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Serum retinol levels are associated with cognitive function among community-dwelling older Mexican adults.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Apr 13:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Center for Evaluation and Surveys Research, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

Background: Vitamin A (VA) provides neuroprotection against oxidative stress and brain inflammation. VA deficiency (VAD) increases the risk of neurodegeneration in animal models, but results are inconclusive in humans: particularly in the older adult (OA) population which is at higher risk for micronutrient deficiencies and cognitive impairment.

Objective: To estimate the association between serum retinol levels and cognitive function (CF) in older Mexican adults. Read More

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Lateralized Effect of Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation Location on Verbal Abstraction.

Mov Disord 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Brain Modulation Lab, Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Regionalized thalamic activity has been implicated in language function, and yet the effect of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on language-related clinical outcomes is underexplored.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if the location of stimulation within the thalamus correlates with changes in language-related neuropsychological outcomes following DBS for essential tremor.

Methods: Thirty patients with essential tremor underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations before and after DBS surgery targeting the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus. Read More

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Role of testosterone: cortisol ratio in age- and sex-specific cortico-hippocampal development and cognitive performance.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2021 Mar 31:1-11. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) are steroid hormones that have been argued to play opposing roles in shaping physical and behavioral development in humans. While there is evidence linking T and C to different memory processes during adulthood, it remains unclear how the relative levels of T and C (TC ratio) may influence brain and behavioral development, whether they are influenced by sex of the child, and whether or not they occur as a result of stable changes in brain structure (organizational changes), as opposed to transient changes in brain function (activational changes). As such, we tested for associations among TC ratio, cortico-hippocampal structure, and standardized tests of executive, verbal, and visuo-spatial function in a longitudinal sample of typically developing 4-22-year-old children and adolescents. Read More

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Unpredictive linguistic verbal cues accelerate congruent visual targets into awareness in a breaking continuous flash suppression paradigm.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Experimental Psychology & Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

One of the most influential ideas within the domain of cognition is that of embodied cognition, in which the experienced world is the result of an interplay between an organism's physiology, sensorimotor system, and its environment. An aspect of this idea is that linguistic information activates sensory representations automatically. For example, hearing the word 'red' would automatically activate sensory representations of this color. Read More

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The Effect of Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation on Cognitive Training Outcome in Healthy Aging.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:625359. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Aging is associated with a decline in attentional and executive abilities, which are linked to physiological, structural, and functional brain changes. A variety of novel non-invasive brain stimulation methods have been probed in terms of their neuroenhancement efficacy in the last decade; one that holds significant promise is transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) that delivers an alternate current at random amplitude and frequency. The aim of this study was to investigate whether repeated sessions of tRNS applied as an add-on to cognitive training (CT) may induce long-term near and far transfer cognitive improvements. Read More

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Early prediction of putamen imaging features in HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment syndrome.

BMC Neurol 2021 Mar 9;21(1):106. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.8 Xi Tou Tiao Youanmen Wai, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: To explore the correlation between the volume of putamen and brain cognitive impairment in patients with HIV and to predict the feasibility of early-stage HIV brain cognitive impairment through radiomics.

Method: Retrospective selection of 90 patients with HIV infection, including 36 asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) patients and 54 pre-clinical ANI patients in Beijing YouAn Hospital. All patients received comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and MRI scanning. Read More

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Psychometric Properties of Nursing Manager Communication Competency Questionnaire (CCCQ): An Instrument Design Study.

Ann Glob Health 2021 Mar 12;87(1):25. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: One of the most important factors that can enhance the efficiency and success of hospitals for achieving the objectives is the communication competency of nursing managers. Due to the lack of a local questionnaire to measure the communication competency of nursing managers, the present study has been conducted aimed to design and validate the Nursing Manager Communication Competency Questionnaire (NMCCQ).

Method: First, after designing the questionnaire (production of primary items), based on the definition of the results of the study, the analysis of Schwartz, Barcott, and Kim's hybrid concept was performed and then it was evaluated. Read More

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Language evolution: examining the link between cross-modality and aggression through the lens of disorders.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 May 22;376(1824):20200188. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Linguistics Program, Department of English, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.

