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Construction and Analysis of Coexpression Network to Understand Biological Responses in Chickens Infected by .

Front Vet Sci 2021 9;8:688684. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Coccidiosis, caused by various species, is a major parasitic disease in chickens. Our understanding of how chickens respond to coccidian infections is highly limited at both the molecular and cellular levels. In this study, coexpression modules were identified by weighted gene coexpression network analysis in chickens infected with . Read More

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Novel compound heterozygous TTN variants as a cause of severe neonatal congenital contracture syndrome without cardiac involvement diagnosed with rapid trio exome sequencing.

Neuromuscul Disord 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Clinical Genetics Department, Birmingham Women's and Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

This report focuses on a case of severe congenital myopathy with arthrogryposis without cardiac involvement due to compound heterozygous variants in the TTN gene. The proband presented with severe axial hypotonia, arthrogryposis and severe respiratory insufficiency with ventilator dependence. Electromyogram was abnormal with absent motor responses but preserved sensory nerve responses. Read More

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Antiviral antibody responses to systemic administration of an oncolytic RNA virus: the impact of standard concomitant anticancer chemotherapies.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jul;9(7)

Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

Background: Oncolytic reovirus therapy for cancer induces a typical antiviral response to this RNA virus, including neutralizing antibodies. Concomitant treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapies has been hypothesized to improve the therapeutic potential of the virus. Chemotherapy side effects can include immunosuppression, which may slow the rate of the antiviral antibody response, as well as potentially make the patient more vulnerable to viral infection. Read More

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Bacterial Flagellar Filament: A Supramolecular Multifunctional Nanostructure.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 14;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

The bacterial flagellum is a complex and dynamic nanomachine that propels bacteria through liquids. It consists of a basal body, a hook, and a long filament. The flagellar filament is composed of thousands of copies of the protein flagellin (FliC) arranged helically and ending with a filament cap composed of an oligomer of the protein FliD. Read More

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Recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus AdC7 expressing dimeric tandem-repeat spike protein RBD protects mice against COVID-19.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Jul 22:1-40. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Ministry of Education, School of Tropical Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

A safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed to control the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. Four adenovirus vectored vaccines expressing spike (S) protein have been approved for use. Here, we generated several recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC7) vaccines expressing S, receptor-binding domain (RBD) or tandem-repeat dimeric RBD (RBD-tr2). Read More

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Gallic acid mitigates LPS-induced inflammatory response via suppressing NF-κB signalling pathway in IPEC-J2 cells.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Feed Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Gallic acid is a phenolic compound that exhibits antibacterial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory functions. In a previous study, we found that dietary supplementation with gallic acid decreased incidence of diarrhoea and protected intestinal integrity in weaning piglets. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Read More

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Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Associates' β-Tubulin Isotype-1 Gene in Onchocerca volvulus Populations in Ivermectin-Treated Communities in Taraba State, Nigeria.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute for Evolution and Ecology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Purpose: The occurrence of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with repeated ivermectin treatment and sub-optimal responses reported by previous findings is of great concern in Onchocerciasis endemic areas. This study investigated SNPs' occurrence after 15 years of ivermectin intervention in Onchocerciasis endemic communities in two Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria.

Methods: Microfilariae samples were collected by skin snip from individuals treated with ivermectin for 10-15 years of annual distribution and preserved in RNAlater in a 1. Read More

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Revisiting the Examination of Sharp/Dull Discrimination as Clinical Measure of Spinothalamic Tract Integrity.

Front Neurol 2021 1;12:677888. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Spinal Cord Injury Center, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Revisiting the sharp/dull discrimination as clinical measure of spinothalamic tract function considering the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI). Three clinically relevant factors were evaluated as to their impact on reliability: (1) the localization of dermatomes in relation to the sensory level, (2) the examination tool, and (3) the threshold of correct answers for grading of a preserved sharp/dull discrimination. Prospective monocentric psychometric study. Read More

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Normothermic ex vivo perfusion of the limb allograft depletes donor leukocytes prior to transplantation.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

3F66, Block 3, Alderley Park, Nether Alderley, Cheshire, SK10 4TG; The Ex-Vivo Lab, Division of Cell Matrix Biology and Regenerative Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, United Kingdom; The Transplant Centre, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M23 9LT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: The donor immune compartment plays a central role in graft rejection of the vascularised composite allograft (VCA) by contributing to 'direct presentation'. Using our limb ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion (EVNP) protocol designed for prolonged allograft preservation, this study aimed to assess whether donor leukocytes responsible for allograft rejection are mobilised from the donor compartment.

