypogammaglobulinemia, T-cells may also contribute to immune dysregulation complications. Here, we aim to further characterize T-cell activation and regulation in CVID with immune dysregulation (CVIDid). Read More

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Digitally designed, personalized bone cement spacer for staged TMJ and mandibular reconstruction - Introduction of a new technique.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

The aim of this paper is to introduce an innovative workflow for staged reconstruction of the mandible, including the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), using a temporary, patient-specific spacer. In cases of partial mandibular resection including disarticulation, sometimes needed to treat inflammatory bone disease, the spacer is intended to retain symmetry of the hard tissues, to preserve the soft tissues, and to act as a bactericidal agent. When complete healing of the affected surrounding tissues has occurred, final reconstruction using a patient-matched total TMJ endoprosthesis, in combination with an autogenous free bone flap, can be performed as a second-stage procedure. Read More

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