We demonstrate how two linguistic phenomena, figurative language (implicating cross-modality) and derogatory language (implicating aggression), both demand a precise degree of (dis)inhibition in the same cortico-subcortical brain circuits, in particular cortico-striatal networks, whose connectivity has been significantly enhanced in recent evolution. We examine four cognitive disorders/conditions that exhibit abnormal patterns of (dis)inhibition in these networks: schizophrenia (SZ), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), synaesthesia and Tourette's syndrome (TS), with the goal of understanding why the two phenomena altered reactive aggression and altered cross-modality cluster together in these disorders. Our proposal is that enhanced cross-modality (necessary to support language, in particular metaphoricity) was a result, partly a side-effect, of self-domestication (SD). Read More

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WISC-V motor-free cognitive profile and predictive factors in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

Res Dev Disabil 2021 Mar 16;113:103934. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: The most commonly used intelligence tests - the Wechsler Scales - do not provide standardised procedures for assessing children with motor impairment, and as a result, may underestimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) of young people with CP.

Aims: To characterise a motor-free cognitive profile of adolescents with CP using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fifth edition (WISC-V) and explore the influence of clinical factors on cognitive abilities.

Methods And Procedure: The WISC-V was used to assess cognitive abilities in 70 adolescents (M = 14 years 6 months, SD = 10 months). Read More

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A Phase II, Single-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy of Intranasal Glulisine in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Probable Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

Drugs Aging 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

HealthPartners Center for Memory and Aging, 295 Phalen Boulevard, Saint Paul, MN, 55130, USA.

Background: Intranasal insulin is a potential treatment for neurodegenerative disease shown to increase cerebral glucose uptake, reduce amyloid plaques, and improve verbal memory in cognitively impaired as well as healthy adults. Investigations have suggested rapid-acting insulins such as glulisine may result in superior cognitive benefits compared with regular insulin.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of rapid-acting intranasal glulisine in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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Matrix training to teach tacts using speech generating devices: Replication and extension.

J Appl Behav Anal 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

May Institute, Randolph, MA.

Research has shown that training diagonal targets in a matrix may result in correct responses to the nondiagonal targets within the same matrix and novel targets from a separate matrix. This study replicated prior research using matrix training to teach tact noun-verb combinations to 3 male participants with autism who use a speech generating device to communicate. Two matrices were constructed (Matrix 1 and Generalization Matrix), using mastered nouns and verbs. Read More

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The effects of polyphenols-rich tropical fruit juice on cognitive function and metabolomics profile - a randomized controlled trial in middle-aged women.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Mar 5:1-17. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Center for Healthy Ageing & Wellness (HCARE), Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have received attention in improving health issues during old age, including decline in cognitive function and other health parameters. We aimed to determine the effects of polyphenols-rich tropical fruit TP 3-in-1™ juice towards improving cognitive function, oxidative stress and metabolomics profiles among middle-aged women. This clinical trial involved 31 subjects with signs of poor cognitive function, as assessed using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). Read More

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The click is not the trick: the efficacy of clickers and other reinforcement methods in training naïve dogs to perform new tasks.

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e10881. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Background: A handheld metal noisemaker known as a "clicker" is widely used to train new behaviors in dogs; however, evidence for their superior efficacy compared to providing solely primary reinforcement or other secondary reinforcers in the acquisition of novel behavior in dogs is largely anecdotal.

Methods: Three experiments were conducted to determine under what circumstances a clicker secondary reinforcer may result in acquisition of a novel behavior more rapidly or to a higher level compared to other readily available reinforcement methods. In Experiment 1, three groups of 30 dogs each were shaped to emit a novel sit and stay behavior of increasing duration with either the delivery of food alone, a verbal stimulus paired with food, or a clicker with food. Read More

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February 2021

Pareidolias and Creativity in Patients with Mental Disorders.

Psychopathology 2021 Mar 3:1-11. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Ruhr University Bochum, LWL-Universitätsklinikum, Bochum, Germany,

Objective: Pareidolias are ilusionary misjudgments and are seen as the result of deliberately or unconsciously caused misinterpretations by the human brain, which tends to complete diffuse and apparently incomplete perceptual images. The psychopathological value of pareidolia in the context of neuropsychiatric diseases has, however, been little researched so far.

