4,244 results match your criteria responses sars-cov-2


SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and pregnancy-related conditions: Concerns, challenges, management and mitigation strategies-a narrative review.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 23;14(7):863-875. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Pathology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, 243122, Uttar Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health problem. The SARS-CoV-2 triggers hyper-activation of inflammatory and immune responses resulting in cytokine storm and increased inflammatory responses on several organs like lungs, kidneys, intestine, and placenta. Although SARS-CoV-2 affects individuals of all age groups and physiological statuses, immune-compromised individuals such as pregnant women are considered as a highly vulnerable group. Read More

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Vitamin D and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): rapid evidence review.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.

Background: The rapid global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has re-ignited interest in the possible role of vitamin D in modulation of host responses to respiratory pathogens. Indeed, vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as a potential preventative or therapeutic strategy. Recommendations for any intervention, particularly in the context of a potentially fatal pandemic infection, should be strictly based on clinically informed appraisal of the evidence base. Read More

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Natural killer cells in antiviral immunity.

Nat Rev Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immune responses to viral infections. Here, we review recent insights into the role of NK cells in viral infections, with particular emphasis on human studies. We first discuss NK cells in the context of acute viral infections, with flavivirus and influenza virus infections as examples. Read More

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Yeast display of MHC-II enables rapid identification of peptide ligands from protein antigens (RIPPA).

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pediatrics-Human Gene Therapy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

CD4 T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses via binding of antigens to their receptors through specific peptide/MHC-II complexes. To study these responses, it is essential to identify protein-derived MHC-II peptide ligands that constitute epitopes for T cell recognition. However, generating cells expressing single MHC-II alleles and isolating these proteins for use in peptide elution or binding studies is time consuming. Read More

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Distinct clinical and immunological profiles of patients with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in sub-Saharan Africa.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3554. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, University of Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi.

Although the COVID-19 pandemic has left no country untouched there has been limited research to understand clinical and immunological responses in African populations. Here we characterise patients hospitalised with suspected (PCR-negative/IgG-positive) or confirmed (PCR-positive) COVID-19, and healthy community controls (PCR-negative/IgG-negative). PCR-positive COVID-19 participants were more likely to receive dexamethasone and a beta-lactam antibiotic, and survive to hospital discharge than PCR-negative/IgG-positive and PCR-negative/IgG-negative participants. Read More

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Implications of mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for cancer patients.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jun;9(6)

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 infection and the resulting COVID-19 have afflicted millions of people in an ongoing worldwide pandemic. Safe and effective vaccination is needed urgently to protect not only the general population but also vulnerable subjects such as patients with cancer. Currently approved mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines seem suitable for patients with cancer based on their mode of action, efficacy, and favorable safety profile reported in the general population. Read More

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A blood RNA transcriptome signature for COVID-19.

BMC Med Genomics 2021 Jun 11;14(1):155. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: COVID-19 is a respiratory viral infection with unique features including a more chronic course and systemic disease manifestations including multiple organ involvement; and there are differences in disease severity between ethnic groups. The immunological basis for disease has not been fully characterised. Analysis of whole-blood RNA expression may provide valuable information on disease pathogenesis. Read More

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Viral Nephropathies, Adding SARS-CoV-2 to the List.

Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis 2021 3;14:157-164. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Joan C Edwards Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV, USA.

Viral infections in the immunocompetent host can cause both acute and chronic kidney disease either as a direct damage to the infected kidney cells or as a consequence of systemic immune responses that impact kidney function. Since identifying these entities in the 1970s and 80s, major breakthroughs in the understanding of the viral mechanisms have occurred. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to hijack signaling pathways of infected cells to evade antiviral immune responses by the host. Read More

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I(nsp1)ecting SARS-CoV-2-ribosome interactions.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 10;4(1):715. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Center for Integrative Genomics, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

While SARS-CoV-2 is causing modern human history's most serious health crisis and upending our way of life, clinical and basic research on the virus is advancing rapidly, leading to fascinating discoveries. Two studies have revealed how the viral virulence factor, nonstructural protein 1 (Nsp1), binds human ribosomes to inhibit host cell translation. Here, we examine the main conclusions on the molecular activity of Nsp1 and its role in suppressing innate immune responses. Read More

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Assessment of Awareness and Experience of Using off-label Drugs by Doctors of Clinical Specialties.

Kardiologiia 2021 May 31;61(5):41-50. Epub 2021 May 31.

National Medical Research Centre for Therapy and Preventive Medicine, Moscow.

