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Fathers' Heightened Stress Responses to Recounting their NICU Experiences Months after Discharge: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

Objective:  The acute and traumatic events associated with having a newborn who requires admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may elicit long-term concerns for parents postdischarge. Cognitive processing of taxing events influences recurring stress responses, which can be inferred via biomarkers such as salivary cortisol (sCort) and skin conductance (SC). In addition, personal narratives provide an important insight into individual perceptions and coping strategies. Read More

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MrgprdCre lineage neurons mediate optogenetic allodynia through an emergent polysynaptic circuit.

Pain 2021 Jul;162(7):2120-2131

Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Abstract: Most cutaneous C fibers, including both peptidergic and nonpeptidergic subtypes, are presumed to be nociceptors and respond to noxious input in a graded manner. However, mechanically sensitive, nonpeptidergic C fibers also respond to mechanical input in the innocuous range, so the degree to which they contribute to nociception remains unclear. To address this gap, we investigated the function of nonpeptidergic afferents using the MrgprdCre allele. Read More

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Autonomic activity, posttraumatic and nontraumatic nightmares, and PTSD after trauma exposure.

Psychol Med 2021 Jun 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA.

Background: Nightmares are a hallmark symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This strong association may reflect a shared pathophysiology in the form of altered autonomic activity and increased reactivity. Using an acoustic startle paradigm, we investigated the interrelationships of psychophysiological measures during wakefulness and PTSD diagnosis, posttraumatic nightmares, and nontraumatic nightmares. Read More

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Inhibition of desmoglein-1 by aspirin leads to synthetic lethality of keratinocytes in Shuanghuanglian-induced cutaneous eruption response.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Chinese Materia Medica College, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China; Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China. Electronic address:

Cutaneous eruptions caused by the combination of aspirin (ASA) and Shuanghuanglian preparations have attracted widespread attention; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the potential mechanism of cutaneous eruptions caused by a combination of Shuanghuanglian injection powder (SHL) and ASA in vivo and in vitro. ASA and SHL co-administration induced inflammatory responses in HaCat cells, as evidenced by marked increases in the expression of IL-4 and TNF-α, and the level of apoptosis. Read More

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Functional heart recovery in an adult mammal, the spiny mouse.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Ischemic heart disease and the resulting heart failure continue to carry high morbidity and mortality, and a breakthrough in our understanding of this disorder is needed. The adult spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) has evolved the remarkable capacity to regenerate full-thickness skin tissue, including microvasculature and cartilage, without fibrosis or scarring. We hypothesized that lack of scarring and resulting functional regeneration also applies to the adult Acomys heart. Read More

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Active search strategies, clinicoimmunobiological determinants and training for implementation research confirm hidden endemic leprosy in inner São Paulo, Brazil.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 14;15(6):e0009495. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Dermatology Division, Department of Medical Clinics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Background: This study evaluates implementation strategies for leprosy diagnosis based on responses to a Leprosy Suspicion Questionnaire (LSQ), and analyzes immunoepidemiological aspects and follow-up of individuals living in a presumptively nonendemic area in Brazil.

Methodology/principal Findings: Quasi-experimental study based on LSQ throughout Jardinópolis town by community health agents, theoretical-practical trainings for primary care teams, dermatoneurological examination, anti-PGL-I serology, RLEP-PCR, and spatial epidemiology. A Leprosy Group (LG, n = 64) and Non-Leprosy Group (NLG, n = 415) were established. Read More

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Sensation and Perception of a Bioinspired Flexible Smart Sensor System.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics and Center for Carbon-Based Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

The somatosensory system helps the human body to become aware of various stimuli and to interact with its surroundings. Humans are able to identify and to process abundant sensory information quickly due to their unique perception characteristics. As the largest sensory organ, skin has a large number of discrete receptors to sense and to transform stimuli of touch, pressure, pain, temperature, . Read More

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Maternity ward staff perceptions of exclusive breastfeeding in Finnish maternity hospitals: A cross-sectional study.

Eur J Midwifery 2021 31;5:16. Epub 2021 May 31.

Lapland University of Applied Sciences, Lapland, Finland.

