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Research during COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspectives from the Ethics Committees of a Lower Middle Income Country.

Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ) 2020 Oct.-Dec.;18(72):420-422

Nepal Health Research Council, Ram Shah Path, Kathmandu, Nepal.

The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created paradoxically a good opportunity globally to conduct research in the field of health and social science, and a Lower Middle-Income Country (LMIC) like Nepal is not an exception in this regard. During this ongoing pandemic, the Ethical Review Board (ERB) of Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC) has received numerous research proposals regarding COVID-19. As its main responsibility is to ensure participants' safety, at the same time maintaining the scientific standard of research, the ERB has meticulously gone through all the proposals received so far. Read More

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The New Totalitarians: The Swedish COVID-19 strategy and the implications of consensus culture and media policy for public health.

SSM Popul Health 2021 Jun 6;14:100788. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Social Medicine and Health Policy, Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, S-205 02, Malmö, Sweden.

Aims: The aim is to discuss implications of consensus culture in combination with media policy in Sweden with regard to the Swedish COVID-19 strategy in the spring of 2020.

Methods: Investigation of prerequisites for scrutiny by the Swedish mass media of the Swedish strategy in the spring of 2020 based on discussion regarding consensus culture, media structure and postmodernism in science, politics and administration.

Results: The Swedish strategy entailed strong initial confidence in herd immunity (although not officially stated), individual responsibility, evidence based medicine and substantial neglect to cooperate internationally. Read More

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Responsibility-sharing for pets in disasters: lessons for One Health promotion arising from disaster management challenges.

Health Promot Int 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Faculty of the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, Australian Centre for Health Engagement, Evidence and Values (ACHEEV), University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave., Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

During disasters, the behaviour of pet owners and of pets themselves may compromise the ability of emergency responders to perform their duties safely. Furthermore, pet loss can have deleterious effects on personal and community recovery. To explore these issues and their implications for health promotion and disaster management practice, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 emergency responders in Australia, where disaster policy embraces shared responsibility yet does not acknowledge pets. Read More

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Does Collaboration Make Any Difference? Linking Collaborative Governance to Environmental Outcomes.

Authors:
Tyler Scott

J Policy Anal Manage 2015 8;34(3):537-566. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Assistant Professor in the School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Georgia, 204 Baldwin Hall, Athens, GA 30602.

This paper addresses two research questions: (1) Does collaborative environmental governance improve environmental outcomes? and (2) How do publicly supported collaborative groups with different levels of responsibility, formalization, and representativeness compare in this regard? Using a representative watershed quality data series, the EPA's National Rivers and Streams Assessment and Wadeable Streams Assessment, in conjunction with a watershed management regime database coded for this analysis, I test the relationship between collaborative governance and watershed quality for 357 watersheds. Since these are observational data, a multilevel propensity score matching method is used to control for selection bias. Using an augmented inverse propensity weighted estimator, I estimate the average treatment effect on the treated for six different water quality and habitat condition metrics. Read More

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Factors Associated With, and Mitigation Strategies for, Healthcare Disparities Faced by Patients With Headache Disorders.

Neurology 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology and Ophthalmology, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, East Lansing, MI.

Objective: To review the contemporary issues of healthcare disparities in Headache Medicine with regard to race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and geography and propose solutions for addressing these disparities.

Methods: An internet and PubMed search was performed and literature was reviewed for key concepts underpinning disparities in Headache Medicine. Content was refined to areas most salient to our goal of informing the provision of equitable care in headache treatment through discussions with this group of 16 experts from a range of headache subspecialties. Read More

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Biomechanical Properties of Double-Row Transosseous Rotator Cuff Repair Combined With the Cinch Stitch in the Lateral Row.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 May 24;9(5):23259671211006040. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Background: The self-cinching stitch has been verified to have high mechanical strength. The mechanical strength of combining transosseous rotator cuff repair (RCR) and the self-cinching stitch in the lateral row is unknown.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of transosseous RCR combined with the cinch stitch in the lateral row. Read More

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Prehospital Adenosine Diphosphate Receptor Blocker Use, Culprit Artery Flow, and Mortality in STEMI: The MADDEC Study.

Clin Drug Investig 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, University of Tampere, Arvo Building, Arvo Ylpön Katu 34, 33520, Tampere, Finland.

