62,991 results match your criteria response thought

Think fast! The implications of emphasizing urgency in decision-making.

Nathan J Evans

Cognition 2021 May 8;214:104704. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Australia; Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Evidence accumulation models (EAMs) have become the dominant explanation of how the decision-making process operates, proposing that decisions are the result of a process of evidence accumulation. The primary use of EAMs has been as "measurement tools" of the underlying decision-making process, where researchers apply EAMs to empirical data to estimate participants' task ability (i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Shifting as a key executive function underlying cognitive restructuring for individuals with elevated social anxiety.

Psychol Psychother 2021 Jun 9;94(2):217-230. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

School of Psychology, Western Sydney University, Sydney, Australia.

Objectives: Previous studies have examined the relationship between executive functions and performance on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) tasks, such as cognitive restructuring. However, previous studies have used samples of older adults and only traditional measures of executive functions involving non-emotional stimuli. This study extends previous research to examine the specific executive function of shifting with regard to non-emotional and emotional stimuli and its relationship with cognitive restructuring, in a sample of young to middle-aged adults with elevated social anxiety. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Computationally guided in-vitro vascular growth model reveals causal link between flow oscillations and disorganized neotissue.

Commun Biol 2021 May 10;4(1):546. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.

Disturbed shear stress is thought to be the driving factor of neointimal hyperplasia in blood vessels and grafts, for example in hemodialysis conduits. Despite the common occurrence of neointimal hyperplasia, however, the mechanistic role of shear stress is unclear. This is especially problematic in the context of in situ scaffold-guided vascular regeneration, a process strongly driven by the scaffold mechanical environment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Associative learning requires Neurofibromin to modulate GABAergic inputs to Drosophila Mushroom Bodies.

J Neurosci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute for Fundamental Biomedical Research, Biomedical Sciences Research Centre "Alexander Fleming", Vari, 16672, Greece

Cognitive dysfunction, is among the hallmark symptoms of Neurofibromatosis 1, and accordingly, loss of the ortholog of Neurofibromin 1 (dNf1), precipitates associative learning deficits. However, the affected circuitry in the adult CNS remained unclear and the compromised mechanisms debatable. Although the main evolutionarily conserved function attributed to Nf1 is to inactivate Ras, decreased cAMP signalling upon its loss has been thought to underlie impaired learning. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Taste-induced facial responses in black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

Behav Processes 2021 May 7:104417. Epub 2021 May 7.

IFM Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, Sweden. Electronic address:

Taste-induced facial expressions are thought to reflect the hedonic valence of an animal's gustatory experience. We therefore assessed taste-induced facial responses in six black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) to water, sucrose, caffeine, citric acid and aspartame, representing the taste qualities sweet, bitter, and sour, respectively. We decided not to include salty-tasting substances as the concentrations of such tastants found in the fruits consumed by spider monkeys are below their taste preference threshold. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Long-term continuous cropping affects ecoenzymatic stoichiometry of microbial nutrient acquisition: A case study from a Chinese Mollisol.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Mollisols Agroecology, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin, 150081.

Background: Soil- and plant-produced extracellular enzymes drive nutrient cycling in soils and are thought to be regulated supply and demand for carbon (C) and nutrients within the soil. Thus, agriculture management decisions that alter the balance of plant and supplemental nutrients should directly alter extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs), and EEA stoichiometry in predictable ways. We used a 12-year experiment varying three major continuous grain crops (wheat, soybean, and maize) each crossed with mineral fertilizer (WCF, SCF, and MCF, respectively) or not fertilized (WC, SC, and MC, respectively, as controls). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Liposomal amphotericin B is more effective in polymorphic lesions of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 Apr 23:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, India.

Background: Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is thought to be the reservoir of infection for visceral leishmaniasis in South Asia. The development of strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of PKDL are important for the implementation of the visceral leishmaniasis elimination program.

Aims: Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) has been an overwhelming success in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Structural Consequences of Variation in SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7.

David A Ostrov

J Cell Immunol 2021 ;3(2):103-108

Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.

New globally circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains are causing concern about evolution of virus transmissibility, fitness and immune evasion mechanisms. A variant emerging from the United Kingdom called SARS-CoV-2 VUI 202012/01, or B.1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

A Quest for a Universal Plasma-Derived Antivenom Against All Elapid Neurotoxic Snake Venoms.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:668328. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

This review describes the research aimed at the development of universal antivenom against elapid neurotoxic snake venoms. The antivenoms produced in Thailand in the 1980s were of low potency, especially against the elapid venoms. This was thought to be due to the low immunogenicity of the α-neurotoxins, which are the most lethal toxins in these venoms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Compliance, Barriers, and Facilitators to Social Distancing Measures for Prevention of COVID-19 in Northwest Ethiopia, 2020.

Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2021 May 1:100632. Epub 2021 May 1.

University of Gondar, College of Medicine and Health Science, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

Background: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is the defining global health crisis of our time. To date, there is no curative treatment for COVID-19, and with vaccines only recently being rolled out predominantly in wealthy countries, prevention still remains the main strategy. Social distancing has been proven to mitigate the epidemic and limit disease spread. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Application of in situ simulation teaching in the training of trainee nurses to respond to emergencies.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr;10(4):4509-4515

Department of General surgery, Tunchang People's Hospital, Tunchang, China.

