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Treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus Pulmonary Disease.

Chest 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

National Jewish Health, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206.

Mycobacterium abscessus is the second most common nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease pathogen and comprises three subspecies, abscessus, massiliense and bolletii. Subspecies identification is critical for disease management as subspecies abscessus and bolletii have an inducible macrolide resistance gene (erm(41)) that results in clinical macrolide resistance. In contrast subspecies massiliense does not have an active erm(41) gene and is therefore susceptible in vitro and clinically to macrolide-containing regimens. Read More

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Relationships between tibial articular cartilage, in vivo external joint moments and static alignment in end-stage knee osteoarthritis: A micro-CT study.

J Orthop Res 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Medical Device Research Institute, College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Biomechanical factors (e.g., joint loading) have a significant role in the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Read More

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CLEC-2 Prevents Accumulation and Retention of Inflammatory Macrophages During Murine Peritonitis.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:693974. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Platelets play a key role in the development, progression and resolution of the inflammatory response during sterile inflammation and infection, although the mechanism is not well understood. Here we show that platelet CLEC-2 reduces tissue inflammation by regulating inflammatory macrophage activation and trafficking from the inflamed tissues. The immune regulatory function of CLEC-2 depends on the expression of its ligand, podoplanin, upregulated on inflammatory macrophages and is independent of platelet activation and secretion. Read More

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Photocoagulation-associated spontaneous release of epiretinal membrane secondary to retinal vascular tumor: case series of 8 cases.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 200031, China.

To evaluate the secondary epiretinal membrane (ERM) response after photocoagulation in retinal vascular tumor. This retrospective interventional case series included 8 patients (8 eyes) who were diagnosed with retinal vascular tumor and secondary ERM. All eyes were treated with photocoagulation and underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations at baseline and at each follow-up. Read More

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Immune responses to injury and their links to eye disease.

Transl Res 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Ophthalmology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

The eye is regarded as an immune privileged site. Since the presence of a vasculature would impair vision, the vasculature of the eye is located outside of the central light path. As a result, many regions of the eye evolved mechanisms to deliver immune cells to sites of dysgenesis, injury, or in response to the many age-related pathologies. Read More

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Factors Influencing Response to Aflibercept in Diabetic Macular Oedema Patients in a Diverse North West London Population: A Real-World Study.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 20;15:2089-2097. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK.

Background: Diabetic macular oedema (DMO) is the leading cause of sight impairment in working age populations in developed countries. Current first line treatment for centre-involving DMO involves intravitreal anti-VEGF but treatment response can be variable. In this retrospective, real world, multi-centre cohort study, we aim to identify ocular and systemic characteristics that correlate with anatomical and functional outcomes for treatment-naive DMO patients treated with intravitreal aflibercept. Read More

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Intraoperative Retinal Changes May Predict Surgical Outcomes After Epiretinal Membrane Peeling.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 02;10(2):36

Department of Ophthalmology & Vision Science, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Purpose: To investigate whether intraoperative retinal changes during epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling affect anatomic or functional outcomes after surgery.

Methods: We measured retinal thickness using an intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) device in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy with membrane peeling for idiopathic ERM. Changes in intraoperative central macular thickness (iCMT) were compared with postoperative improvements in CMT and best-corrected visual acuity (VA). Read More

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February 2021

Azithromycin and Ciprofloxacin Treatment Outcomes During an Outbreak of Multidrug-Resistant Shigella sonnei Infections in a Retirement Community-Vermont, 2018.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: In 2018, CDC and the Vermont Department of Health investigated an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Shigella sonnei infections in a retirement community that offered a continuum of care from independent living through skilled nursing care. The investigation identified 24 culture-confirmed cases. Isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, and ceftriaxone, and had decreased susceptibility to azithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Read More

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Rapid Increase of Gastrointestinal P-Glycoprotein Functional Activity in Response to Etoposide Stimulation.

Biol Pharm Bull 2021 ;44(5):701-706

Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare.