Aim      To evaluate the frequency of off-label prescription of medicines in practice of clinical specialists and the awareness of respondents of the procedure of justified off-label prescription.Material and methods  The sample included 542 clinical specialists who worked in definite medical organizations in 26 entities of the Russian Federation. The respondents were proposed to fill in remotely an anonymous questionnaire to evaluate the experience of prescribing medicines off-label to adult patients. Read More

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Distinct transcriptional responses to fatal Ebola virus infection in cynomolgus and rhesus macaques suggest species-specific immune responses.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Jun 11:1-48. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a negative single-stranded RNA virus within the family and the causative agent of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Nonhuman primates (NHPs), including cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, are considered the gold standard animal model to interrogate mechanisms of EBOV pathogenesis. However, despite significant genetic similarity (>90%), NHP species display different clinical presentation following EBOV infection, notably a ∼1-2 days delay in disease progression. Read More

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Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike responses to Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines by previous infection status.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: We investigate determinants of SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG responses in healthcare workers (HCWs) following one or two doses of Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines.

Methods: HCWs participating in regular SARS-CoV-2 PCR and antibody testing were invited for serological testing prior to first and second vaccination, and 4 weeks post-vaccination if receiving a 12-week dosing interval. Quantitative post-vaccination anti-spike antibody responses were measured using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (detection threshold: ≥50 AU/ml). Read More

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Corona Virus Disease-19 serology, inflammatory markers, hospitalizations, case finding, and aging.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252818. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Research Division, Diazyme Laboratories, Inc., Poway, California, United States of America.

Most deaths from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occur in older subjects. We assessed the utility of serum inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6), C reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin (Roche, Indianapolis, IN), and SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and neutralizing antibodies (Diazyme, Poway, CA). In controls, non-hospitalized subjects, and hospitalized subjects assessed for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (n = 278), median IgG levels in arbitrary units (AU)/mL were 0. Read More

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Dynamic Changes in the Immune Response Correlate with Disease Severity and Outcomes During Infection with SARS-CoV-2.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

The First Hospital of Changsha, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout China and worldwide. Little is known about the dynamic changes in the patient immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and how different responses are correlated with disease severity and outcomes.

Methods: Seventy-four patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in this prospective research. Read More

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Role of vitamins and minerals as immunity boosters in COVID-19.

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, 06511, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Read More

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Diagnostic performance of four SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays in patients with COVID-19 or with bacterial and non-SARS-CoV-2 viral respiratory infections.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Mikrobiologisches Institut-Klinische Mikrobiologie, Immunologie und Hygiene, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen und Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg, Wasserturmstr. 3/5, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays are used for epidemiological studies and for the assessment of vaccine responses in highly vulnerable patients. So far, data on cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays is limited. Here, we compared four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; Vircell SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgA and IgG, Euroimmun SARS-CoV-2 IgA and IgG) for detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 207 patients with COVID-19, 178 patients with serological evidence of different bacterial infections, 107 patients with confirmed viral respiratory disease, and 80 controls from the pre-COVID-19 era. Read More

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Initial observations on age, gender, BMI and hypertension in antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccine.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Jun 4:100928. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Scientific Direction, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Istituti Fisioterapici Ospitalieri (IFO), Rome, Italy.

Background: Literature data suggests that age, gender and body mass index (BMI) could be associated with difference in immune responses to vaccines. The first goal of the study was to analyze the antibody titre seven days after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine in a group of 248 healthcare workers (HCWs). The second goal was to analyze how antibody titre changes in correlation with age, gender, BMI and hypertension. Read More

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Profiling COVID-19 Genetic Research: A Data-Driven Study Utilizing Intelligent Bibliometrics.

Front Res Metr Anal 2021 24;6:683212. Epub 2021 May 24.

Australian Artificial Intelligence Institute, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia.

The COVID-19 pandemic constitutes an ongoing worldwide threat to human society and has caused massive impacts on global public health, the economy and the political landscape. The key to gaining control of the disease lies in understanding the genetics of SARS-CoV-2 and the disease spectrum that follows infection. This study leverages traditional and intelligent bibliometric methods to conduct a multi-dimensional analysis on 5,632 COVID-19 genetic research papers, revealing that 1) the key players include research institutions from the United States, China, Britain and Canada; 2) research topics predominantly focus on virus infection mechanisms, virus testing, gene expression related to the immune reactions and patient clinical manifestation; 3) studies originated from the comparison of SARS-CoV-2 to previous human coronaviruses, following which research directions diverge into the analysis of virus molecular structure and genetics, the human immune response, vaccine development and gene expression related to immune responses; and 4) genes that are frequently highlighted include , , , and . Read More

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Transcriptional Changes in CD16+ Monocytes May Contribute to the Pathogenesis of COVID-19.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:665773. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than three million deaths globally. The severity of the disease is characterized, in part, by a dysregulated immune response. CD16+ monocytes are innate immune cells involved in inflammatory responses to viral infections, and tissue repair, among other functions. Read More

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Single-cell epigenomic landscape of peripheral immune cells reveals establishment of trained immunity in individuals convalescing from COVID-19.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 06 9;23(6):620-630. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of CAS, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection often causes severe complications and even death. However, asymptomatic infection has also been reported, highlighting the difference in immune responses among individuals. Here we performed single-cell chromatin accessibility and T cell-receptor analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected from individuals convalescing from COVID-19 and healthy donors. Read More

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Comparison of SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Responses and Seroconversion in COVID-19 Patients Using Twelve Commercial Immunoassays.