Methods: Five genetically different pig forelimbs underwent perfusion via the brachial and radial collateral artery for 6 h after 2 h of cold storage. Read More

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ACL Study Group presents the global trends in ACL reconstruction: biennial survey of the ACL Study Group.

J ISAKOS 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Orthopaedics, Practice LEONARDO, Hirslanden Clinic Birshot, Münchenstein, Switzerland.

Objectives: The primary objective of this survey was to gauge the current global trends in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) as reported by the members of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Study Group (SG).

Methods: A survey was created and distributed among the members of the ACL SG consisting of 87 questions and 16 categories related to ACLR, including member demographics, preoperative management, primary ACLR techniques and graft choice, use of concomitant procedures and biological augmentation, postoperative rehabilitation, and more.

Results: The survey was completed by the 140 members of the ACL SG. Read More

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Compound Heterozygous Mutations in ZNF408 in a Patient with a Late Onset Pigmentary Retinopathy and Relatively Preserved Central Retina.

Doc Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Scheie Eye Institute at the Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Purpose: To describe in detail the phenotype of a patient with compound heterozygous mutations in ZNF408 and an adult-onset pigmentary retinopathy rather than familial exudative vitreoretinopathy as expected with heterozygous mutations in this gene.

Methods: A 70-year-old male presented with a pigmentary retinopathy, which prompted a genetic evaluation that revealed two variants in trans in the ZNF408 gene. He underwent an ophthalmic examination, kinetic fields, electroretinography (ERG), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence, wide-angle fluorescein angiography and near-infrared imaging. Read More

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The effect of methotrexate and targeted immunosuppression on humoral and cellular immune responses to the COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2: a cohort study.

Lancet Rheumatol 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

St John's Institute of Dermatology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Patients on therapeutic immunosuppressants for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases were excluded from COVID-19 vaccine trials. We therefore aimed to evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) in patients taking methotrexate and commonly used targeted biological therapies, compared with healthy controls. Given the roll-out of extended interval vaccination programmes to maximise population coverage, we present findings after the first dose. Read More

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Predicting identity-preserving object transformations across the human ventral visual stream.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Visual Cognitive Neuroscience Lab, Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA

In everyday life, we have no trouble categorizing objects varying in position, size, and orientation. Previous fMRI research shows that higher-level object processing regions in the human lateral occipital cortex may link object responses from different affine states (i.e. Read More

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Surviving older patients show preserved cellular and humoral immunological memory several months after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Immunology Department, Medicine Laboratory, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, 33011-Oviedo, Spain.

Understanding how older people respond to SARS-CoV-2 is critical if we are to confront the COVID-19 pandemic and establish effective vaccination strategies. Immunosenescence reduces the ability to respond to neoantigens and may compromise the life of infected individuals. Here, we analysed the immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 in 102 recovered patients aged over 60 years several months after the infection had been resolved. Read More

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GABA- and Glycine-Mimetic Responses of Linalool on the Substantia Gelatinosa of the Trigeminal Subnucleus Caudalis in Juvenile Mice: Pain Management through Linalool-Mediated Inhibitory Neurotransmission.

Am J Chin Med 2021 Jul 10:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Oral Physiology, School of Dentistry & Institute of Oral Bioscience, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Republic of Korea.

Linalool, a major odorous constituent in essential oils extracted from lavender, is known to have a wide range of physiological effects on humans including pain management. The substantia gelatinosa (SG) of the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) is involved in transmission of orofacial nociceptive responses through thin myelinated A[Formula: see text] and unmyelinated C primary afferent fibers. Up to date, the orofacial antinociceptive mechanism of linalool concerning SG neurons of the Vc has not been completely clarified yet. Read More

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Differential astrocyte and oligodendrocyte vulnerability in murine Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Prion 2021 Dec;15(1):112-120

Department of Pathology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Barcelona; Biomedical Research Centre of Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), Institute of Health Carlos III, Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Competitiveness, Hospitalet De Llobregat; Bellvitge Institute of Biomedical Research (IDIBELL); Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona; Spain.

