7,159 results match your criteria restriction iugr

Five-vessel umbilical cord and fetal outcome: an obstetric overview.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Apr 13:1-4. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ASTT LECCO, Ospedale Leopoldo Mandic, Lecco, Italy.

Purpose: The birth of a child with an increased number of blood vessels in the umbilical cord (UC) is a rare event and has been previously reported to be associated with a higher incidence of congenital anomalies.

Methods: A case of a healthy female infant with an intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), born from a bicornuate uterus at 37 weeks of gestation and weighing 2500 g with a diagnosis of five-vessel UC made post-natally, on gross examination of the UC and confirmed by histopathological examination is documented. In particular, sections from the UC showed four umbilical arteries (UA) and one umbilical vein (UV). Read More

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Insights into intrauterine growth restriction based on maternal and umbilical cord blood metabolomics.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 9;11(1):7824. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Chemical Biology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Athens, Greece.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a fetal adverse condition, ascribed by limited oxygen and nutrient supply from the mother to the fetus. Management of IUGR is an ongoing challenge because of its connection with increased fetal mortality, preterm delivery and postnatal pathologies. Untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR) metabolomics was applied in 84 umbilical cord blood and maternal blood samples obtained from 48 IUGR and 36 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) deliveries. Read More

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Differential expression of mTOR related molecules in the placenta from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preeclampsia patients.

Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 4;21(2):100503. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Lung and Placenta Research Laboratory, Brigham Young University, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Provo, UT, USA. Electronic address:

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is involved in the function and growth of the placenta during pregnancy. The mTOR pathway responds to nutrient availability and growth factors that regulate protein expression and cell growth. Disrupted mTOR signaling is associated with the development of several obstetric complications. Read More

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Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(2):213-219


Objective: The aim: To elucidate the possible involvement of M1 and M2 macrophages in the placentas of women, whose pregnancies were complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR) and resulted in term births after 37 weeks of gestation and preterm births up to 37 weeks of gestation.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages were studied by immunohistochemical method, placental morphology in the placentas of 16 women whose pregnancies were complicated by FGR and resulted in term births at a gestational age after 37 weeks (1-st group, n = 7) or resulted in preterm births at a gestational age up to 37 weeks (2-nd group, n = 9). The control group consisted of 10 placentas of women with physiological pregnancies and births. Read More

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Adverse pregnancy outcomes among mothers with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2021 Mar 20;24:107-117. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province 410078, China; Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Changsha, Hunan Province 410078, China. Electronic address:

Background: Presently, the results of studies assessing the association of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (HDP) with adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) in offspring remain inconclusive, and a complete overview is missing. We performed a meta-analysis of cohort studies to review and summarize the association between HDP and risk of APOs in offspring.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese databases were searched through May 2019 to identify eligible studies. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 in Pregnancy-The First Wave.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 5;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Bissaya Barreto Maternity-Obstetrics Service B, Coimbra Hospital and University Center, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal.

COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a public health emergency. Data on the effect of the virus on pregnancy are limited. We carried out a retrospective descriptive study, in order to evaluate the obstetric results on pregnant women in which SARS-CoV-2 was detected through RT-PCR of the nasopharyngeal swab, at admission to the maternity hospital. Read More

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Hypoxia and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Pregnancy Complications.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Lawrence D. Longo, MD Center for Perinatal Biology, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.

Hypoxia is a common and severe stress to an organism's homeostatic mechanisms, and hypoxia during gestation is associated with significantly increased incidence of maternal complications of preeclampsia, adversely impacting on the fetal development and subsequent risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Human and animal studies have revealed a causative role of increased uterine vascular resistance and placental hypoxia in preeclampsia and fetal/intrauterine growth restriction (FGR/IUGR) associated with gestational hypoxia. Gestational hypoxia has a major effect on mitochondria of uteroplacental cells to overproduce reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress. Read More

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Circulating levels of Elabela in pregnant women complicated with intrauterine growth restriction.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 Mar 26;50(8):102127. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biochemistry, Eyüpsultan Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: This study aimed to detect Elabela concentrations in the serum of normotensive pregnant women complicated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and compare them with the uncomplicated healthy pregnancies.