Background: To explore the effect of the in situ simulation teaching method in the emergency training of trainee nurses.

Methods: A total of 108 trainee nurses from the First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College were selected, and in situ simulation teaching was employed in emergency training. Following the in situ simulation teaching training, a questionnaire was issued to evaluate CIPP (context evaluation, input evaluation, process evaluation, product evaluation) simulation teaching, clinical thinking ability, nursing team cooperation, and student satisfaction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Light-Triggered Reactions Do Not Bias Boron Deficiency-Induced Root Inhibition of Arabidopsis Seedlings Grown in Petri Dishes.

Mol Plant 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), 06466 Gatersleben, Germany; Crop Physiology, TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany. Electronic address:

For more than two decades, Arabidopsis thaliana plants have been routinely grown in vitro within transparent Petri dishes containing agar-based solid media. Although convenient to study root developmental, nutritional and morphological responses to abiotic cues and to elucidate gene functions following reverse and forward genetic approaches, this system exposes roots to light during illumination of the shoots. Recently, Zheng et al. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Integrative pediatric pain management: Impact & implications of a novel interdisciplinary curriculum.

Complement Ther Med 2021 May 5;59:102721. Epub 2021 May 5.

UCSF Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, 1545 Divisadero St, UCSF Box 1726, San Francisco, CA 94143, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Objectives of this paper are to: 1) Describe a novel interdisciplinary, integrative pain curriculum for pediatric residents. 2) Describe changes in residents' understanding of pain epidemiology, physiology, and management; application of the biopsychosocial model in pain management; and understanding and application of non-pharmacologic approaches to pain management.

Design, Setting: This study was done in a pediatric residency program within an urban pediatric teaching hospital. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Toll9 from functions as a pattern recognition receptor that shares features with Toll-like receptor 4 from mammals.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Laboratory of Insect Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, 510642 Guangzhou, China;

Toll/Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key regulators of the innate immune system in both invertebrates and vertebrates. However, while mammalian TLRs directly recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the insect Toll pathway is thought to be primarily activated by binding Spätzle cytokines that are processed from inactive precursors in response to microbial infection. Phylogenetic and structural data generated in this study supported earlier results showing that Toll9 members differ from other insect Tolls by clustering with the mammalian TLR4 group, which recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through interaction with myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2)-like proteins. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Moral status of the fetus and the permissibility of abortion: a contractarian response to Thomson's violinist thought experiment.

J Med Ethics 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Australian Graduate School of Policing and Security, Charles Sturt University, Barton, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

Judith Jarvis Thomson famously argued that abortion is permissible even if we accept that a fetus qualifies as a person and possesses a right to life. The current paper presents two arguments that undermine Thomson's position. First, the paper sketches a contractarian argument that explores Thomson's violinist thought experiment from behind a veil of ignorance, which suggests that if we had an equal likelihood of being an unwanted fetus and a pregnant woman, it would be rational for us to oppose abortion. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Subtypes of depression characterized by different cognitive decline and brain activity alterations.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 29;138:413-419. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Psychiatric Laboratory and Mental Health Center, The State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; West China Brain Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Depression is characterized by the heterogeneity in anti-depressant treatment response and clinical outcomes. Cognitive impairment may be one of the more practically important aspects of depression. A new approach was to identify neuropsychologically derived depression subtypes based on the trajectory of neuro-cognition such as intelligence quotient (IQ) change. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Energy and corticosteroid mobilization following an induced stress response in an elasmobranch fish, the North Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias suckleyi).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 May 4:113799. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, 50 Sifton Road, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg R3T 2N2, Manitoba, Canada; Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, 100 Pachena Road, Bamfield R3T 0A8, British Columbia, Canada.

The dominant corticosteroid in elasmobranchs, 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1α-OHB), has a described role in mineral regulation but a presumptive role in energy balance. Energy demand in vertebrates following exposure to a stressor typically involves an immediate but transient release of glucocorticoids as a means of mobilizing available energy stores, usually in the form of glucose. Although a glucocorticoid role for 1α-OHB would be expected, direct glucocorticoid function of this steroid has yet to be reported in any elasmobranch. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The debatable presence of PIWI-interacting RNAs in invasive breast cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology and Forensic Medicine, and Translational Cancer Research Area, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Numerous factors influence breast cancer (BC) prognosis, thus complicating the prediction of outcome. By identifying biomarkers that would distinguish the cases with poorer response to therapy already at the time of diagnosis, the rate of survival could be improved. Lately, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been introduced as potential cancer biomarkers, however, due to the recently raised challenges in piRNA annotations, further evaluation of piRNAs' involvement in cancer is required. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

What do patients value learning about pain? A mixed-methods survey on the relevance of target concepts after pain science education.

Pain 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

IIMPACT in Health, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Centre for Pain IMPACT, Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Prince of Wales Clinical School, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Department of Anaesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, United States.