Introduction: This study aimed to describe exclusive breastfeeding (EBF, Step 6 of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative) in Finnish maternity hospitals and identify factors that promote or limit EBF.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used, and data were collected from eight maternity hospitals in Finland during a 10-day period in May 2014. The staff completed questionnaires (n=1554) from separate work shifts. Read More

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Comprehensive Comparison of RNA-Seq Data of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV Infections: Alternative Entry Routes and Innate Immune Responses.

Front Immunol 2021 28;12:656433. Epub 2021 May 28.

Bioinformatics and Computational Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Center for Medical Biotechnology (ZMB), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: The pathogenesis of COVID-19 emerges as complex, with multiple factors leading to injury of different organs. Some of the studies on aspects of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and innate immunity have produced seemingly contradictory claims. In this situation, a comprehensive comparative analysis of a large number of related datasets from several studies could bring more clarity, which is imperative for therapy development. Read More

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The Physiologic and Emotional Effects of 360-Degree Video Simulation on Head-Mounted Display Versus In-Person Simulation: A Noninferiority, Randomized Controlled Trial.

Simul Healthc 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

From the Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine (T.J.C., A.R., N.N., K.T., N.G.), Stanford University School of Medicine; Stanford University Graduate School of Education (E.A.-C., B.D.), Stanford, CA; University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine (M.M.), Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Internal Medicine, Legacy Emanuel Medical Center (K.L.), Portland, OR; and Stanford University School of Medicine (S.F.H.), Stanford, CA.

Introduction: A key simulation component is its capability to elicit physiological changes, improving recall. The primary aim was to determine whether parasympathetic responses to head-mounted display simulations (HMDs) were noninferior to in-person simulations. The secondary aims explored sympathetic and affective responses and learning effectiveness. Read More

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Cognitive and affective responses to marijuana prevention and educational messaging.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 May 28;225:108788. Epub 2021 May 28.

Vermont Center on Behavior and Health, Department of Psychiatry, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, United States.

Background: Perceptions of risk of using marijuana have decreased significantly in the US over the last decade, while marijuana use has increased. In order to educate people on the risks associated with marijuana use, large-scale health messaging campaigns have been deployed to educate the public about the risks associated with marijuana use, particularly in states where medical or recreational marijuana is legal. Few studies have examined how messages about marijuana affect the audiences' cognitive and emotional responsivity to these messages. Read More

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Core-Peripheral Temperature Gradient and Skin Temperature as Predictors of Major Adverse Events Among Postoperative Pediatric Cardiac Patients.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, The Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.; Department of Pediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.; Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: During episodes of low cardiac output, sympathetic neurohumoral responses with peripheral vasoconstriction result in an increase in the core-peripheral temperature gradient (CPTG). However, assessment of CPTG as a surrogate of low cardiac output and a predictor of outcomes in pediatric cardiac patients rarely has been performed. In this retrospective study, the authors assessed the prognostic abilities of CPTG, skin temperature, and serum lactate level for predicting clinical outcomes. Read More

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Acute experimental barrier injury triggers ulcerative colitis specific innate hyper-responsiveness and ulcerative colitis-type microbiome changes in humans.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background And Aims: The trigger hypothesis opens the possibility of anti-flare-initiation therapies by stating that ulcerative colitis (UC) flares originates from inadequate responses to acute mucosal injuries. However, experimental evidence is restricted by a limited use of suitable human models. We thus aimed to investigate the acute mucosal barrier injury responses in humans with and without UC using an experimental injury model. Read More

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Erythema and Acclimatization Following Repeated Sun Exposure: A Modelling Study.

Authors:
Brian Diffey

Photochem Photobiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Dermatological Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.

The development of a computational model is described that allows time-varying erythema and acclimatization to be determined following repeated exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Good agreement was observed between experimental data and model predictions. Results are presented that illustrate how daily, adventitious sun exposure over the course of a year can result in occasional erythema generally in the late spring/early summer, whilst at the same time showing how the photoadaptive response of the skin changes throughout the year at different latitudes and for different sun reactive skin types. Read More

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In-vitro and in-vivo study of the interference between Rift Valley fever virus (clone 13) and Sheeppox/Limpy Skin disease viruses.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12395. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

R&D Virology, MCI Santé Animale, Lot. 157, Z I, Sud-Ouest (ERAC), B.P. 278, 28810, Mohammedia, Morocco.