Material And Methods: This prospective case-control study was performed from May 1, 2020 to September 30, 2020. Of the 92 pregnant patients included in the study, we enrolled 49 normotensive patients complicated with IUGR as the study group, and 43 normotensive healthy gestational age-matched and body mass index (BMI)-matched patients without IUGR or additional pregnancy complication as the control group. Read More

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Maternofetal inflammation induced for two weeks in late gestation reduced birthweight and impaired neonatal growth and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in lambs.

J Anim Sci 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE USA.

Intrauterine stress impairs growth and metabolism in the fetus and offspring. We recently found that sustained maternofetal inflammation resulted in intrauterine growth restricted fetuses (MI-IUGR) with asymmetric body composition, impaired muscle glucose metabolism, and β-cell dysfunction near term. These fetuses also exhibited heightened inflammatory tone, which we postulated was a fetal programming mechanism for the IUGR phenotype. Read More

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Developing Brain Glucose Transporters, Serotonin, Serotonin Transporter, and Oxytocin Receptor Expression in Response to Early-Life Hypocaloric and Hypercaloric Dietary, and Air Pollutant Exposures.

Dev Neurosci 2021 Mar 26:1-16. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology & Developmental Biology and the Neonatal Research Center of the UCLA Children's Discovery & Innovation Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Perturbed maternal diet and prenatal exposure to air pollution (AP) affect the fetal brain, predisposing to postnatal neurobehavioral disorders. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are key in fueling neurotransmission; deficiency of the neuronal isoform GLUT3 culminates in autism spectrum disorders. Along with the different neurotransmitters, serotonin (5-HT) and oxytocin (OXT) are critical for the development of neural connectivity. Read More

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Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Maternal Blood, Placental Size, and Risk for Fetal Growth Restriction: A Nested Case-control Study.

Biomed Environ Sci 2020 Nov;33(11):821-828

Department of Neonatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang, China.

Objective: To explore the effects of prenatal exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on placental size and birth outcomes.

Methods: Based on the perspective Wenzhou Birth Cohort, this nested case-control study included 101 fetal growth restriction (FGR) and 101 healthy newborns. Maternal serum samples were collected during the third trimester and measured for PBDEs by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Read More

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November 2020

The influence of vaginal progesterone on Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Objectives: Uterine artery Doppler is frequently used in the first trimester and it is one of the more effective measurement methods in the prediction of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Progesterone is a hormone that is used quite frequently in various indications in obstetrics and gynecologic practice. We aimed to investigate the influence of progesterone on the uterine artery Doppler pulsatility index (PI) at 11-14 gestational weeks. Read More

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Soluble guanylate cyclase stimulation in late gestation does not mitigate asymmetric IUGR or cardiovascular risk induced by placental ischemia in the rat.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson MS, 39216, United States.

Stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) improves fetal growth at gestational day 20 in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of placental ischemia suggesting a role for sGC in the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This study tested the hypothesis that stimulation of sGC until birth attenuates asymmetric IUGR mitigating increased cardiovascular risk in offspring. Sham or RUPP surgery was performed at gestational day 14 (G14); vehicle or sGC stimulator, Riociguat (10mg/kg/day, s. Read More

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A Proxy for Detecting IUGR Based on Gestational Age Estimation in a Guatemalan Rural Population.

Front Artif Intell 2020 7;3:56. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States.

progress of fetal development is normally assessed through manual measurements taken from ultrasound images, requiring relatively expensive equipment and well-trained personnel. Such monitoring is therefore unavailable in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where most of the perinatal mortality and morbidity exists. The work presented here attempts to identify a proxy for IUGR, which is a significant contributor to perinatal death in LMICs, by determining gestational age (GA) from data derived from simple-to-use, low-cost one-dimensional Doppler ultrasound (1D-DUS) and blood pressure devices. Read More

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Maternal Cripto is critical for proper development of the mouse placenta and the placental vasculature.