Ann Lab Med 2021 Nov;41(6):577-587

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody assays have high clinical utility in managing the pandemic. We compared antibody responses and seroconversion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using different immunoassays.

Methods: We evaluated 12 commercial immunoassays, including three automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (Abbott, Roche, and Siemens), three enzyme immunoassays (Bio-Rad, Euroimmun, and Vircell), five lateral flow immunoassays (Boditech Med, SD biosensor, PCL, Sugentech, and Rapigen), and one surrogate neutralizing antibody assay (GenScript) in sequential samples from 49 COVID-19 patients and 10 seroconversion panels. Read More

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November 2021

Prospective Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Seroconversion (PASS) study: an observational cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in healthcare workers.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 9;21(1):544. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a recently emerged pandemic coronavirus (CoV) capable of causing severe respiratory illness. However, a significant number of infected people present as asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic. In this prospective assessment of at-risk healthcare workers (HCWs) we seek to determine whether pre-existing antibody or T cell responses to previous seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections affect immunological or clinical responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. Read More

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Genomic and Phenotypic Analysis of COVID-19-Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis Isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Jun 9:e0001021. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

The ongoing global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first described in Wuhan, China. A subset of COVID-19 patients has been reported to have acquired secondary infections by microbial pathogens, such as opportunistic fungal pathogens from the genus Aspergillus. To gain insight into COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), we analyzed the genomes and characterized the phenotypic profiles of four CAPA isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus obtained from patients treated in the area of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Read More

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Vaccinations in Patients Receiving Systemic Drugs for Skin Disorders: What Can We Learn for SARS-Cov-2 Vaccination Strategies?

Drugs R D 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Dermatology, Ghent University Hospital, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.

Large-scale vaccination strategies are currently being deployed against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2). Whether systemic medication for skin diseases affects the efficacy of vaccination and whether temporary interruption or extension of the dosing interval is necessary is under debate. Most immunomodulating/immunosuppressive drugs only affect vaccine-induced immune responses to a limited or moderate extent, preserving sufficient immunity in most patients. Read More

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Viral and host transcriptomes in SARS-CoV-2 infected human lung cells.

J Virol 2021 Jun 9:JVI0060021. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of Military Veterinary Medicine, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Changchun, 130122, P. R. China.

Coronaviruses are commonly characterized by a unique discontinuous RNA transcriptional synthesis strategy guided by transcription-regulating sequences (TRSs). However, the details of RNA synthesis in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have not been fully elucidated. Here, we present a time-scaled, gene-comparable transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2, demonstrating that ACGAAC functions as a core TRS guiding the discontinuous RNA synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 from a holistic perspective. Read More

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Letter to the editor: It is Important to Examine Physical Functioning and Inflammatory Responses During Post-Hospitalization COVID-19 Recovery.

J Frailty Aging 2021 ;10(3):301-302

Ryan McGrath, Department of Health, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences, North Dakota State University, NDSU Dept. 2620, PO Box 6050, Fargo, ND 58108-6050, Phone: 701-231-7474, Fax: 701-231-8872, Email:

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SARS-CoV-2 infection activates a subset of intrinsic pathways to inhibit type I interferons and .

Int J Med Sci 2021 28;18(12):2561-2569. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, Institute of Biomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, PR China.

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a global challenge to human health. Upon viral infection, host cells initiate the innate antiviral response, which primarily involves type I interferons (I-IFNs), to enable rapid elimination of the invading virus. Previous studies revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection limits the expression of I-IFNs and , but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely elucidated. Read More

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Knowledge and Perceptions of COVID-19 Among Health Care Professionals, Medical Students, and Dental Students in the GCC Region: A Cross-Sectional Correlational Study.

J Multidiscip Healthc 2021 28;14:1223-1232. Epub 2021 May 28.

Faculty of Dentistry, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the levels of awareness and knowledge regarding COVID-19 among healthcare professionals and students in Kuwait and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region.

Materials And Methods: An online cross-sectional survey using a previously validated questionnaire was used to assess the awareness and knowledge levels of COVID-19 in this study, which was distributed via various online platforms to include as many participants as possible. The study targeted medical doctors, dentists, medical students, and dental students from the GCC region. Read More

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A survey of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in COVID-19 patients.

J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jan-Mar;37(1):47-50. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

University Hospital of Cologne, Köln, Germany.

Background And Aims: The novel coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has placed severe resource constraints on hospitals. High mortality rates of the COVID-19 have overwhelmed the resuscitation services. The constant fear of virus infection during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has placed severe restrictions on the resuscitation services. Read More

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