3,752 results match your criteria response pictures

Neural response to trauma-related and trauma-unrelated negative stimuli in remitted and persistent pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder.

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 2:e02173. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Sixth Hospital/Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Most youths who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) lose their diagnosis in the first 1-2 years. However, there are few studies on this brain mechanism, and the heterogeneity of the findings is partially due to the different stimuli applied and the mixed trauma history. Therefore, the use of trauma-related/unrelated stimuli to study the remittance mechanism of earthquake-induced PTSD could advance our knowledge of PTSD and inspire future treatment. Read More

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Electroencephalography (EEG) Reveals Increased Frontal Activity in Social Presence.

Brain Sci 2021 May 31;11(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Faculty of Psychology, Sigmund Freud University, Sigmund Freud Platz 1, 1020 Vienna, Austria.

It remains an unsolved conundrum how social presence affects the neural processes involved in adaptive situation-specific decision-making mechanisms. To investigate this question, brain potential changes via electroencephalography (EEG) and skin conductance responses (SCR) were taken within this study, while participants were exposed to pre-rated pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures, which they had to rate in terms of their perceived arousal. Crucially, they had to-in respective runs-do this alone and in the presence of a significant other. Read More

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Baseline Stroke Literacy of Young Children Based on "FAST 112 Heroes" Program.

Front Public Health 2021 14;9:638516. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Educational and Social Policy, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Young children are often unaware of emergency health conditions, such as stroke, and could serve as important vehicles to save the lives of their grandparents, who are more likely to suffer a stroke. An important aspect for the evaluation of public awareness on stroke signs and related emergency procedures is to examine the level of baseline stroke knowledge children have and whether they understand when to seek medical care on time. To examine the level of stroke symptomatology knowledge in children as well as evaluate their preparedness in stroke response before their participation in the educational program "FAST (Face, Arms, Speech, Time) 112 Heroes. Read More

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Comparing paired-stimulus and multiple-stimulus concurrent-chains preference assessments: Consistency, correspondence, and efficiency.

J Appl Behav Anal 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

The Pier Center for Autism.

Concurrent-chains preference assessments have been used to assess preferences for leisure activities, teaching strategies, behavioral interventions, and other protracted events. This assessment model involves presenting an array of representative stimuli (e.g. Read More

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The Mental Status Exam at the Movies: The Use of Film in a Behavioral Medicine Course for Physician Assistants.

Acad Psychiatry 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Maple Key Consulting, Danbury, CT, USA.

Objective: This study evaluated student satisfaction with an educational exercise using feature films to learn about performing a psychiatric mental status examination.

Methods: Following the completion of an educational exercise designed by the first author, students in a behavioral medicine course completed surveys regarding their satisfaction with the exercise as a tool for learning how to perform a mental status examination. The educational exercise involved an initial didactic lecture followed by group exercises and individual presentations, utilizing feature films as tools for understanding the mental status examination. Read More

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The Processing of Visual Signals in Major Depressive Disorder.

Clin EEG Neurosci 2021 May 26:15500594211019916. Epub 2021 May 26.

191625International Psychoanalytic University, Berlin, Germany.

The balanced processing of the internal mental world and the external world is a crucial aspect of everyday well-being. An extensive control of the internal emotional and cognitive world that often results in an internal expression of distress is a common feature of internalizing disorders. However, how depression affects the processing of the external world is still an open question. Read More

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Threat imminence modulates neural gain in attention and motor relevant brain circuits in humans.

Psychophysiology 2021 May 24:e13849. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Experimental Psychology, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Different levels of threat imminence elicit distinct computational strategies reflecting how the organism interacts with its environment in order to guarantee survival. Thereby, parasympathetically driven orienting and inhibition of on-going behavior in post-encounter situations and defense reactions in circa-strike conditions associated with sympathetically driven action preparation are typically observed across species. Here, we show that healthy humans are characterized by markedly variable individual orienting or defense response tendencies as indexed by differential heart rate (HR) changes during the passive viewing of unpleasant pictures. Read More

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Repetition Priming in Treatment of Anomia.

Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2021 May 24:1-19. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, San Diego State University, CA.

Purpose Repetition priming has been suggested as a method for targeting implicit processes in anomia treatment. Prior studies have used masked priming for this purpose. This study extends that work with visible primes, a more clinically feasible approach. Read More

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Automated emotion classification in the early stages of cortical processing: An MEG study.

Artif Intell Med 2021 May 31;115:102063. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Biomagnetic Center, Jena University Hospital, 07747, Jena, Germany; Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, 07747, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: Here we aimed to automatically classify human emotion earlier than is typically attempted. There is increasing evidence that the human brain differentiates emotional categories within 100-300 ms after stimulus onset. Therefore, here we evaluate the possibility of automatically classifying human emotions within the first 300 ms after the stimulus and identify the time-interval of the highest classification performance. Read More

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Role of verbal working memory in rapid procedural acquisition of a choice response task.

Cognition 2021 May 13;214:104731. Epub 2021 May 13.

Psychology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, UK.

How quickly are instructions for a task translated into an effective task-set? If declarative working memory (dWM) is used to maintain a task's S-R rules until practice compiles them adequately into procedural memory, variables that affect retrieval from dWM should influence task performance while it is still dependent on dWM. Participants were trained on a series of 6-choice RT tasks, with a 1:1 mapping from object pictures to keys. In Experiments 1 and 2, an instruction phase - presentation of the S-R rules one by one -was followed by test trials. Read More

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Comparison of different response devices to assess behavioral tendencies towards chocolate in the approach-avoidance task.

Appetite 2021 Oct 12;165:105294. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Lise Meitner Group for Environmental Neuroscience, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.

Behavioral tendencies in the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) have mostly been assessed using a joystick as a response device. In recent years, other hardware devices such as tablets, smartphones, and computer mice have also been used. However, it remains unclear whether different response devices yield similar results and show comparable psychometric properties. Read More

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October 2021

In exogenous attention, time is the clue: Brain and heart interactions to survive threatening stimuli.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0243117. Epub 2021 May 12.

Psychobiology Unit, Department of Psychology Rey Juan Carlos University, Madrid, Spain.

The capture of exogenous attention by negative stimuli has been interpreted as adaptive for survival in a diverse and changing environment. In the present paper, we investigate the neural responses towards two discrete negative emotions with different biological meanings, disgust and fear, and its potential relationships with heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of emotional regulation. With that aim, 30 participants performed a digit categorization task while fear, disgust and neutral distractor pictures were presented. Read More

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Affective rating of audio and video clips using the EmojiGrid.

F1000Res 2020 11;9:970. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Perceptual and Cognitive Systems, TNO, Soesterberg, 3769DE, The Netherlands.

In this study we measured the affective appraisal of sounds and video clips using a newly developed graphical self-report tool: the EmojiGrid. The EmojiGrid is a square grid, labeled with emoji that express different degrees of valence and arousal. Users rate the valence and arousal of a given stimulus by simply clicking on the grid. Read More

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Abnormalities in emotional and motor reactions among young prehypertensive individuals: employing continuous blood pressure analysis.

J Hypertens 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Psychology, School of Psychological Sciences The Integrated Brain and Behavior Research Center (IBBR) School of Public Health, University of Haifa Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Shamir Medical Center (Assaf Harofeh), Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University Sagol Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Research, Shamir Medical Center (Assaf Harofeh), Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Essential hypertension is an important risk factor for cerebrovascular diseases and a major cause of premature death in industrialized societies. A predisposing factor for essential hypertension is prehypertension: blood pressure (BP) values at rest that are at the higher end of the normal range. Abnormally enhanced cardiovascular responses to motor and emotional tasks have been found as predictors of essential hypertension. Read More

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The East Asian Erotic Picture Dataset and Gender Differences in Response to Opposite-Sex Erotic Stimuli in Chinese College Students.