We previously reported that exposure of human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells to the bitter substance phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) rapidly enhanced the transport function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In this study, we investigated the short-term effect of etoposide, another bitter-tasting P-gp substrate, on P-gp transport function in the same cell line. We found that etoposide exposure significantly increased both the P-gp protein level in the plasma membrane fraction and the efflux rate of rhodamine123 (Rho123) in Caco-2 cells within 10 min. Read More

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January 2021

Deficiency of Ku Induces Host Cell Exploitation in Human Cancer Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:651818. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Cancer metastasis is the major cause of death from cancer (Massague and Obenauf, 2016; Steeg, 2016). The extensive genetic heterogeneity and cellular plasticity of metastatic tumors set a prime barrier for the current cancer treatment protocols (Boumahdi and de Sauvage, 2020). In addition, acquired therapy resistance has become an insurmountable obstacle that abolishes the beneficial effects of numerous anti-cancer regimens (De Angelis et al. Read More

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Multimodal imaging characteristics in eyes with vitreoretinal lymphoma treated with intravitreal rituximab.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Aug 8;41(8):2711-2722. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Medical Research Foundation, Shri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreo-Retinal Services, Sankara Nethralaya, 18 College Road, Chennai, 600006, Tamilnadu, India.

Purpose: To characterize the imaging features in eyes with vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL) using ultra-widefield fundus photography (UWF-FP), swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) that are correlated to ongoing treatment with intravitreal Rituximab(IVR).

Methods: Retrospective observational imaging-based study of 15 treatment-naive eyes with VRL treated with IVR. All patients with primary VRL underwent vitreous biopsy using 23/25G microincision vitrectomy system for confirmation of diagnosis. Read More

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Optical Coherence Tomography Biomarkers in Bilateral Diabetic Macular Edema Patients with Asymmetric anti-VEGF Response.

Semin Ophthalmol 2021 Aug 29;36(5-6):444-451. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Izmir, Turkey.

: This study aimed to identify optical coherence tomography (OCT) biomarkers for predicting response to anti-VEGF treatment in diabetic macular edema (DME) Bilateral DME patients with asymmetric response to a loading dose of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab/aflibercept) treatment were retrospectively studied. The morphologic response criterion was central subfield thickness (CST) ≤300 µm; asymmetric response was defined as ≥10% difference in CST reduction between the eyes. The functional response criterion was an increase in logMAR acuity of ≥3 lines, with an increase below this threshold in the fellow eye considered asymmetric response. Read More

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The irrelevant speech effect in backward recall is modulated by foreknowledge of recall direction and response modality.

Can J Exp Psychol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

École de psychologie.

In backward immediate serial recall, participants recall lists of items immediately after their presentation by beginning with the last presented item and ending with the first presented one. Despite the similarities with forward recall in which participants recall the items from the first to the last presented, benchmark memory phenomena reliably found in forward recall are not constantly observed in backward recall. Here, we proposed a new framework called the encoding-retrieval matching (ERM) hypothesis to account for backward recall. Read More

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To Go or Not to Go: Degrees of Dynamic Inhibitory Control Revealed by the Function of Grip Force and Early Electrophysiological Indices.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 28;15:614978. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taiwan.

A critical issue in executive control is how the nervous system exerts flexibility to inhibit a prepotent response and adapt to sudden changes in the environment. In this study, force measurement was used to capture "partial" unsuccessful trials that are highly relevant in extending the current understanding of motor inhibition processing. Moreover, a modified version of the stop-signal task was used to control and eliminate potential attentional capture effects from the motor inhibition index. Read More

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January 2021

"What's the problem?"-Toward a framework for collective problem representation in emergency response management.

Tove Frykmer

J Emerg Manag 2020 Nov-Dec;18(6):511-524

Division of Risk Management and Societal Safety, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Lund University Centre for Risk Assessment and Management, LUCRAM, Lund, Sweden.

Responding to today's often transboundary emergencies, frequently characterized by unclear root causes and indistinct responsibilities as well as multiple actors, will require that responding actors come together to meet societal needs and solve problems arising in relation to those needs. In collective problem solving, representing the problem is crucial, especially in emergency situations, where problems are changing and interacting with each other and are difficult to define. There is however a lack of problem representation research in general and in emergency situations specifically. Read More

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January 2021

A 90-day drinking water study in mice to characterize early events in the cancer mode of action of 1,4-dioxane.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Feb 12;119:104819. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Intertox, Seattle, WA, USA.