Placenta 2021 Mar 2;107:13-23. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Division of Experimental Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Child Health and Human Development Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: The growth and survival of the mammalian fetus is highly dependent on the placenta. Several research groups have demonstrated the involvement of different transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily members and their related receptors in placentation. Cripto is a member of the epidermal growth factor-Cripto1/FRL1/Cryptic protein family and plays a critical role in embryonic development, stem cell maintenance and tumor progression through TGFβ-dependent and independent pathways. Read More

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Effects of FTO and PPARγ variants on intrauterine growth restriction in a Brazilian birth cohort.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2021 10;54(1):e10465. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Departamento de Puericultura e Pediatria, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality, minor cognitive deficit, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In previous studies, genetic variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) genes have been associated with metabolic disease, body mass index, and obesity among other outcomes. We studied the association of selected FTO (rs1421085, rs55682395, rs17817449, rs8043757, rs9926289, and rs9939609) and PPARγ (rs10865710, rs17036263, rs35206526, rs1801282, rs28763894, rs41516544, rs62243567, rs3856806, and rs1805151) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IUGR, through a case-control study in a cohort of live births that occurred from June 1978 to May 1979 in a Brazilian city. Read More

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Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR), fatty acids and microRNAs: Implications in women delivering low birth weight babies.

Syst Biol Reprod Med 2021 Feb;67(1):24-41

Mother and Child Health, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs (IRSHA), Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, India.

Low birth weight (LBW) babies are associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality and are at increased risk for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in later life. However, the molecular determinants of LBW are not well understood. Placental insufficiency/dysfunction is the most frequent etiology for fetal growth restriction resulting in LBW and placental epigenetic processes are suggested to be important regulators of pregnancy outcome. Read More

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February 2021

Intrauterine Growth Retardation is a Risk Factor for Anthracycline Toxicity.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Mar 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Sami Ulus Pediatrics Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Anthracycline chemotherapy is used to treat a variety of cancers. However, late cardiac effects of anthracycline chemotherapy, such as subclinical left ventricular dilatation and/or dysfunction, have been observed in more than half of long-term survivors of childhood cancers. A major risk factor for anthracycline cardiotoxicity is intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Read More

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Is ProBNP a New Marker for Predicting Intrauterine Growth Restriction?

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Perinatology, Etlik Lady Zübeyde Gynaecology Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: To evaluate the usability of first-trimester maternal serum ProBNP levels in the prediction of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Methods In this prospective study, blood samples taken from 500 women who applied to our polyclinic for routine serum aneuploidy screening between the 11-14th gestational weeks were centrifuged. The obtained plasma samples were placed in Eppendorf tubes and stored at -80+°C. Read More

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Paternally expressed retrotransposon Gag like 1 gene, RTL1, is one of the crucial elements for placental angiogenesis in horses.

Biol Reprod 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Gluck Equine Research Center, Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA, 40503.

RTL1 (retrotransposon Gag like 1) is an essential gene in the development of the human and murine placenta. Several fetal and placental abnormalities such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and hydrops conditions have been associated with altered expression of this gene. However, the function of RTL1 has not been identified. Read More

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Low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction and a favorable outcome.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar;60(2):345-349

Department of Medical Research, MacKay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: We present low-level mosaicism for trisomy 16 at amniocentesis in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and a favorable outcome.

Case Report: A 31-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 24 weeks of gestation because of IUGR. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 47,XX,+16 [3]/46,XX [22]. Read More

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Structural Brain Changes during the Neonatal Period in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

Dev Neurosci 2020 5;42(5-6):217-229. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

BCNatal | Fetal Medicine Research Center (Hospital Clínic and Hospital Sant Joan de Déu), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with abnormal neurodevelopment, but the associated structural brain changes are poorly documented. The aim of this study was to describe in an animal model the brain changes at the cellular level in the gray and white matter induced by IUGR during the neonatal period.

Methods: The IUGR model was surgically induced in pregnant rabbits by ligating 40-50% of the uteroplacental vessels in 1 horn, whereas the uteroplacental vessels of the contralateral horn were not ligated. Read More

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[Impact of the healthcare pathway on the rate of obstetrical interventions in small for gestational age fetuses (IATROPAG Study)].

Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Département de gynécologie obstétrique, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69500 Bron, France; Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, HESPER EA 7425, 69008 Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Background: While previous studies have demonstrated an improvement in implementation of clinical practices and an improved neonatal prognosis when growth restricted fetuses were followed within a standardized healthcare pathway, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of obstetric interventions in small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses followed within a standardized care pathway compared to a traditional care pathway.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study between 2015 and 2017, in a type III maternity hospital in Lyon, in a population of SGA fetuses, considered as such in case of antenatal diagnosis of fetal weight<10th percentile but>3rd centile without umbilical Doppler abnormality during antenatal surveillance and without ultrasound argument suggesting intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). We collected the gestational age at diagnosis, obstetrical events and prevention of preterm delivery (antenatal corticosteroids), gestation age at birth, the method of delivery (spontaneous or induced), indication of induction, the method of birth (spontaneous, instrumental extraction or caesarean section), and the immediate neonatal outcome including cord pH, Apgar score at 5minutes, birth weight and fetal sex. Read More

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Role of the Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in the Pathophysiology of Pre-Eclampsia.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 12;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.

Proinflammatory cytokines are produced in pregnancy in response to the invading pathogens and/or nonmicrobial causes such as damage-associated molecules and embryonic semi-allogenic antigens. While inflammation is essential for a successful pregnancy, an excessive inflammatory response is implicated in several pathologies including pre-eclampsia (PE). This review focuses on the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a critical regulator of the innate immune response and a major player of processes allowing normal placental development. Read More

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February 2021

Prenatal Sonographic Features of CHARGE Syndrome.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Feb 28;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

CHARGE syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, associated with coloboma (C), heart defects (H), choanal atresia (A), retardation of growth and/or central nervous system (R), genitourinary anomalies (G) and ear abnormalities (E). Prenatal diagnosis of the syndrome is very rare but may be suspected when a combination of such abnormalities is identified. We describe a prenatally suspected case of CHARGE syndrome due to unique findings of cardiac defects (DORV) in combination with minor clues, including a structurally malformed ear with persistent non-response to an acoustic stimulation (which has never been prenatally described elsewhere), renal malrotation and growth restriction. Read More

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February 2021

MicroRNA-mRNA Networks in Pregnancy Complications: A Comprehensive Downstream Analysis of Potential Biomarkers.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 25;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology, Institute of Genome Biology, 18196 Dummerstorf, Germany.

Pregnancy complications are a major cause of fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in humans. The majority of pregnancy complications initiate due to abnormal placental development and function. During the last decade, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating placental and fetal development has become evident. Read More

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February 2021

Higher maternal parathyroid hormone concentration at delivery is not associated with smaller newborn size.

Endocr Connect 2021 Mar;10(3):345-357

Centre for Global Child Health, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) reflects inadequate growth in-utero and is prevalent in low resource settings. This study aimed to assess the association of maternal delivery parathyroid hormone (PTH) - a regulator of bone turnover and calcium homeostasis - with newborn anthropometry, to identify regulators of PTH, and to delineate pathways by which maternal PTH regulates birth size using path analysis. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from participants (n = 537) enrolled in the Maternal Vitamin D for Infant Growth trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Read More

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Feasibility of Umbilical Cord Blood Collection in Neonates at Risk of Brain Damage-A Step Toward Autologous Cell Therapy for a High-risk Population.

Cell Transplant 2021 Jan-Dec;30:963689721992065

Department of Obstetrics, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Evidence for umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell therapies as a potential intervention for neurological diseases is emerging. To date, most existing trials worked with allogenic cells, as the collection of autologous UCB from high-risk patients is challenging. In obstetric emergencies the collection cannot be planned. Read More

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February 2021