Glial vulnerability to prions is assessed in murine Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) using the tg340 mouse line expressing four-fold human PrP M129 levels on a mouse PrP null background at different days following intracerebral inoculation of sCJD MM1 brain tissues homogenates. The mRNA expression of several astrocyte markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (), aquaporin-4 (), solute carrier family 16, member 4 (), mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 () and solute carrier family 1, member 2 (glial high-affinity glutamate transporter, ) increases at 120 and 180 dpi. In contrast, the mRNA expression of oligodendrocyte and myelin markers oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 (, neural/glial antigen 2 (), solute carrier family 16, member 1 (), myelin basic protein (), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein () and proteolipid protein 1 () is preserved. Read More

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December 2021

The β subunit E155 residue as a proton sensor at the binding site on GABA type A receptors.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Sep 30;906:174293. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Wrocław, ul. Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335, Wrocław, Poland; Department of Biophysics and Neuroscience, Wrocław Medical University, ul. Chałubińskiego 3A, 50-368, Wrocław, Poland.

GABA type A receptor plays a key role in inhibitory signaling in the adult central nervous system. This receptor can be modulated by protons but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully explored. To find possible pH-sensor residues, a comparative study for proton-activated GLIC channel and αβγ GABA receptor was performed and pK 's of respective residues were estimated by numerical algorithms which consider local interactions. Read More

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September 2021

Large-conductance calcium-activated K channels, rather than K channels, mediate the inhibitory effects of nitric oxide on mouse lymphatic pumping.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Medical Pharmacology & Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

Background And Purpose: K channels are negative regulators of lymphatic vessel excitability and contractility and are proposed to be targets for immune cell products that inhibit lymph transport. Previous studies in rat and guinea pig mesenteric lymphatics found that nitric oxide (NO)-mediated inhibition of lymphatic contraction was prevented or reversed by the K channel inhibitor, glibenclamide. We revisited this hypothesis using mouse lymphatic vessels and K channel knock out mice. Read More

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Sex-Based Differences in Cardiac Gene Expression and Function in BDNF Val66Met Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 29;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Biology, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101, USA.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a pleiotropic neuronal growth and survival factor that is indispensable in the brain, as well as in multiple other tissues and organs, including the cardiovascular system. In approximately 30% of the general population, BDNF harbors a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism that may be associated with cardiometabolic disorders, coronary artery disease, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy. We recently showed that transgenic mice with the human BDNF rs6265 polymorphism (Val66Met) exhibit altered cardiac function, and that cardiomyocytes isolated from these mice are also less contractile. Read More

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Antibodies Elicited in Response to a Single Cycle Glycoprotein D Deletion Viral Vaccine Candidate Bind C1q and Activate Complement Mediated Neutralization and Cytolysis.

Viruses 2021 Jun 30;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Departments of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) prevention is a global health priority but, despite decades of research, there is no effective vaccine. Prior efforts focused on generating glycoprotein D (gD) neutralizing antibodies, but clinical trial outcomes were disappointing. The deletion of gD yields a single-cycle candidate vaccine (∆gD-2) that elicits high titer polyantigenic non-gD antibodies that exhibit little complement-independent neutralization but mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADCP). Read More

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Clinical Trials of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 16;10(12). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Oncology, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Borgmester Ib Juuls Vej 1, 2730 Herlev, Denmark.

: Several immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) are under clinical development in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the field is advancing rapidly. In this comprehensive review, we discuss published results and report on ongoing clinical trials. : A literature search was carried out using PubMed and EMBASE; data reported at international meetings and clinicaltrials. Read More

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NK Cells in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Their Therapeutic Implications.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 22;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Perugia, 06129 Perugia, Italy.

Key features of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are defects in the immune system and the ability of leukemic cells to evade immune defenses and induce immunosuppression, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections and disease progression. Several immune effectors are impaired in CLL, including T and natural killer (NK) cells. The role of T cells in defense against CLL and in CLL progression and immunotherapy has been extensively studied. Read More

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Long-Term Effects of Repetitive Mild Traumatic Injury on the Visual System in Wild-Type and TDP-43 Transgenic Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 19;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rijeka, Braće Branchetta 20, 51 000 Rijeka, Croatia.