Methods: In this pilot study, a total of 25 patients (mean age 43. Read More

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[123I]Iomazenil SPECT Detects a Reversible Lesion of the Left Medial Temporal Lobe in a Case of Global Autobiographical Amnesia.

Cogn Behav Neurol 2021 Mar 3;34(1):70-75. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Neurology, Haga Red Cross Hospital, Tochigi, Japan.

Global autobiographical amnesia is a rare disorder that is characterized by a sudden loss of autobiographical memories covering many years of an individual's life. Generally, routine neuroimaging studies such as CT and MRI yield negative findings in individuals with global autobiographical amnesia. However, in recent case reports, functional analyses such as SPECT and fMRI have revealed changes in activity in various areas of the brain when compared with controls. Read More

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The endocrinology of female friendships: Cortisol and progesterone attunement after separation.

Biol Psychol 2021 Feb 27;161:108059. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Oklahoma Center for Evolutionary Analysis (OCEAN), Department of Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 74075, United States.

Friendships constitute important relationships, and often function to reduce stress, but have been under-studied. In mother-child dyads, infants coordinate their stress response with their caregivers without experiencing the stressor themselves. The current study used a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test to examine whether i) friends are physiologically attuned (i. Read More

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February 2021

Persistent psychopathology and neurocognitive impairment in COVID-19 survivors: Effect of inflammatory biomarkers at three-month follow-up.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Psychiatry & Clinical Psychobiology, Division of Neuroscience, IRCCS Scientific Institute Ospedale San Raffaele, Milano, Italy; Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milano, Italy.

COVID-19 outbreak is associated with mental health implications during viral infection and at short-term follow-up. Data on psychiatric and cognitive sequelae at medium-term follow-up are still lacking. During an ongoing prospective cohort study, the psychopathological and cognitive status of 226 COVID-19 pneumonia survivors (149 male, mean age 58) were prospectively evaluated one and three months after hospital discharge. Read More

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February 2021

Scaling laws in natural conversations among elderly people.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(2):e0246884. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Center for Advanced Intelligence Project, RIKEN, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Language is a result of brain function; thus, impairment in cognitive function can result in language disorders. Understanding the aging of brain functions in terms of language processing is crucial for modern aging societies. Previous studies have shown that language characteristics, such as verbal fluency, are associated with cognitive functions. Read More

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February 2021

Teledermatology in Times of COVID-19 Confinement: Comparing Patients' and Physicians' Satisfaction by the Standardized Brest Teledermatology Questionnaire.

Dermatology 2021 Feb 10:1-6. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Univ Brest, LIEN, Brest, France.

The French government imposed the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown from March 17 until May 11, 2020. Only emergency cases and teledermatology (TD) were allowed in outpatient settings. A standardized questionnaire was developed to compare the satisfaction level of patients and their treating physicians. Read More

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February 2021

Pre-pandemic cognitive function and COVID-19 mortality: prospective cohort study.

medRxiv 2021 Feb 8. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Background: Poorer performance on standard tests of cognitive function is related to an elevated risk of death from lower respiratory tract infections. Whether pre-pandemic measures of cognition are related to COVID-19 mortality is untested.

Methods: UK Biobank, a prospective cohort study, comprises around half a million people who were aged 40 to 69 years at study induction between 2006 and 2010 when a reaction time test was administered to the full sample, and verbal-numeric reasoning assessed in a subgroup. Read More

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February 2021

Consequences to patients, clinicians, and manufacturers when very serious adverse drug reactions are identified (1997-2019): A qualitative analysis from the Southern Network on Adverse Reactions (SONAR).

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jan 23;31:100693. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Uniformed Services University F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland, United States.

Background: Adverse drug/device reactions (ADRs) can result in severe patient harm. We define very serious ADRs as being associated with severe toxicity, as measured on the Common Toxicity Criteria Adverse Events (CTCAE)) scale, following use of drugs or devices with large sales, large financial settlements, and large numbers of injured persons. We report on impacts on patients, clinicians, and manufacturers following very serious ADR reporting. Read More

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January 2021

The influence of training procedure and stimulus valence on the long-term maintenance of equivalence relations.