Front Psychol 2021 21;12:648271. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Reward, Competition and Social Neuroscience Lab, Department of Psychology, School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Understanding the processing of sexual stimuli has become a significant part of research on human sexuality. In addition to individual characteristics (gender and sexual orientation), empirical studies have shown that cultural factors play an important role in sexual stimuli processing. The attitudes toward sex have been reported to be more conservative in East Asian societies as compared to western countries, and significantly more sexual difficulties are observed among East Asian people. Read More

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Left/right discrimination is not impaired in people with unilateral chronic Achilles tendinopathy.

Musculoskelet Sci Pract 2021 Apr 30;54:102388. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 9, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane & Gold Coast, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Impaired left/right discrimination of an affected body part has been observed in various chronic pain states. This study aimed to examine whether people with unilateral chronic Achilles tendinopathy also present with impaired left/right discrimination.

Design: Cross-sectional study. Read More

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The relationship between tendency to attend to detail, sensory sensitivity, and affective response to food cues - A registered report.

Int J Psychophysiol 2021 May 7;166:50-60. Epub 2021 May 7.

Abertay University, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Understanding the underlying drivers of food choice remains a challenge and has highlighted the need for measures that capture data over and above that offered by self-reporting tools. Consequently, a growing body of research has set out to interpret facial responses to food cues to offer a greater insight into the emotional responses that may drive food acceptance. However, interpreting facial responses is challenging, as there are numerous factors that may influence affective response to foods, including expectation, context, and individual differences. Read More

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The state of the onion: Grammatical aspect modulates object representation during event comprehension.

Cognition 2021 May 4;214:104744. Epub 2021 May 4.

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The present ERP study assessed whether grammatical aspect is used as a cue in online event comprehension, in particular when reading about events in which an object is visually changed. While perfective aspect cues holistic event representations, including an event's endpoint, progressive aspect highlights intermediate phases of an event. In a 2 × 3 design, participants read SVO sentences describing a change-of-state event (e. Read More

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Analysis of the density and distribution of entropy in biomedical infrared imaging for Diabetes Mellitus Type II.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 May 18;7(4). Epub 2021 May 18.

Cardiovascular Surgery. Hospital General de México, Dr. Balmis 148, Doctores Zip Code 06726, Mexico City, Mexico.

We report a methodology to analyze data extracted from infrared images. These pictures show the lower limbs of a cohort of individuals belonging to, (1) voluntary controls and (2) patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type II. The analysis is presented in terms of Cross Entropy and temperature distributions; both using the associated thermal histograms. Read More

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Increased early motivational response to food in adolescent anorexia nervosa revealed by magnetoencephalography.

Psychol Med 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Background: It remains unclear to what extent reduced nutritional intake in anorexia nervosa (AN) is a consequence of a reduced motivational response to food. Although self-reports typically suggest AN patients have a reduced appetitive response, behavioral and neurophysiological measures have revealed evidence for both increased and reduced attentional biases towards food stimuli. The mechanisms influencing food perception in AN, might be clarified using time-sensitive magnetoencephalography (MEG) to differentiate the early (more automatic processing) stages from the late (more controlled) stages. Read More

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Event-related brain response to visual cues in individuals with Internet gaming disorder: relevance to attentional bias and decision-making.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 1;11(1):258. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, 07061, Republic of Korea.

This study investigated attentional bias toward game-related cues in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) using electrophysiological markers of late positive potential (LPP) and identifying the sources of LPP. In addition, the association between LPP and decision-making ability was investigated. The IGD (n = 40) and healthy control (HC; n = 39) participants viewed a series of game-related and neutral pictures, while their event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Read More

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The Intersection of Age and Influenza Severity: Utility of Ferrets for Dissecting the Age-Dependent Immune Responses and Relevance to Age-Specific Vaccine Development.

Viruses 2021 04 15;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H4R2, Canada.

Many factors impact the host response to influenza virus infection and vaccination. Ferrets have been an indispensable reagent for influenza virus research for almost one hundred years. One of the most significant and well-known factors affecting human disease after infection is host age. Read More

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Romantic love affects emotional processing of love-unrelated stimuli: An EEG/ERP study using a love induction task.