Viral interference is a common occurrence that has been reported in cell culture in many cases. In the present study, viral interference between two capripox viruses (sheeppox SPPV and lumpy skin disease virus LSDV in cattle) with Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) was investigated in vitro and in their natural hosts, sheep and cattle. A combination of SPPV/RVFV and LSDV/RVFV was used to co-infect susceptible cells and animals to detect potential competition. Read More

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Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates UV/endorphin and opioid addiction.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 11;7(24). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Department of Dermatology and Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The current opioid epidemic warrants a better understanding of genetic and environmental factors that contribute to opioid addiction. Here we report an increased prevalence of vitamin D (VitD) deficiency in patients diagnosed with opioid use disorder and an inverse and dose-dependent association of VitD levels with self-reported opioid use. We used multiple pharmacologic approaches and genetic mouse models and found that deficiencies in VitD signaling amplify exogenous opioid responses that are normalized upon restoration of VitD signaling. Read More

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Development of the bodily self: Effects of visuomotor synchrony and visual appearance on virtual embodiment in children and adults.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Jun 8;210:105200. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, 8050 Zurich, Switzerland.

The sense of a bodily self is thought to depend on adaptive weighting and integration of bodily afferents and prior beliefs. Evidence from studies using paradigms such as the rubber hand illusion and full body illusion suggests changes in the integration of visuotactile bodily signals throughout childhood. Here, we extended this line of research by assessing how bottom-up visuomotor synchrony and expectancy, modulated by visual appearance of virtual avatars, contribute to embodiment in children. Read More

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Type 2 diabetes impairs vascular responsiveness to nitric oxide, but not the venoarteriolar reflex or post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia in forearm skin.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Human and Environmental Physiology Research Unit, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

The venoarteriolar reflex (VAR) is a local mechanism by which vasoconstriction is mediated in response to venous congestion. This response may minimize tissue overperfusion, preventing capillary damage and edema. Post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) is used to appraise microvascular function performed by a brief local arterial occlusion resulting in a subsequent rapid transient vasodilation. Read More

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Monocyte metabolic transcriptional programs associate with resistance to tuberculin skin test/interferon-γ release assay conversion.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, United States of America.

After extensive exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), most individuals acquire latent Mtb infection (LTBI) defined by a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon-γ release assay (IGRA). To identify mechanisms of resistance to Mtb infection, we compared transcriptional profiles from highly-exposed contacts who resist TST/IGRA conversion (resisters, RSTRs) and controls with LTBI using RNAseq. Gene sets related to carbon metabolism and free fatty acid (FFA) transcriptional responses enriched across two independent cohorts suggesting RSTR and LTBI monocytes have distinct activation states. Read More

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A comparison expression analysis of CXCR4, CXCL9 and Caspase-9 in dermal vascular endothelial cells between keloids and normal skin on chemotaxis and apoptosis.

J Plast Surg Hand Surg 2021 Jun 10:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The Sixteenth Department of Plastic Surgery, Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College (CAMS & PUMC), Beijing, China.

This present study was designed to explore key biological characteristics and biomarkers associated with dermal vascular endothelial cells of keloids. GSE121618 dataset was downloaded in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Database, including the KECs group and NVECs group. Through GEO2R, we have screened the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and performed gene ontology (GO), Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. Read More

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Role of Tumor-Infiltrating B Cells in Clinical Outcome of Patients with Melanoma Treated With Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Essen

Purpose: Although patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma can experience long-term survival with BRAF- and MEK-targeted agents or immune checkpoint inhibitors over 5 years, resistance develops in most patients. There is a distinct lack of pretherapeutic biomarkers to identify which patients are likely to benefit from each therapy type. Most research has focused on the predictive role of T cells in antitumor responses as opposed to B cells. Read More

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miR-24 controls the regenerative competence of hair follicle progenitors by targeting Plk3.

Cell Rep 2021 Jun;35(10):109225

CAS Key Laboratory of Tissue Microenvironment and Tumor, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China; Institute for Stem Cell and Regeneration, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China; Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 639 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai 200011, China. Electronic address:

Maintaining a suitable level of sensitivity to environmental cues is crucial for proper function of adult stem cells. Here, we explore how the intrinsic sensitivity of skin hair follicle (HF) progenitors to growth stimuli is dynamically regulated. We discover miR-24 is an miRNA whose expression in HF progenitors inversely correlates with their growth potency in vivo. Read More

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Vaccinations in Patients Receiving Systemic Drugs for Skin Disorders: What Can We Learn for SARS-Cov-2 Vaccination Strategies?