Behav Processes 2021 Apr 4;185:104343. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Universidade Federal de São Carlos - Departamento de Psicologia, UFSCar-DPsi, Campus São Carlos, Brazil.

In the current research, we aimed at extending Silveira et al. (2016) results by verifying whether the long-term maintenance of the equivalence classes is influenced by stimulus valence and MTS training procedures. The delayed and simultaneous MTS were used to train two groups of participants in series of conditional relation trials involving pictures of humans' faces expressing familiar emotions (A) and abstract forms (B, C, and D). Read More

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Enhancing the ethical conduct of a longitudinal cluster-randomized trial of psychosocial stimulation intervention for children with complicated severe acute malnutrition through Rapid Ethical Assessment: a qualitative study.

BMC Med Ethics 2021 Feb 4;22(1):10. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Informed consent is a universally accepted precondition for scientific researches involving human participants. However, various factors influence the process of obtaining authentic informed consent, and researchers particularly working in resource-poor countries often face considerable difficulties in implementing the universally recommended procedures for obtaining informed consent. We have conducted this Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) to accommodate the local cultural norms and to understand the relevant ethical issues in the Silti community before the conduct of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Read More

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February 2021

Violence at School and Bullying in School Environments in Peru: Analysis of a Virtual Platform.

Front Psychol 2020 13;11:543991. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Faculty of Education, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile.

Background: School violence and bullying are prevalent problems that affect health in general, especially through the development of emotional and behavioral problems, and can result in the deterioration of the academic performance of the student victim. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates of aggressive behaviors according to types of school violence and bullying, sociodemographic characteristics, and variation by department, region, and time in the period between 2014 and 2018 in Peru.

Methods: The design was observational and cross-sectional based on data from the Specialized System for Reporting Cases of School Violence (Sistema Especializado en Reporte de Casos sobre Violencia Escolar-SíseVe) in Peru, which covers a population of 23,641 students at the initial, primary, and secondary levels of Basic Regular Education [Educación Básica Regular (EBR)], for the 2014-2018 period. Read More

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January 2021

Listener impressions of alaryngeal communication modalities.

Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 Jan 27:1-13. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

: Following a total laryngectomy in which the larynx is completely removed, individuals in the USA have three primary options for alaryngeal verbal communication including tracheoesophageal speech (TES), oesophageal speech (ES) and electrolarynx (EL). Using a large sample of participants from across the USA, this study investigated listener impressions of each primary type of alaryngeal communication. As these are the individuals more likely to be participating in social interactions and in positions of hiring for employment, the general public's impressions of TES, ES and EL may be a vital consideration during the treatment process. Read More

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January 2021

Immersion learning at an aphasia camp: Analysing student video reflections.

Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 Jan 27:1-11. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders,University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire, Eau Clair, Wisonsin, USA.

Purpose: Aphasia camps provide a learning context where students can gain knowledge and skills for clinical practise and regarding the lived experience of individuals affected by aphasia. The aim was to examine student learning experiences at a rustic, residential aphasia camp and explore the potential utility of video reflections.

Method: Twenty-two student participants, who served as volunteer staff at an aphasia camp, reflected daily on their learning experiences. Read More

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January 2021

Target processing in overt serial visual search involves the dorsal attention network: A fixation-based event-related fMRI study.

Neuropsychologia 2021 03 22;153:107763. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Austria; BioTechMed-Graz, Austria.

In serial visual search we shift attention successively from location to location in search for the target. Although such search has been investigated using fMRI, overt attention (i.e. Read More

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Hungarian validation of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Is the short form more adequate?

Brain Behav 2021 Jan 24:e02043. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

MTA-ELTE Lendület Adaptation Research Group, Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

Objective: We aim to provide a publicly available Hungarian version of the BPAQ; compare the BPAQ factors to other personality traits; and compare both the original BPAQ factor structure provided by Buss and Perry (J. Pers. Soc. Read More

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January 2021

Social Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.

Parkinsons Dis 2020 31;2020:8846544. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically well recognized by its characteristic motor symptoms (e.g., bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor). Read More

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December 2020