Studies demonstrate that with sufficient dose and duration, 1,4-dioxane (1,4-DX) induces liver tumors in laboratory rodent models. The available evidence aligns with a threshold-dependent, tumor promotion mode of action (MOA). The MOA and key events (KE) in rats are well developed but less so in the mouse. Read More

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February 2021

Quasi-3D Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory for the Free Vibration Study of Honeycomb Microplates with Graphene Nanoplatelets-Reinforced Epoxy Skins.

Molecules 2020 Nov 2;25(21). Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Innovation Engineering, Università del Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy.

A novel quasi-3D hyperbolic shear deformation theory (QHSDT) with five unknowns is here employed, together with the Hamilton's principle and the modified couple stress theory (MCST) to analyze the vibrational behavior of rectangular micro-scale sandwich plates resting on a visco-Pasternak foundation. The sandwich structure features a Nomex or Glass phenolic honeycomb core, and two composite face sheets reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GPLs). The effective properties of both face sheets are evaluated by means of the Halpin-Tsai and extended rule of mixture (ERM) micromechanical schemes. Read More

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November 2020

Moesin is involved in microglial activation accompanying morphological changes and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

J Physiol Sci 2020 Oct 31;70(1):52. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Molecular Physiology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu, 525-8577, Japan.

Moesin is a member of the ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) proteins that are involved in the formation and/or maintenance of cortical actin organization through their cross-linking activity between actin filaments and proteins located on the plasma membranes as well as through regulation of small GTPase activities. Microglia, immune cells in the central nervous system, show dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in their process elongation and retraction as well as phagocytosis and migration. In microglia, moesin is the predominant ERM protein. Read More

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October 2020

Association of macular choroidal thickness with optical coherent tomography morphology in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(9):e0239992. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei City Hospital Zhongxiao Branch, Taipei, Taiwan.

Purpose: To compare macular choroidal thickness of idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) and fellow eyes, and before and after vitrectomy in terms of the morphological features on spectral-domain optical coherent tomography (SD-OCT).

Methods: Eighty-four patients with unilateral idiopathic ERM were involved. Patients were categorized into: Group 1, ERM without membrane contraction; Group 2, ERM with membrane contraction and retinal folding; and Group 3, ERM with membrane contraction and macular edema. Read More

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November 2020

Potentiating Antitumor Efficacy Through Radiation and Sustained Intratumoral Delivery of Anti-CD40 and Anti-PDL1.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Jun 5;110(2):492-506. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas; Department of Radiation Oncology, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas; Department of Surgery, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Purpose: Mounting evidence demonstrates that combining radiation therapy (RT) with immunotherapy can reduce tumor burden in a subset of patients. However, conventional systemic delivery of immunotherapeutics is often associated with significant adverse effects, which force treatment cessation. The aim of this study was to investigate a minimally invasive therapeutics delivery approach to improve clinical response while attenuating toxicity. Read More

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The NAD Responsive Transcription Factor ERM-BP Functions Downstream of Cellular Aggregation and Is an Early Regulator of Development and Heat Shock Response in .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 17;10:363. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States.

is a protozoan parasite and a major cause of dysentery and diarrheal disease in developing countries. Disease transmission from one host to another occurs via cysts which can survive in environmental extremes and are transmitted through contaminated food and water. Recent studies in our lab identified a novel transcription factor, Encystation Regulatory Motif- Binding Protein (ERM-BP), which is responsive to NAD and has an important role in encystation. Read More

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Electroconvulsive therapy modulates functional interactions between submodules of the emotion regulation network in major depressive disorder.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 08 5;10(1):271. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Neurology, The First Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230022, China.

An increasing number of neuroimaging studies have consistently revealed that disrupted functional interactions within the cognitive emotion regulation network (ERN) contribute to the onset of major depressive disorders (MDD). To disentangle the functional reorganization of ERN after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in MDD is curial for understanding its neuropathology. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected from 23 MDD patients before and after ECT, as well as 25 healthy controls. Read More

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Sub-lethal toxicity assessment of the phenylurea herbicide linuron in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo/larvae.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2020 Sep - Oct;81:106917. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Physiological Sciences, University of Florida Genetics Institute, Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Sciences Neuroscience, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida Genetics Institute, Interdisciplinary Program in Biomedical Sciences Neuroscience, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Electronic address:

Due to run-off and rain events, agrochemicals can enter water catchments, exerting endocrine disruption effects and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Linuron is a phenylurea herbicide used to control a wide variety of vegetative weeds in agriculture in addition to residential applications. However, there are few studies that quantify its toxicity to early developmental stages of fish. Read More

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An alkaline dissolution-based method using tetramethylammonium hydroxide for metals determination in cow milk samples.