Abstract: Pain education is a popular treatment approach for persistent pain that involves learning a variety of concepts about pain (ie, target concepts), which is thought to be an important part of recovery. Yet, little is known about what patients value learning about pain. A mixed-methods survey was conducted to identify pain concepts that were valued by people with persistent pain who improved after a pain science education intervention. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

COVID-19 and post-infectious myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: a narrative review.

Ther Adv Infect Dis 2021 Jan-Dec;8:20499361211009385. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Clinical Epidemiology Program, The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral infection which can cause a variety of respiratory, gastrointestinal, and vascular symptoms. The acute illness phase generally lasts no more than 2-3 weeks. However, there is increasing evidence that a proportion of COVID-19 patients experience a prolonged convalescence and continue to have symptoms lasting several months after the initial infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of the 2016-2020 regional tuberculosis response framework, WHO Western Pacific Region.

Bull World Health Organ 2021 May 2;99(5):330-341A. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Tuberculosis and the Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Objective: To assess the implementation of the in countries and areas in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region.

Methods: We used a mixed methods approach to assess the framework's measurable and perceived impact. We conducted an analysis of national tuberculosis strategic plans, a cross-sectional survey of senior staff of tuberculosis programmes, key informant interviews and some country case studies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Changes in Plasma Renin Activity after Renal Artery Sympathetic Denervation.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

SUNY Downstate College of Medicine, Brooklyn, NY, USA.

Background: The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation and is the target of several anti-hypertensive medications. Renal denervation (RDN) is thought to interrupt the sympathetic-mediated neurohormonal pathway as part of its mechanism of action to reduce BP.

Objectives: To evaluate plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone before and after RDN and to assess whether these baseline neuroendocrine markers predict response to RDN. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The forgotten sub-regional COVID-19 response layer. The case of the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 04 30;15(4):478-479. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Medical Epidemiologist, Independent consultant, Geneva, Switzerland.

The response to the COVID-19 pandemic have been driven by epidemiology, health system characteristics and control measures in form of social/physical distancing. Guidance, information and best practices have been characterized by territorial thinking with concentration on national health system and social contexts. Information was to a large extent provided from global entities such as the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Comparable response of wild rodent gut microbiome to anthropogenic habitat contamination.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, 40014, Finland.

Species identity is thought to dominate over environment in shaping wild rodent gut microbiota, but it remains unknown whether the responses of host gut microbiota to shared anthropogenic habitat impacts are species-specific or if the general gut microbiota response is similar across host species. Here, we compare the influence of exposure to radionuclide contamination on the gut microbiota of four wild mouse species: Apodemus flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Phases of psychological response in COVID-19: A preliminary heuristic.

Am J Disaster Med 2021 Winter;16(1):5-12

Professor and Director, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objective: To explore the putative phases of the psychological response to disaster: preimpact, impact, heroic, honeymoon, disillusionment, and recovery, and make recommendations for corresponding interventions.

Conclusions: Disasters such as the COVID-19 pandemic are often characterized by chaos and uncertainty. As a result, public health disaster planning and response represent formidable challenges. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Response to "Scientific thinking styles".

Int J Psychoanal 2021 Feb;102(1):189-190

The Hebrew University.

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

An intracellular pathway controlled by the N-terminus of the pump subunit inhibits the bacterial KdpFABC ion pump in high K conditions.

J Mol Biol 2021 May 2:167008. Epub 2021 May 2.

PHYLIFE: Physical Life Science, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, Odense 5230 M, Denmark. Electronic address:

The heterotetrameric bacterial KdpFABC transmembrane protein complex is an ion channel-pump hybrid that consumes ATP to import K against its transmembrane chemical potential gradient in low external K environments. The KdpB ion-pump subunit of KdpFABC is a P-type ATPase, and catalyses ATP hydrolysis. Under high external K conditions, K can diffuse into the cells through passive ion channels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

-dependent fatty acid responses in uncovers taste discrimination between different classes of fatty acids.

Elife 2021 May 5;10. Epub 2021 May 5.

Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Jupiter, United States.

Chemosensory systems are critical for evaluating the caloric value and potential toxicity of food prior to ingestion. While animals can discriminate between 1000's of odors, much less is known about the discriminative capabilities of taste systems. Fats and sugars represent calorically potent and innately attractive food sources that contribute to hedonic feeding. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inflammation in multiple sclerosis.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 16;14:17562864211007687. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is characterised pathologically by demyelination, gliosis, neuro-axonal damage and inflammation. Despite intense research, the underlying pathomechanisms driving inflammatory demyelination in MS still remain incompletely understood. It is thought to be caused by an autoimmune response towards CNS self-antigens in genetically susceptible individuals, assuming autoreactive T cells as disease-initiating immune cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent Advances in Effector-Triggered Immunity in Plants: New Pieces in the Puzzle Create a Different Paradigm.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 29;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Four Program), Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Plants rely on multiple immune systems to protect themselves from pathogens. When pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-the first layer of the immune response-is no longer effective as a result of pathogenic effectors, effector-triggered immunity (ETI) often provides resistance. In ETI, host plants directly or indirectly perceive pathogen effectors via resistance proteins and launch a more robust and rapid defense response. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF