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Sepsis: Evidence-based pathogenesis and treatment.

Authors:
Jay Pravda

World J Crit Care Med 2021 Jul 9;10(4):66-80. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Inflammatory Disease Research Centre, Therashock LLC, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410, United States.

Sepsis can develop during the body's response to a critical illness leading to multiple organ failure, irreversible shock, and death. Sepsis has been vexing health care providers for centuries due to its insidious onset, generalized metabolic dysfunction, and lack of specific therapy. A common factor underlying sepsis is the characteristic hypermetabolic response as the body ramps up every physiological system in its fight against the underlying critical illness. Read More

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Effects of different technical substitutions on reducing replant disease of and the underlying mechanism.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jul;32(7):2485-2495

College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University/Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Agroecological Processing and Safety Monitoring, Fuzhou 350002, China.

is a traditional Chinese medicinical herb, with tuberous roots being used as a medicine. Serious continuous monoculture problems were suffered from process of artificial and intensive cultivation. To explore the effective technical methods to overcome the monoculture problems, the effects of different technical substitution patterns on soil environment remediation, photosynthetic physiology and yield performance of were assessed under continuous cropping system with four technical substitution treatments in the phase between two crops after the newly harvested (first crop): fallow (RP-F-RP), fallow treated with microbial fertilizer (RP-F-BF), water flooding (RP-WF), and water flooding treated with specific microbial fertilizer (RP-WF-BF). Read More

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Palliative effects of metformin on testicular damage induced by triptolide in male rats.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 22;222:112536. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Shaanxi Province, Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

As a widely existing traditional Chinese medicine component, TP (triptolide) has serious reproductive toxicity which causes severe damage to the reproductive system and limits its application prospect. TP and MET (metformin) have shown great potential in combined with each other in anticancer and anti-inflammatory. Whether metformin can resist the reproductive toxicity caused by triptolide, the effects of MET on TP-induced reproductive capacity has not been reported. Read More

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Autophagy-dependent Ferroptosis Contributes to Cisplatin-Induced Hearing Loss.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; Department of Hearing and Speech Science, Xinhua College, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cisplatin-induced hearing loss is a common side effect of cisplatin chemotherapy, for which clinical therapy remains unavailable. Apoptosis of hair cells is considered the primary cause of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity; however, inhibiting apoptosis can only partially restore cisplatin-induced hearing loss. Therefore, auditory cell death caused by cisplatin damage requires further study. Read More

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Linoleate Isomerase Complex Contributes to Metabolism and Remission of DSS-Induced Colitis in Mice of ZS2058.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 19;69(29):8160-8171. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

A linoleate isomerase complex including myosin-cross-reactive antigen, short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase, and acetoacetate decarboxylase has been confirmed as the pivotal factor for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production in . However, its role in the metabolism and health-associated benefits of remain unclear. In the current study, the mild type, knockout, and complemented mutants of the linoleate isomerase complex of ZS2058 were used to investigate those putative effects. Read More

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Amino Acids in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Redox Signaling.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1332:35-49

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Proteins are the chains of amino acids linked via peptide bonds. In cells, newly synthesized proteins are modified and folded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and matured to be functional proteins before they are transported to other tissues or organs. In addition to protein synthesis, the ER is also a stress-sensing organelle for diverse biological functions, such as calcium storage, lipid synthesis, and cellular metabolism. Read More

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Design, synthesis and pharmacological screening of novel renoprotective methionine-based peptidomimetics: Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jun 17;114:105100. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabuk University, Tabuk 71491, Saudi Arabia.

Cisplatin (CP) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of various types of cancer, however efforts are needed to reduce its toxic side effect. Previous studies revealed promising effect of peptides in decreasing CP induced nephrotoxicity. Herein, novel Met-based peptidomimetics were synthesized using N-acylbenzotriazole as acylating agent in high yield. Read More

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The role of oxidative stress in the susceptibility of noise-impaired cochleae to synaptic loss induced by intracochlear electrical stimulation.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Jul 8;196:108707. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Eye & ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 200031, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Hearing Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Intracochlear electrical stimulation (ES) generated by cochlear implants (CIs) is used to activate auditory nerves to restore hearing perception in deaf subjects and those with residual hearing who use electroacoustic stimulation (EAS) technology. Approximately 1/3 of EAS recipients experience loss of residual hearing a few months after ES activation, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Clinical evidence indicates that the loss is related to the previous history of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Read More