Food Chem 2021 Jan 17;334:127559. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Departamento de Ciências e Tecnologias, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Jequié, Bahia, Brazil. Electronic address:

This study approaches the development of a method for the determination of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Fe in liquid and powdered cow milk. The method is based on sample dissolution assisted by ultrasound energy in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) media and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Central composite design (CCD) associated with response surface methodology and desirability function allowed the fast and efficient optimization of the variables involved in the performance of the dissolution. Read More

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January 2021

Primary immunization using low antigen dosages and immunological tolerance in rainbow trout.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Oct 30;105:16-23. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Enteric redmouth disease (ERM), caused by the Gram negative enterobacterium Yersinia ruckeri, affects farming of salmonids, but vaccination against ERM confers a certain degree of protection dependent on the administration route. Recent studies on oral vaccination of rainbow trout suggest that immunological tolerance may be induced by primary immunization using a low antigen dosage. We have examined if low dosages of Y. Read More

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October 2020

Regulation of Gene expression at the neuromuscular Junction.

Neurosci Lett 2020 09 15;735:135163. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

INMG, Inserm U1217, CNRS UMR5310, Université Lyon 1, Université De Lyon, Lyon, France; Centre De Biotechnologie Cellulaire, Hospices Civils De Lyon, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Gene expression in skeletal muscle is profoundly changed upon innervation. 50 years of research on the neuromuscular system have greatly increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these changes. By controlling the expression and the activity of key transcription factors, nerve-evoked electrical activity in the muscle fiber positively and negatively regulates the expression of hundreds of genes. Read More

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September 2020

ETS variant transcription factor 5 and c-Myc cooperate in derepressing the human telomerase gene promoter via composite ETS/E-box motifs.

J Biol Chem 2020 07 9;295(29):10062-10075. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Washington State University College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Spokane, Washington, USA

The human telomerase gene (hTERT) is repressed in most somatic cells. How transcription factors activate the hTERT promoter in its repressive chromatin environment is unknown. Here, we report that the ETS family protein ETS variant transcription factor 5 (ETV5) mediates epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced hTERT expression in MCF10A cells. Read More

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Antibiotic Resistance Is Associated with Integrative and Conjugative Elements and Genomic Islands in Naturally Circulating Isolates from Adults in Liverpool, UK.

Genes (Basel) 2020 06 6;11(6). Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Tropical Disease Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.

Pneumonia is the sixth largest cause of death in the UK. It is usually caused by , which healthy individuals can carry in their nose without symptoms of disease. Antimicrobial resistance further increases mortality and morbidity associated with pneumococcal infection, although few studies have analysed resistance in naturally circulating pneumococcal isolates in adult populations. Read More

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Transplantation Site Affects the Outcomes of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell-Based Therapy for Retinal Degeneration.

Stem Cells Int 2020 6;2020:9625798. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Ophthalmology of Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji Eye Institute, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have shown a strong protective effect on retinal degenerative diseases (RDD) after being transplanted into the subretinal space in an animal model. Recently, several clinical trials have been conducted to treat RDD with intravitreal transplantation of stem cells, including ASCs. However, the outcomes of the clinical trials were not satisfactory. Read More

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January 2020

Biphasic Outbreak of Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease in Eldercare Facility, New Zealand.

Emerg Infect Dis 2020 05;26(5):841-848

A 3-month outbreak of invasive group A Streptococcus disease at an eldercare facility, in which 5 persons died, was biphasic. Although targeted chemoprophylaxis contained the initial outbreak, a second phase of the outbreak occurred after infection control processes ended. To retrospectively investigate the genomic epidemiology of the biphasic outbreak, we used whole-genome sequencing and multiple bioinformatics approaches. Read More

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