70,365 results match your criteria response stimulus


Cigarette smoke exposure causes systemic and autonomic cardiocirculatory changes in rats depending on the daily exposure dose.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 14:119498. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Medical School, University of Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aims: To evaluate the systemic changes and autonomic cardiocirculatory control of awaken rats chronically exposed to the cigarette smoke (CS) of 1 or 2 cigarettes/day.

Main Methods: Rats were exposed to clean air (control) or cigarette smoke of 1 (CS1) or 2 (CS2) cigarettes/animal/day for 30 days. Then, arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded in conscious rats to assess spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and HR and AP variabilities. Read More

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Genome-wide characterization and expression analysis of TOPP-type protein phosphatases in soybean (Glycine max L.) reveal the role of GmTOPP13 in drought tolerance.

Genes Genomics 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China.

Background: In response to various abiotic stressors such as drought, many plants engage different protein phosphatases linked to several physiological and developmental processes. However, comprehensive analysis of this gene family is lacking for soybean.

Objective: This study was performed to identify the TOPP-type protein phosphatase family in soybean and investigate the gene's role under drought stress. Read More

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Conscious awareness modulates processing speed in the redundant signal effect.

Exp Brain Res 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Evidence for the influence of unaware signals on behaviour has been reported in both patient groups and healthy observers using the Redundant Signal Effect (RSE). The RSE refers to faster manual reaction times to the onset of multiple simultaneously presented target than those to a single stimulus. These findings are robust and apply to unimodal and multi-modal sensory inputs. Read More

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The pivotal protein profile between the conjoined twins and normal mosquitofish Gambusia affinis based on iTRAQ proteomic analysis.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong, China.

The fish abnormal embryonic development has attracted public attention in the recent few years. In this study, an iTRAQ proteomic analysis of mosquitofish between conjoined twins and normal fishes is applied for the first time by using the genome database of mosquitofish. Three thousand four hundred ninety proteins were identified with 304 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). Read More

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Long non-coding RNA pairs to assist in diagnosing sepsis.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 16;22(1):275. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Shenzhen People's Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, Second Clinical Medicine College of Jinan University, Shenzhen, 518020, China.

Background: Sepsis is the major cause of death in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) globally. Molecular detection enables rapid diagnosis that allows early intervention to minimize the death rate. Recent studies showed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate proinflammatory genes and are related to the dysfunction of organs in sepsis. Read More

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Lipoxygenase inhibitor ML351 dysregulated an innate inflammatory response leading to impaired cardiac repair in acute heart failure.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 13;139:111574. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, Department of Medicine, The University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States. Electronic address:

The presistent increase of 12/15 lipoxygenase enzyme activity is correlated with uncontrolled inflammation, leading to organ dysfunction. ML351, a potent 12/15 lipoxygenase (12/15LOX) inhibitor, was reported to reduce infarct size and inflammation in a murine ischemic stroke model. In the presented work, we have applied three complementary experimental approaches, in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in-vivo, to determine whether pharmacological inhibition of 12/15LOX could dampen the inflammatory response in adult mice after Kdo2-Lipid A (KLA) as an endotoxin stimulator or post myocardial infarction (MI). Read More

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The attentional template in high and low similarity search: Optimal tuning or tuning to relations?

Cognition 2021 Apr 13;212:104732. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Psychology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

The attentional template is often described as the mental representation that drives attentional selection and guidance, for instance, in visual search. Recent research suggests that this template is not a veridical representation of the sought-for target, but instead an altered representation that allows more efficient search. The current paper contrasts two such theories. Read More

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Prefrontal deep projection neurons enable cognitive flexibility via persistent feedback monitoring.

Cell 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10021, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10021, USA. Electronic address:

Cognitive flexibility, the ability to alter strategy according to changing stimulus-response-reward relationships, is critical for updating learned behavior. Attentional set-shifting, a test of cognitive flexibility, depends on the activity of prefrontal cortex (PFC). It remains unclear, however, what role PFC neurons play to support set-shifting. Read More

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Photoreceptor phosphodiesterase (PDE6): activation and inactivation mechanisms during visual transduction in rods and cones.

Authors:
Rick H Cote

Pflugers Arch 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, 46 College Rd., Durham, NH, 03824, USA.

Rod and cone photoreceptors of the vertebrate retina utilize cGMP as the primary intracellular messenger for the visual signaling pathway that converts a light stimulus into an electrical response. cGMP metabolism in the signal-transducing photoreceptor outer segment reflects the balance of cGMP synthesis (catalyzed by guanylyl cyclase) and degradation (catalyzed by the photoreceptor phosphodiesterase, PDE6). Upon light stimulation, rapid activation of PDE6 by the heterotrimeric G-protein (transducin) triggers a dramatic drop in cGMP levels that lead to cell hyperpolarization. Read More

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Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Substituted Tryptamines in Rats.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 29;4(2):467-471. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Diversion Control Division Drug and Chemical Evaluation Section, Drug Enforcement Administration Springfield, Virginia 22152, United States.