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Beneficial effects of a nano formulation of pomegranate seed oil, GranaGard, on the cognitive function of multiple sclerosis patients.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jun 27;54:103103. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Multiple sclerosis Center and cell therapies Unit, Unit and Laboratory of Neuroimmunology and The Agnes-Ginges Center for Neurogenetics, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem. Electronic address:

Background: Though often neglected, cognitive impairment is a common feature of multiple sclerosis in 43-70% of patients. None of the novel MS treatment seems to substantially affect or restore cognitive disability in MS. GranaGard (Granalix Bio Technologies LTD) is a food supplement shown to prevent neuronal death in several animal models of neurological diseases. Read More

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Characterization of cadmium accumulation and phytoextraction in three species of the genus Atriplex (canescens, halimus and nummularia) in the presence or absence of salt.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 18;166:902-911. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, INRAE, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Végétale, 38000, Grenoble, France.

This study aims to establish for the first time a comparison between the resistance to cadmium (Cd) stress of three halophyte species, Atriplex canescens, Atriplex halimus and Atriplex nummularia in addition to their already known tolerance for salt and drought. Plants were exposed to CdCl (20 and 50 μM) in the presence or in the absence of salt (50 mM NaCl) for one and two months. The amount of accumulated Cd was determined in the roots and leaves as well as the amount excreted on the surface of the leaves. Read More

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Chronotherapy.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;179:357-370

Somnogen Canada Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

The objective of chronotherapy is to optimize medical treatments taking into account the body's circadian rhythms. Chronotherapy is referred to and practiced in two different ways: (1) to alter the sleep-wake rhythms of patients to improve the sequels of several pathologies; (2) to take into account the circadian rhythms of patients to improve therapeutics. Even minor dysfunction of the biological clock can greatly affect sleep/wake physiology causing excessive diurnal somnolence, increase in sleep onset latency, phase delays or advances in sleep onset, frequent night awakenings, reduced sleep efficiency, delayed and shortened rapid eye movement sleep, or increased periodic leg movements. Read More

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Caffeine abrogates oxidative stress imbalance: Its implication on lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex following hyaluronic acid exposure.

J Chem Neuroanat 2021 Jun 29;117:101996. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.

This study assessed the role of caffeine (adenosine receptor antagonist) in the Lateral geniculate body as well as the primary visual cortex of hyaluronic acid model of glaucomatous rats. Twenty (20) male Long evans rats were randomly divided into four groups with five animals each. This research confirmed that hyaluronic acid (HA) significantly induces elevated intraocular pressure from 18 to 35 mmHg and caffeine had no effect on its reduction to palliate visual impairment; There were a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation and conversely decrease in superoxide level with HA which were attenuated by caffeine. Read More

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The Implication of Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Knee Osteoarthritis.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 21;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Faculty of Dental Medicine, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, "Nicolae Leon" Building, 13 Grigore Ghica Street, 700259 Iasi, Romania.

Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a chronic multifactorial pathology and a current and essential challenge for public health, with a negative impact on the geriatric patient's quality of life. The pathophysiology is not fully known; therefore, no specific treatment has been found to date. The increase in the number of newly diagnosed cases of KOA is worrying, and it is essential to reduce the risk factors and detect those with a protective role in this context. Read More

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Overview on the Antioxidants, Egg Yolk Alternatives, and Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Derivatives Used in Canine Sperm Cryopreservation.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Research and Development, Mjbiogen Corp., Gwangnaru-ro 144, Seoul 14788, Korea.

Sperm cryopreservation is a widely used assisted reproductive technology for canine species. The long-term storage of dog sperm is effective for the breeding of dogs living far apart, scheduling the time of artificial insemination that suits the female, and preventing diseases of the reproductive tract. However, spermatozoa functions are impaired during the freeze-thaw processes, which may decrease reproductive performance. Read More

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Regulation of Melatonin and Neurotransmission in Alzheimer's Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 25;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

School of Biomedical, Sciences, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with age, and is characterized by pathological markers such as amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Symptoms of AD include cognitive impairments, anxiety and depression. It has also been shown that individuals with AD have impaired neurotransmission, which may result from the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Read More

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The Use of Antioxidants as Potential Co-Adjuvants to Treat Chronic Chagas Disease.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 25;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Programa de Biología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas (ICBM), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380000, Chile.

Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the flagellated protozoa . This illness affects to almost 8-12 million people worldwide, however, is endemic to Latin American countries. It is mainly vectorially transmitted by insects of the Triatominae family, although other transmission routes also exist. Read More

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Procyanidin B2 Reduces Vascular Calcification through Inactivation of ERK1/2-RUNX2 Pathway.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jun 5;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Key Laboratory of Metabolism and Regulation for Major Diseases of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, College of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230601, China.

Vascular calcification is strongly associated with atherosclerotic plaque burden and plaque instability. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) increases runt related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression to promote vascular calcification. Procyanidin B2 (PB2), a potent antioxidant, can inhibit ERK1/2 activation in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Read More

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The effects of minocycline in improving of methamphetamine withdrawal syndrome in male mice.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2021 Jun 28:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Zanjan Applied Pharmacology Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent psychostimulant drug with an increasing rate of abuse over recent years. Depressive-like behaviors are one of the major symptoms patients in the METH withdrawal period experience. There is limited evidence regarding the METH withdrawal treatment, and conventional managements are not completely effective. Read More

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Combined Metabolic Activators Accelerates Recovery in Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 28:e2101222. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Science for Life Laboratory, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, SE-100 44, Sweden.

COVID-19 is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities, including the deficiencies in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD ) and glutathione metabolism. Here it is investigated if administration of a mixture of combined metabolic activators (CMAs) consisting of glutathione and NAD+ precursors can restore metabolic function and thus aid the recovery of COVID-19 patients. CMAs include l-serine, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, nicotinamide riboside, and l-carnitine tartrate, salt form of l-carnitine. Read More

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Multifunctional Selenium Quantum Dots for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease by Reducing Aβ-Neurotoxicity and Oxidative Stress and Alleviate Neuroinflammation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 25;13(26):30261-30273. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

At present, the complex pathogenesis, the difficult-to-overcome blood-brain barrier (BBB), the development of the disease course which cannot be prevented, and other problems are serious challenges in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to enhance the therapeutic effect of drugs through BBB, we synthesized simple and easy-to-obtain selenium quantum dots (SeQDs), with a multitarget therapeutic effect. This new type of SeQDs has an ultrasmall size and can quickly penetrate the BBB. Read More

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N-acetylcysteine restores the cadmium toxicity of Caenorhabditis elegans.

Biometals 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Hygiene and Public Health, School of Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 162-8666, Tokyo, Japan.

Cadmium is a well-known environmental toxicant. At the cellular level, exposure to cadmium results in cytotoxic effects through the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Although cadmium exposure leads to the dysfunction of various organs, the underlying mechanisms of the toxic effects of cadmium in vivo are still largely unknown. Read More

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Surfactant protein C mutation links postnatal type 2 cell dysfunction to adult disease.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 22;6(14). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Divisions of Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology, and.

Mutations in the gene SFTPC, encoding surfactant protein C (SP-C), are associated with interstitial lung disease in children and adults. To assess the natural history of disease, we knocked in a familial, disease-associated SFTPC mutation, L188Q (L184Q [LQ] in mice), into the mouse Sftpc locus. Translation of the mutant proprotein, proSP-CLQ, exceeded that of proSP-CWT in neonatal alveolar type 2 epithelial cells (AT2 cells) and was associated with transient activation of oxidative stress and apoptosis, leading to impaired expansion of AT2 cells during postnatal alveolarization. Read More

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Calycosin-loaded nanoliposomes as potential nanoplatforms for treatment of diabetic nephropathy through regulation of mitochondrial respiratory function.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jun 13;19(1):178. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Nephrology, The First Hospital Affiliated To Jinan University, NO.613, Huangpu Avenue West, Guangzhou, 510150, China.

Backgrounds: One of the most common complications in diabetic nephropathy is generation of high levels of ROS which can be regulated by herbal antioxidants. However, polyphenols like calycosin, the bioactive compound of Radix astragali suffer from low solubility and poor bioavailability.

Methods: Therefore, in the present study, calycosin-loaded nanoliposomes were fabricated and characterized by TEM, DLS and FTIR techniques. Read More

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The protective effects of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid against acrylamide-induced cellular damage in diabetic rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

This study was aimed at elucidating the protective effects of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18βGA) against acrylamide (Acr)-induced cellular damage in diabetic rats. Rats were randomly assigned into eight groups (n = 8) following 12 h of fasting: control group, a single dose of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (diabetic group), 50 mg/kg 18βGA orally after 2 weeks from STZ injection (18βGA group), 20 mg/kg Acr after 1month from STZ injection (Acr group), STZ plus Acr (STZ-Acr group), STZ plus 18βGA (STZ-18βGA group), Acr plus 18βGA (Acr-18βGA group), or STZ plus Acr plus 18βGA (STZ-Acr-18βGA group). Administration of 18βGA alone increased GSH, GSH-PX, SOD, and CAT in both liver and kidneys. Read More

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Intracellular quercetin accumulation and its impact on mitochondrial dysfunction in intestinal Caco-2 cells.

Food Res Int 2021 07 20;145:110430. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Food Technology, Safety and Health, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Ghent 9000, Belgium. Electronic address:

Purpose: Flavonoid bioavailability and bioactivity is associated with interindividual variability, which is partially due to differences in health status. Previously, it was demonstrated that cellular stress, especially mitochondrial stress, increases intracellular quercetin uptake and this is associated with beneficial health effects. Here, the impact of quercetin on mitochondrial dysfunction, induced by stressors targeting different sites of the electron transport chain, is investigated. Read More

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A novel Danshensu/tetramethylpyrazine protects against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in rats.

Int J Med Sci 2021 13;18(12):2716-2724. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University-Daqing, Daqing, 163319, China.

A new Danshensu/tetramethylpyrazine derivative (ADTM) with cardio-protection effects such as antioxidant, arterial relaxation, pro-angiogenesis and antiplatelet activities. Platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) plays a key role in myocardial ischemia reperfusion (MIR) injury. This study aims to investigate the protective role of ADTM in MIR injury and clarify the potential role of PAFR. Read More

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Atg32-dependent mitophagy sustains spermidine and nitric oxide required for heat-stress tolerance in Saccharomycescerevisiae.

J Cell Sci 2021 06 7;134(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pathology and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the selective autophagic degradation of mitochondria, termed mitophagy, is critically regulated by the adapter protein Atg32. Despite our knowledge about the molecular mechanisms by which Atg32 controls mitophagy, its physiological roles in yeast survival and fitness remains less clear. Here, we demonstrate a requirement for Atg32 in promoting spermidine production during respiratory growth and heat-induced mitochondrial stress. Read More

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Therapeutic potential of against the Aβ-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the rats.

Am J Neurodegener Dis 2021 15;10(2):13-27. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Pharmacology, UIPS, Panjab University Chandigarh 160014, India.

From the early stages of any neurodegenerative-disease mitochondrial functionality has been mortally extricated, though the exact timeline of these events is still unclear, it is likely to represent a progressive neurons-decline and cognitive-functions. Hence strategies suggested by herbal extract to restore mitochondrial functions may be a remedial approach to chronic neurodegenerative disorder like Alzheimer's disease (AD). This research was designed to evaluate if Aβ induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction could be inhibited by (AS) supplementation. Read More

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Establishment of anti-oxidation platform based on few-layer molybdenum disulfide nanosheet-coated titanium dioxide nanobelt nanocomposite.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 18;601:167-176. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China; Department of Urology, Key Laboratory of Urinary System Diseases, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China. Electronic address:

The nanozyme-based antioxidant system could protect normal cells from oxidative stress due to their reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity and good chemical stability. However, its use is limited for practical in vivo applications due to the high cost and poor biocompatibility (low catalytic efficiency). Herein, MoS decorated on TiO nanobelts ([email protected]) was prepared for antioxidation applications. Read More

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The potential effect of phytochemicals and herbal plant remedies for treating drug-induced hepatotoxicity: a review.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 May 1;48(5):4767-4788. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Bio Sciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632014, India.

Drug-induced liver injury significantly caused by synthetic drugs, and other xenobiotics contribute to clinical hepatic dysfunction, which has been a substantial challenge for both patients and physicians. Traditional medicines used as an alternative therapy because of their pharmacological benefits, less or no side effects, and enormous availability in nature. Phytochemicals are essential ingredients of plants that reduce necrotic cell death, restore the antioxidant defence mechanism, limit oxidative stress, and prevent the inflammation of tissue and dysfunction of the mitochondria. Read More

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