Brain Cogn 2021 Jul 26;151:105733. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; Padova Neuroscience Center, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) the neural correlates of a love induction task (LIT) including listening to love-related songs and thinking about the romantic relationship, and (b) the effects of romantic love on the emotional processing of love-unrelated stimuli during a passive viewing task. The EEG was recorded in two groups of university students: people in love (Love Group, LG, N = 22, 19 F) and people not in love (Control Group, CG, N = 20, 15 F). The LIT induced higher pleasantness and arousal in the LG than in the CG, as well as higher alpha activity in occipital-right electrodes, suggesting active mental imagery and internal focused attention. Read More

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Comorbid anxiety and depression: Opposing effects on the electrocortical processing of negative imagery in a focal fear sample.

Depress Anxiety 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Background: Anxiety and depression are highly comorbid and share clinical characteristics, such as high levels of negative emotion. Attention toward negative stimuli in anxiety and depression has been studied primarily using negative pictures. Yet, negative mental imagery-that is, mental representations of imagined negative events or stimuli-might more closely mirror patient experience. Read More

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Interference effects of phonological similarity in word production arise from competitive incremental learning.

Cognition 2021 Jul 22;212:104738. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, United Kingdom.

In the blocked cyclic naming task, native Mandarin speakers named pictures with disyllabic names in small sets and blocks, with the critical manipulation whether pictures within a block shared an atonal syllable or not. We found the expected facilitation when the overlapping portion of responses was in word-initial position, but we also replicated a recent observation that with 'inconsistent' overlap (shared syllables could be either in first or second word position), form overlap causes interference. Crucially, interference also occurred when phonologically unrelated filler trials or trials which required a nonlinguistic response were interleaved with the critical pictures. Read More

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Dysautonomia: A Forgotten Condition - Part 1.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2021 04;116(4):814-835

Serviço de Eletrofisiologia do Vitória Apart Hospital, Vitória, ES - Brasil.

Dysautonomia covers a range of clinical conditions with different characteristics and prognoses. They are classified as Reflex Syndromes, Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Neurogenic Orthostatic Hypotension (nOH) and Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity Syndrome. Reflex (vasovagal) syndromes will not be discussed in this article. Read More

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Different Influences of Negative and Neutral Emotional Interference on Working Memory in Trait Anxiety.

Front Psychol 2021 31;12:570552. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

To examine the interaction of working memory (WM) type with emotional interference in trait anxiety, event-related potentials were measured in a combined WM and emotional task. Participants completed a delayed matching-to-sample task of WM, and emotional pictures were presented during the maintenance interval. The results indicated that negative affect interfered with spatial WM; task-related changes in amplitude were observed in the late positive potential (LPP) and slow waves in both the high and low anxiety groups. Read More

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Development of a Classical Conditioning Task for Humans Examining Phasic Heart Rate Responses to Signaled Appetitive Stimuli: A Pilot Study.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 1;15:639372. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Lab of Electric Stimulation of the Nervous System Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Cardiac responses to appetitive stimuli have been studied as indices of motivational states and attentional processes, the former being associated with cardiac acceleration and latter deceleration. Very few studies have examined heart rate changes in appetitive classical conditioning in humans. The current study describes the development and pilot testing of a classical conditioning task to assess cardiac responses to appetitive stimuli and cues that reliably precede them. Read More

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Neural correlates of alcohol use disorder severity among nontreatment-seeking heavy drinkers: An examination of the incentive salience and negative emotionality domains of the alcohol and addiction research domain criteria.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Background: The Alcohol and Addiction Research Domain Criteria (AARDoC) propose that alcohol use disorder is associated with neural dysfunction in three primary domains: incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function. Prior studies in heavy drinking samples have examined brain activation changes associated with alcohol and negative affect cues, representing the incentive salience and negative emotionality domains, respectively. Yet studies examining such cue-induced changes in functional connectivity (FC) are relatively sparse. Read More

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Severe herpes virus 6 interstitial pneumonia in an infant with three variants in genes predisposing to lung disease.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Neonatology, "Bambino Gesù" Children's Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Infections due to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are frequent during early childhood. Usually, they have a favorable clinical course. Conversely, HHV-6 congenital infections occur in about 1% of neonates and may present with more severe clinical pictures. Read More

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