Background And Objective: The newer adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor blockers ticagrelor and prasugrel are superior to clopidogrel in the long-term management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We evaluated the acute performance (prehospital loading) of these ADP receptor blockers in a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: In a retrospective, single-center registry study, data on all STEMI patients admitted for their first primary PCI between January 2007 and April 2020 were analyzed (n = 3218). Read More

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Responsibility beyond design: Physicians' requirements for ethical medical AI.

Bioethics 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Medical AI is increasingly being developed and tested to improve medical diagnosis, prediction and treatment of a wide array of medical conditions. Despite worries about the explainability and accuracy of such medical AI systems, it is reasonable to assume that they will be increasingly implemented in medical practice. Current ethical debates focus mainly on design requirements and suggest embedding certain values such as transparency, fairness, and explainability in the design of medical AI systems. Read More

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Accessibility and Universal Design: Do They Provide Economic Benefits?

Stud Health Technol Inform 2021 Jun;282:3-12

Department of Economics and Management, Università degli Studi di Brescia (Italy).

Certainly, the issue of accessibility has, in addition to a well-known social value, obvious economic repercussions. However, these are not easily measurable, as they can be investigated only on the basis of indicators that are mainly qualitative and indirect. That said, this paper will highlight some aspects that can be considered a first approach, identifying the variables and key players in the economic field. Read More

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Frames and counter-frames giving meaning to palliative care and euthanasia in the Netherlands.

BMC Palliat Care 2021 Jun 3;20(1):79. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, department IQ healthcare, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: Based on the case of palliative care and euthanasia in the Netherlands, this paper presents an analysis of frames and counter-frames used in the ongoing public debate about these two intertwined topics. Each (counter)frame presents a cultural theme that can act as a prism to give meaning to palliative care and/or euthanasia. Each frame comprehends a different problem definition, consequences and policy options. Read More

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Language and culture in speech-language and hearing professions in South Africa: Re-imagining practice.

S Afr J Commun Disord 2021 Jun 3;68(1):e1-e9. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Audiology, Faculty of Humanities, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

South African speech-language and hearing (SLH) professions are facing significant challenges in the provision of clinical services to patients from a context that is culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) due to historic exclusions in higher education training programmes. Over 20 years postapartheid, little has changed in training, research, as well as clinical service provision in these professions. In line with the Health Professions Council of South Africa's (HPCSA) SLH Professional Board's quest to transform SLH curriculum and in adherence to its recently published Guidelines for Practice in a CLD South Africa, in this review article, the authors deliberate on re-imagining practice within the African context. Read More

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A Contemporary Issue of Micro-Foundation of CSR, Employee Pro-Environmental Behavior, and Environmental Performance toward Energy Saving, Carbon Emission Reduction, and Recycling.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 18;18(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.

The contemporary literature has largely addressed corporate social responsibility (CSR) at the macro or institutional level, whereas its effect at the micro-level is largely ignored. In addition, contemporary researchers have also ignored the importance of employee pro-environmental behavior to reduce the environmental footprint of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). With this background, the present study attempts to decrease the environmental footprint of the SME sector of China by implementing CSR at the micro-level through the involvement of employees because employees spend a significant amount of their time at workplaces, and hence their environment-related behavior may significantly contribute to improve the natural environment. Read More

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Fallacy of the last bed dilemma.

J Med Ethics 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the relevance of adequate decision making at both public health and healthcare levels. A bioethical response to the demand for medical care, supplies and access to critical care is needed. Ethically sound strategies are required for the allocation of increasingly scarce resources, such as rationing critical care beds. Read More

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Pros and cons of eHealth: A systematic review of the literature and observations in Denmark.

SAGE Open Med 2021 18;9:20503121211016179. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense M, Denmark.

Objectives: The main objectives of this article are to systematically review the recent literature on patient safety in relation to the use of eHealth and to investigate how the Danish authorities supervise private eHealth clinics with regard to patient safety.

Methods: Original studies reporting the association between patient safety and the use of eHealth as a means of communication between patients and healthcare providers were included. Four literature databases were searched for English-language articles reporting results from cohort studies and clinical trials, published from 2015 until March 2021. Read More

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Military nurses' Experiences of Interprofessional education in Crisis Management: a Qualitative Content Analysis.