Little is known about the impairments and pathological changes in the visual system in mild brain trauma, especially repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The goal of this study was to examine and compare the effects of repeated head impacts on the neurodegeneration, axonal integrity, and glial activity in the optic tract (OT), as well as on neuronal preservation, glial responses, and synaptic organization in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC), in wild-type mice and transgenic animals with overexpression of human TDP-43 mutant protein (TDP-43) at 6 months after repeated closed head traumas. Animals were also assessed in the Barnes maze (BM) task. Read More

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Spectrum of Disease Severity in Nonsyndromic Patients With Mutations in the CEP290 Gene: A Multicentric Longitudinal Study.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Jul;62(9)

Eye Clinic, Multidisciplinary Department of Medical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi della Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to perform a detailed longitudinal phenotyping and genetic characterization of 32 Italian patients with a nonsyndromic retinal dystrophy and mutations in the CEP290 gene.

Methods: We reviewed the clinical history and examinations of 32 patients with a nonsyndromic retinal dystrophy due to mutations in the CEP290 gene, followed up (mean follow-up: 5.9 years) at 3 Italian centers. Read More

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Phosphorylcholine antibodies restrict infarct size and left ventricular remodelling by attenuating the unreperfused post-ischaemic inflammatory response.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Phosphorylcholine is a pro-inflammatory epitope exposed on apoptotic cells, and phosphorylcholine monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies (PC-mAb) have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we hypothesize that PC-mAb treatment reduces adverse cardiac remodelling and infarct size (IS) following unreperfused transmural myocardial infarction (MI). Unreperfused MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in hypercholesterolaemic APOE*3-Leiden mice. Read More

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High flow conditions mediate damaging impacts of sub-lethal thermal stress on corals' endosymbiotic algae.

Conserv Physiol 2021 24;9(1):coab046. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, UNSW, Kensington, High St, New South Wales 2033, Australia.

The effects of thermal anomalies on tropical coral endosymbiosis can be mediated by a range of environmental factors, which in turn ultimately influence coral health and survival. One such factor is the water flow conditions over coral reefs and corals. Although the physiological benefits of living under high water flow are well known, there remains a lack of conclusive experimental evidence characterizing how flow mitigates thermal stress responses in corals. Read More

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Young black women demonstrate impaired microvascular but preserved macrovascular function compared to white women.

Exp Physiol 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

University of Delaware, Newark, DE.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Is there a racial disparity in macrovascular and/or microvascular function between young black and white women? What is the main finding and its importance? Black women (BLW) demonstrated impaired microvascular function but similar macrovascular function compared to white women (WHW). These findings suggest an identifiable racial disparity in microvascular function between BLW and WHW as early as young adulthood. Microvascular dysfunction is predictive of future CVD and generally precedes the development of macrovascular dysfunction. Read More

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Temporal uncertainty enhances suppression of neural responses to predictable visual stimuli.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 25;239:118314. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Basque Center for Cognition, Brain and Language (BCBL), University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 69, 20009 Donostia, San Sebastian, Spain; Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Spain.

Contextual information triggers predictions about the content ("what") of environmental stimuli to update an internal generative model of the surrounding world. However, visual information dynamically changes across time, and temporal predictability ("when") may influence the impact of internal predictions on visual processing. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we investigated how processing feature specific information ("what") is affected by temporal predictability ("when"). Read More

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A Web-Based Global Educational Model for Training in Semen Analysis during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

World J Mens Health 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

American Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the American Center for Reproductive Medicine (ACRM) transitioned its annual training in assisted reproductive technology (ART) from a hands-on, laboratory-based training course to a fully online training endorsed by the American College of Embryology. Here we describe our experience and assess the quality of an online training format based on participant outcomes for the first three modules of a planned series of online ART training.

Materials And Methods: These modules included manual semen analysis, sperm morphology and ancillary semen tests (testing for leukocytospermia, sperm vitality, and anti-sperm antibody screening). Read More

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The Goto Kakizaki rat: Impact of age upon changes in cardiac and renal structure, function.

PLoS One 2021 24;16(6):e0252711. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

St. Michael's Hospital, Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Patients with diabetes are at a high risk for developing cardiac dysfunction in the absence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, a condition known as diabetic cardiomyopathy. Contributing to heart failure is the presence of diabetic kidney disease. The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a non-obese, non-hypertensive model of type 2 diabetes that, like humans, shares a susceptibility locus on chromosome 10. Read More

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