Novel synthetic compounds have been available for decades as quasi-legal alternatives to controlled substances. The hallucinogen-like effects of eight novel substituted tryptamines were evaluated to determine their potential abuse liability. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM, 0. Read More

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Hypersensitivity and Chemotherapy Desensitization.

Semin Oncol Nurs 2021 Apr 12:151132. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

UCLA Santa Monica Medical Center, Santa Monica, CA.

Objectives: Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) are defined as reactions with reproducible signs and symptoms, triggered by an exposure to a stimulus at a dose tolerated by normal subjects. Although discontinuing the allergenic medication can eliminate the potential for HSRs, it can also lead to significant morbidity and mortality due to suboptimal treatment of the underlying disease. Therefore, desensitization protocols have been developed that offer a safe process that delivers full therapeutic doses in an incremental fashion without eliciting life-threatening reactions. Read More

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Analysis of cerebral blood flow entropy when listening music with emotional content.

Physiol Meas 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of Santiago, Santiago, CHILE.

Music is one of the most sublime stimulus that human beings can experience. Despite being just an acoustic wave that exert little physical action on a subject, it triggers profound changes in emotions and physiological states. This study explores the possibility of detecting subtle changes in cerebral blood flow velocity in response to emotional reactions produced by different musical stimuli using multiscale entropy analysis. Read More

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Gene expression profiling of early Parkinson's disease patient reveals redox homeostasis.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Apr 12;753:135893. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Neurotoxin Research Center of Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord Injury Repair and Regeneration of Ministry of Education, Neurological Department of Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200065, PR China. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is slowly progressive. Due to the lack of specific and sensitive biomarkers, the majority of PD patients are in the advanced stages when diagnosed. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers for early PD diagnosis. Read More

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Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells at the crossroad of type I interferon-regulated B cell differentiation and antiviral response to tick-borne encephalitis virus.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 15;17(4):e1009505. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

The Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes different disease symptoms varying from asymptomatic infection to severe encephalitis and meningitis suggesting a crucial role of the human host immune system in determining the fate of the infection. There is a need to understand the mechanisms underpinning TBEV-host interactions leading to protective immunity. To this aim, we studied the response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to the whole formaldehyde inactivated TBEV (I-TBEV), the drug substance of Encepur, one of the five commercially available vaccine. Read More

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Resistance to extinction versus extinction as discrimination.

J Exp Anal Behav 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of California, Davis.

The hypothesis that response strength might be measured by persistence of responding in the face of extinction was discredited in the 1960s because experiments showed that responding persists longer following intermittent reinforcers than following continuous reinforcers. Instead, researchers proposed that the longer persistence following intermittent reinforcers arises because intermittent reinforcement more closely resembles extinction-a discrimination theory. Attention to resistance to extinction revived because one observation seemed to support the persistence hypothesis: Following training on a multiple schedule with unequal components, responding usually persisted longer in the formerly richer component than in the formerly lean component. Read More

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An Integrative Model of Plant Gravitropism Linking Statoliths Position and Auxin Transport.

Front Plant Sci 2021 29;12:651928. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Aix Marseille University, CNRS, IUSTI, Marseille, France.

Gravity is a major cue for the proper growth and development of plants. The response of plants to gravity implies starch-filled plastids, the statoliths, which sediments at the bottom of the gravisensing cells, the statocytes. Statoliths are assumed to modify the transport of the growth hormone, auxin, by acting on specific auxin transporters, PIN proteins. Read More

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Vestibular attenuation to random-waveform galvanic vestibular stimulation during standing and treadmill walking.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 14;11(1):8127. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Kinesiology and Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA.

The ability to move and maintain posture is critically dependent on motion and orientation information provided by the vestibular system. When this system delivers noisy or erred information it can, in some cases, be attenuated through habituation. Here we investigate whether multiple mechanisms of attenuation act to decrease vestibular gain due to noise added using supra-threshold random-waveform galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Read More

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CaMKII holoenzyme mechanisms that govern the LTP versus LTD decision.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 14;7(16). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Higher brain functions are thought to require synaptic frequency decoding that can lead to long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD). We show that the LTP versus LTD decision is determined by complex cross-regulation of T286 and T305/306 autophosphorylation within the 12meric CaMKII holoenzyme, which enabled molecular computation of stimulus frequency, amplitude, and duration. Both LTP and LTD require T286 phosphorylation, but T305/306 phosphorylation selectively promoted LTD. Read More

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Topoisomerase IIα represses transcription by enforcing promoter-proximal pausing.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(2):108977

Centro Andaluz de Biología Molecular y Medicina Regenerativa-CABIMER, Universidad de Sevilla-CSIC-Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla 41092, Spain; Topology and DNA Breaks Group, Spanish National Cancer Centre (CNIO), Madrid 28029, Spain. Electronic address:

Accumulation of topological stress in the form of DNA supercoiling is inherent to the advance of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and needs to be resolved by DNA topoisomerases to sustain productive transcriptional elongation. Topoisomerases are therefore considered positive facilitators of transcription. Here, we show that, in contrast to this general assumption, human topoisomerase IIα (TOP2A) activity at promoters represses transcription of immediate early genes such as c-FOS, maintaining them under basal repressed conditions. Read More

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Anisotropic and Self-Healing Copolymer with Multiresponsive Capability via Recyclable Alloy-Mediated RDRP.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 Apr 13:e2100096. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bhilai, Raipur, Chhattisgarh, 492015, India.