J Adv Med Educ Prof 2021 Apr;9(2):85-93

Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Today's human health care needs are so complex and dealing with them requires interprofessional collaboration and teamwork, which must be learned by the appropriate educational methods. In this regard, the Crisis Management Interprofessional Education program (CMIPE) in the form of desktop maneuver with the presence of the military nurses and other professional groups involved in the crisis was designed and implemented in Military Nursing School in Tehran, Iran. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of the military nurses of participating in an interprofessional education program in crisis management domain. Read More

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Hospital and Community Pharmacists' Views of and Perspectives on the Establishment of an Intraprofessional Collaboration in the Transition of Care for Newly Discharged Patients.

Innov Pharm 2020 31;11(3). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

The Social and Clinical Pharmacy Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen.

Background: Hospital and community pharmacists are increasingly involved in patients' medication interventions related to the transition of care from the hospital to a patient's home. These interventions may enable pharmacists to collaborate across healthcare sector boundaries. However, little is known about pharmacists' views on intraprofessional collaboration across healthcare sectors and what affects the establishment of such collaboration. Read More

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Exploring the Opinions of Irish Dairy Farmers Regarding Male Dairy Calves.

Front Vet Sci 2021 20;8:635565. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, Dublin, Ireland.

There has been very little previous research in Ireland on the farmers' opinions regarding calf welfare issues. Calf welfare, particularly for male dairy calves, has assumed greater importance in Ireland in recent years due, in part, to an increase in the number of dairy cattle over the past decade. The objective of this study was to explore dairy farmers' views on a broad range of issues related to the expansion in the dairy herd. Read More

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Perspectives on Racism: Reflections on Our Collective Moral Responsibility When Leveraging Arts and Culture for Health Promotion.

Authors:
Shanaé R Burch

Health Promot Pract 2021 05;22(1_suppl):12S-16S

Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

In this commentary essay, I examine the collective moral responsibility of leveraging arts and culture for health promotion, and the role ethical storytelling can play in reframing how health educators promote "good health" with specific regard to the next generation of the workforce. I reflect on the impact of racism, White supremacy, and anti-Blackness when merging the arts and culture sector with public health disciplines, and close with a call to action as our niche field expands. I argue that no matter our role as artists, cultural workers, heritage holders, and/or focus within public health education and health promotion, our work is both an art and a science. Read More

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Future Academic Expectations and Their Relationship with Motivation, Satisfaction of Psychological Needs, Responsibility, and School Social Climate: Gender and Educational Stage.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 25;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Physical Activity and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, Santiago de la Ribera, 30720 Murcia, Spain.

The purpose of this study was to show the relationship between future academic expectations and the concepts of motivation, basic psychological needs, school social climate, and responsibility. Additionally, possible differences in future expectations were analyzed according to gender and educational stage. A total of 984 students (M = 12. Read More

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Consumer Perceptions of Precision Livestock Farming-A Qualitative Study in Three European Countries.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Marketing and Consumer Behaviour Group, Department of Social Science, Wageningen University and Research, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Scholars in the fields of animal science and technology have investigated how precision livestock farming (PLF) can contribute to the quality and efficiency of animal husbandry and to the health and welfare of farm animals. Although the results of such studies provide promising avenues for the development of PLF technologies and their potential for the application in animal husbandry, the perspectives of consumers with regard to PLF technologies have yet to be the subject of much investigation. To address this research gap, the current study explores consumer perceptions of PLF technologies within the pork and dairy value chains. Read More

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[The Influence of Occupational Group and Experience with Regard to the Criteria-Based Assessment of Culpability for Paraphilic Disorders - A Randomized Control Trial].

Psychiatr Prax 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institut für Sexualforschung, Sexualmedizin und Forensische Psychiatrie, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf.

Objective: This study examines whether occupation and level of experience have an impact on criteria-based assessment of criminal responsibility in paraphilic disorders.

Methods: Two different sets of criteria were tested for predictive validity by three different professional groups (psychologists, psychiatrists and lawyers), each with different levels of prior experience. For this purpose, 349 raters evaluated the criteria of one of two criteria catalogs on the basis of one of two exemplary case vignettes. Read More

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What do Final Year Medical Students in Germany know and think about Climate Change? - The ClimAttitude Study.

Med Educ Online 2021 Dec;26(1):1917037

Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Climate change (CC) is adversely affecting human health and will become far more dangerous in the future, if no substantial measures are taken. Young people in particular are taking an energetic stand for CC awareness. Some CC experts argue that medical doctors are especially well positioned to inform about the impact of CC on public health, as it is well established that they are among the most trusted members of society. Read More

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December 2021

Exposure to household air pollutants and endothelial dysfunction in rural Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study.

Environ Epidemiol 2021 Apr 19;5(2):e132. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

More than one third of world's population use biomass fuel for cooking that has been linked to an array of adverse health hazards including cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. As part of Bangladesh Global Environmental and Occupational Health (GEO Health) project, we assessed whether household air pollution (HAP) was associated with dysfunction in microvascular circulation (measured by reactive hyperemia index [RHI]).

Methods: We measured exposure to HAP (particulate matter [PM2. Read More

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Awareness of Diabetic Patients Regarding the Bidirectional Association between Periodontal Disease and Diabetes Mellitus: A Public Oral Health Concern.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2020 Nov 1;21(11):1270-1274. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Periodontics, Sydney Dental Hospital, NSW, Australia.

Aim And Objective: The literature regarding the perception of the two-way relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease representing diabetic patients living in Australia is scarce. The study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of diabetic patients regarding the bidirectional link and the role of medical healthcare professionals in providing oral health advice to their patients.

Materials And Methods: A convenience sample of diabetic patients attending general practice-based medical and dental centers was invited to complete a questionnaire-based survey. Read More

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November 2020

Healthcare professionals' experiences of delivering sexual and reproductive health services to adolescents: A literature review.

Enferm Clin 2021 04;31 Suppl 2:S366-S371

Division of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom.

This literature review was conducted systematically to identify the gap in knowledge and practice related to the provision of sexual health to adolescents worldwide. The search was limited to peer-reviewed articles published between 2002 and 2018. Thirty-two relevant articles were identified and reviewed for quality assessment by using the Hawker critical appraisal tool. Read More

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Liver Function in Pediatric Recipients: A Comparison of Intralipid and Smoflipid.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2021 31;26(3):258-264. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Objectives: An adverse consequence of primarily soybean oil-based parenteral nutrition is the development of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), defined as bilirubin ≥ 2 mg/dL. Fish oil-containing lipid emulsion products, such as soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, fish oil lipid injectable emulsion (SMOF-ILE), have been shown to be beneficial in patients at risk of developing IFALD. This study aimed to review the safety profile of SMOF-ILE and soybean oil-based lipid injectable emulsion (SO-ILE) in regard to liver function and cholestasis in the pediatric and neonatal population. Read More

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["If there is a risk, I should have a choice:" Risk management and risk perception in Italian vaccine hesitancy movements].

Salud Colect 2021 Feb 10;17:e3231. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Licenciada en Antropología Médica y Salud Global. Magíster en Antropología Médica y Salud Global, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Cataluña, España.

In Italy, the passing of mandatory pediatric vaccinations in 2017 was a consequence of increasing vaccine hesitancy in the country, a phenomenon that has largely spread on social networks. This article examines risk management and risk perception regarding pediatric vaccinations through an analysis of online content shared by Italian vaccine hesitancy movements between December of 2019 and April of 2020. Results show that these movements carry out a reinterpretation of risk, scientific evidence, and parental responsibility, especially with regard to the alleged correlation between the measles vaccine and autism. Read More

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February 2021

Adolescents' Perceptions and Experiences of Their Responsibilities for Their Alcohol Use-A Group Interview Study.

Children (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Nursing Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.

Young people often experiment with alcohol during adolescence, which is a period of their life that is characterized by increasing responsibility. Knowing how adolescents perceive responsibilities with regard to their alcohol use could prevent their alcohol consumption and help them to take responsibility for this aspect of their lives. This study describes adolescents' perceptions and experiences of their responsibilities for alcohol use. Read More

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Experience of burnout among pediatric inpatient nurse preceptors.

Nurse Educ Today 2021 May 11;100:104862. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Center for Pediatric Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States of America.

Background: There is a paucity of research describing burnout among nurses who work in the role of a preceptor, in the inpatient setting. In 2017, precepting nurses at an academic children's hospital were surveyed using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OBI). Results of the survey inspired leadership to further explore this phenomenon using key informant interviews. Read More

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Challenges faced by health workers in the use of the directly observed treatment (DOT) for tuberculosis.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2021 24;63:e25. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Biomedicina, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.

Tuberculosis is a worldwide public health problem, which, even with available treatment, continues to cause deaths worldwide. One of the obstacles to control the disease is the multifactorial difficulty of patients to adhere to treatment, in addition to the difficulty of health workers in circumventing barriers to implement strategies such as the directly observed treatment (DOT). The aim of this study is to analyze the performance and challenges faced by health workers in the use of DOT in tuberculosis. Read More

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