Drugs R D 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Dermatology, Ghent University Hospital, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Large-scale vaccination strategies are currently being deployed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2). Whether systemic medication for skin diseases affects the efficacy of vaccination and whether temporary interruption or extension of the dosing interval is necessary is under debate. Most immunomodulating/immunosuppressive drugs only affect vaccine-induced immune responses to a limited or moderate extent, preserving sufficient immunity in most patients. Read More

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Five-year maintenance of clinical response and improvements in health-related quality of life in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis treated with guselkumab: results from VOYAGE 1 and VOYAGE 2.

Br J Dermatol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Dermatology Centre, Salford Royal Hospital, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Psoriasis is a chronic disease requiring long-term therapy.

Objectives: Physician- and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were evaluated through week 252 in VOYAGE 1 and VOYAGE 2.

Methods: A total of 1829 patients were randomized at baseline to receive guselkumab 100 mg every-8-weeks, placebo, or adalimumab; placebo patients crossed-over to guselkumab at week 16. Read More

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Deep learning techniques for automated detection of autism spectrum disorder based on thermal imaging.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2021 Jun 9:9544119211024778. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, St. Joseph's College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Children with autism spectrum disorder have impairments in emotional processing which leads to the inability in recognizing facial expressions. Since emotion is a vital criterion for having fine socialisation, it is incredibly important for the autistic children to recognise emotions. In our study, we have chosen the facial skin temperature as a biomarker to measure emotions. Read More

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A Microfluidic Multisize Spheroid Array for Multiparametric Screening of Anticancer Drugs and Blood-Brain Barrier Transport Properties.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 06 24;8(11):e2004856. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Faculty of Technical Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9, Vienna, 1060, Austria.

Physiological-relevant in vitro tissue models with their promise of better predictability have the potential to improve drug screening outcomes in preclinical studies. Despite the advances of spheroid models in pharmaceutical screening applications, variations in spheroid size and consequential altered cell responses often lead to nonreproducible and unpredictable results. Here, a microfluidic multisize spheroid array is established and characterized using liver, lung, colon, and skin cells as well as a triple-culture model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to assess the effects of spheroid size on (a) anticancer drug toxicity and (b) compound penetration across an advanced BBB model. Read More

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Dramatic response of refractory metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the skin with cetuximab/pembrolizumab.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2021 31;13:17588359211015493. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Dermatology, Hopital Claude Huriez, CHU of Lille, rue Michel Polonowski, Lille, Hauts-de-France, 59000, France.

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) accounts for 20% of skin cancers. At an advanced stage the prognosis is poor, making cSCC the second leading cause of death from skin cancer. In cases of metastatic or unresectable disease, anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD1) treatment has shown promising results in a recent phase II study. Read More

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Data-driven analysis of facial thermal responses and multimodal physiological consistency among subjects.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12059. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD, 4006, Australia.

Facial infra-red imaging (IRI) is a contact-free technique complimenting the traditional psychophysiological measures to characterize physiological profile. However, its full potential in affective research is arguably unmet due to the analytical challenges it poses. Here we acquired facial IRI data, facial expressions and traditional physiological recordings (heart rate and skin conductance) from healthy human subjects whilst they viewed a 20-min-long unedited emotional movie. Read More

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Authentic and posed emotional vocalizations trigger distinct facial responses.

Cortex 2021 May 15;141:280-292. Epub 2021 May 15.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, University College London, London, UK.

The ability to recognize the emotions of others is a crucial skill. In the visual modality, sensorimotor mechanisms provide an important route for emotion recognition. Perceiving facial expressions often evokes activity in facial muscles and in motor and somatosensory systems, and this activity relates to performance in emotion tasks. Read More

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Coincident Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease and adult-onset Still's disease: report of a patient from an uncommonly affected population and case-directed systematic review.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, and Los Angeles County + University of Southern California (LAC+USC) Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease (KFD) and adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) are rare idiopathic inflammatory conditions of unknown etiology. Ten prior instances of KFD and AOSD occurring together have been reported in the medical literature. These overlaps, together with certain distinguishing clinical and laboratory characteristics in these co-occurrences, offer insight into the pathophysiology of both of these rare disorders. Read More

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