A novel triple stimuli sensitive block copolymer is prepared by magnetically separable and reusable (up to multiple cycles) Ni-Co alloy nanoparticles mediated reversible deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) at 25 °C, that responds to changes in temperature, pH, and light. Design of this block copolymer constitutes a temperature-sensitive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), an acid-sensitive lysine methacrylamide (LysMAM), and a light responsive umbelliferone (UMB) end group. The stimuli response, in response to one stimulus as well as combinations of stimuli, has been evaluated. Read More

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Stimulus-response complexity influences task-set inhibition in task switching.

PeerJ 2021 30;9:e10988. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

Previous studies have found that inhibiting a task set plays an important role in task switching. However, the impact of stimulus-response (S-R) complexity on this inhibition processing has not been explored. In this study, we applied the backward inhibition paradigm (switching between tasks A, B, and C, presented in sets of three) in order to investigate inhibition performance under different S-R complexities caused by corresponding S-R mappings. Read More

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Bigeminal potentials in the pulmonary vein indicate arrhythmogenic trigger of atrial fibrillation.

J Arrhythm 2021 Apr 19;37(2):331-337. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine Kyushu University Hospital Fukuoka Japan.

Background: The pulmonary veins (PVs) have unique electrophysiological properties triggering and maintaining atrial fibrillation (AF). Bigeminal PV electrical activity (PV bigeminy) during sinus rhythm has been reported; however, its mechanisms and clinical implication remain unclear. We hypothesized that PV bigeminy indicates arrhythmogenic activities and influences clinical outcome. Read More

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GABAergic retinal ganglion cells regulate innate defensive responses.

Neuroreport 2021 May;32(7):643-649

Eye Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is regarded as the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, including the retina. However, the roles of GABA-immunolabeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have not been explored. Here, we report the expression of GABAergic RGCs that project to many brain areas in mice, including the superior colliculus. Read More

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Auditory stimulus-response modeling with a Match-Mismatch task.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Kettegard Allé 30, Hvidovre, DK-2650, DENMARK.

An auditory stimulus can be related to the brain response that it evokes by a stimulus-response model fit to the data. This offers insight into perceptual processes within the brain and is also of potential use for devices such as Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). The quality of the model can be quantified by measuring the fit with a regression problem, or by applying it to a classification task and measuring its performance. Read More

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Do you hear what I hear? Perceived narrative constitutes a semantic dimension for music.

Cognition 2021 Apr 10;212:104712. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Princeton University, USA. Electronic address:

Music has attracted longstanding debate surrounding its capacity to communicate without words, but little empirical work has addressed the topic. Here, 534 participants in the US and a remote region of China participated in two experiments using a novel paradigm to investigate narrative perceptions as a semantic dimension of music. Participants listened to wordless musical excerpts and determined which of two presented stories was the correct match. Read More

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Analysis of transcriptome difference between rapid-growing and slow-growing in Penaeus vannamei.

Gene 2021 Apr 10:145642. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Fisheries Research Institute of Fujian, 7 Shanhai Road, Huli, Xiamen, 361000, China.

Penaeus vannamei is the principle cultured shrimp species in China. However, with the increase of culture density, the growth difference between individuals is also expanding. Here, we make use of RNA-seq to study the growth mechanisms of P. Read More

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A method for estimating the time of initiating correct categorization in mouse-tracking.

Behav Res Methods 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.

Mouse-tracking facilitates exploration of the mental processes underlying decision-making. As the cognitive system works to settle on a decision, response competition manifests in the motor movements of the hand, bringing the mouse relatively closer to one alternative versus the other. Many metrics provide insight into decision-making processes by indexing the shape or complexity of the mouse trajectory. Read More

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Stability and individual variability of social attachment in imprinting.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7914. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Center for Mind and Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

Filial imprinting has become a model for understanding memory, learning and social behaviour in neonate animals. This mechanism allows the youngs of precocial bird species to learn the characteristics of conspicuous visual stimuli and display affiliative response to them. Although longer exposures to an object produce stronger preferences for it afterwards, this relation is not linear. Read More

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EXPRESS: Comparing Person and People Perception: Multiple Group Members Do Not Increase Stereotype Priming.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Apr 12:17470218211012852. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK 1019.

A characteristic feature of daily life is encountering people in groups. Surprisingly, however, at least during the initial stages of processing, research has focused almost exclusively on the construal of single individuals. As such, it remains unclear whether person and people (i. Read More

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Characterization of the competing role of surface-contact and shear stress on platelet activation in the setting of blood contacting devices.

Int J Artif Organs 2021 Apr 12:3913988211009909. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Supraphysiological shear stress and surface-contact are recognized as driving mechanisms of platelet activation (PA) in blood contacting devices (BCDs). However, the competing role of these mechanisms in triggering thrombogenic events is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the dynamics of PA in response to the combined effect of shear stress and material exposure. Read More

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