16,438 results match your criteria respiratory syncytial


Is Viral Coinfection A Risk Factor For Severe Lower Respiratory Tract Infection? A Retrospective Observational Study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Ege University Medical Faculty, Ege University Children Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

Objective: To determine whether viral coinfection is a risk for severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI).

Working Hypothesis: Children with viral coinfection had a higher risk for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) than those with a single virus infection.

Study Design: Retrospective, observational study for ten years. Read More

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Control of IFN-I responses by the aminopeptidase IRAP in neonatal C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages during RSV infection.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

INRAE, UVSQ, VIM, Université Paris-Saclay, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants, in whom, the sensing of RSV by innate immune receptors and its regulation are still poorly described. However, the severe bronchiolitis following RSV infection in neonates has been associated with a defect in type I interferons (IFN-I) production, a cytokine produced mainly by alveolar macrophages (AMs) upon RSV infection in adults. In the present study, neonatal C57BL/6 AMs mobilized very weakly the IFN-I pathway upon RSV infection in vitro and failed to restrain virus replication. Read More

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Respiratory syncytial virus and palivizumab prophylaxis in the COVID-19 era.

Authors:
Richard S Taylor

CMAJ 2021 Apr;193(15):E523

Neonatologist, Victoria General Hospital, Victoria, BC.

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Development and qualification of a fast, high-throughput and robust imaging-based neutralization assay for respiratory syncytial virus.

J Immunol Methods 2021 Apr 9:113054. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Analytical Research & Development, MRL, Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common pathogen causing severe respiratory illness in infants and elder adults. The development of an effective RSV vaccine is an important unmet medical need and an area of active research. The traditional method for testing neutralizing antibodies against RSV in clinical trials is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which uses 24-well plates and needs six days post infection to develop viral plaques. Read More

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Cardiac biomarkers for outcome prediction in infant bronchiolitis: too soon to discard troponin?

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Fondazione CNR-Regione Toscana G. Monasterio and Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa.

Background: Acute bronchiolitis, usually caused by the respiratory syncytial virus, is the most common cause of severe respiratory distress in infants. The clinical relevance of cardiac biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of bronchiolitis in infants is still controversial.

Aim: This Editorial discuss the results a recent study published in Clinica Chimica Acta by A. Read More

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Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Respiratory Syncytial Viral Infection: Using Murine Models to Understand Human Pathology.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Mar;86(3):290-306

National Research Center, Institute of Immunology, Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow, 115522, Russia.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe pathology of the lower respiratory tract in infants, immunocompromised people, and elderly. Despite decades of research, there is no licensed vaccine against RSV, and many therapeutic drugs are still under development. Detailed understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms of the RSV infection pathology can accelerate the development of efficacious treatment. Read More

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Competition between RSV and influenza: Limits of modelling inference from surveillance data.

Epidemics 2021 Mar 26;35:100460. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Influenza cause a large burden of disease. Evidence of their interaction via temporary cross-protection implies that prevention of one could inadvertently lead to an increase in the burden of the other. However, evidence for the public health impact of such interaction is sparse and largely derives from ecological analyses of peak shifts in surveillance data. Read More

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Effects of weather-related social distancing on city-scale transmission of respiratory viruses: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 9;21(1):335. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute for Disease Modeling, Bellevue, WA, USA.

Background: Unusually high snowfall in western Washington State in February 2019 led to widespread school and workplace closures. We assessed the impact of social distancing caused by this extreme weather event on the transmission of respiratory viruses.

Methods: Residual specimens from patients evaluated for acute respiratory illness at hospitals in the Seattle metropolitan area were screened for a panel of respiratory viruses. Read More

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Inhibition of Autophagy Does Not Affect Innate Cytokine Production in Human Lung Epithelial Cells During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Viral Immunol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infection worldwide. Autophagy is an intracellular pathway involved in nutrient recycling. Recently, autophagy has been reported to play a role in regulating host cytokine response to several viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus. Read More

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Prodrugs of a 1'-CN-4-Aza-7,9-dideazaadenosine -Nucleoside Leading to the Discovery of Remdesivir (GS-5734) as a Potent Inhibitor of Respiratory Syncytial Virus with Efficacy in the African Green Monkey Model of RSV.

J Med Chem 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Gilead Sciences, Inc., 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, California 94404, United States.

A discovery program targeting respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) identified -nucleoside (RSV A2 EC = 530 nM) as a phenotypic screening lead targeting the RSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Prodrug exploration resulted in the discovery of remdesivir (, GS-5734) that is >30-fold more potent than against RSV in HEp-2 and NHBE cells. Metabolism studies in vitro confirmed the rapid formation of the active triphosphate metabolite, -, and in vivo studies in cynomolgus and African Green monkeys demonstrated a >10-fold higher lung tissue concentration of following molar normalized IV dosing of compared to that of . Read More

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The larger attachment glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus produced in primary human bronchial epithelial cultures reduces infectivity for cell lines.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Apr 8;17(4):e1009469. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Abagail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the upper and lower respiratory tracts and can cause lower respiratory tract infections in children and elders. RSV has traditionally been isolated, grown, studied and quantified in immortalized cell lines, most frequently HEp-2 cells. However, in vivo RSV infection is modeled more accurately in primary well differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cultures where RSV targets the ciliated cells and where the putative RSV receptor differs from the receptor on HEp-2 cells. Read More

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Transmission of Respiratory Syncytial Virus genotypes in Cali, Colombia.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Virus and Emerging Diseases -VIREM, Department of Microbiology, College of Health, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

Background: Colombia's climatological variety, added to pathogen diversity, creates local niches for infectious diseases. In Bogotá, respiratory syncytial virus causes 30%-52% of the cases of respiratory infections. In coastal or inter-Andean cities with higher temperature and longer dry seasons, frequency of this virus is 7%-13%. Read More

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Epidemiology of acute respiratory viral infections in children in Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institut Pasteur du Laos, Samsenthai Rd, Ban Kao-gnot, P.O. Box 3560, Vientiane, Lao PDR.

Respiratory infections are one of the most frequent reasons for medical consultations in children. In low resource settings such as in Lao PDR, knowledge gaps and the dearth of laboratory capacity to support differential diagnosis may contribute to antibiotic overuse. We studied the etiology, temporal trends and genetic diversity of viral respiratory infections in children to provide evidence for prevention and treatment guidelines. Read More

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Prefusion F-Based Polyanhydride Nanovaccine Induces Both Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity Resulting in Long-Lasting Protection against Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA;

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in both young children and in older adults. Despite the morbidity, mortality, and high economic burden caused by RSV worldwide, no licensed vaccine is currently available. We have developed a novel RSV vaccine composed of a prefusion-stabilized variant of the fusion (F) protein (DS-Cav1) and a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant encapsulated within polyanhydride nanoparticles, termed RSVNanoVax. Read More

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Differential in vitro effect of endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide on replication of the persistent respiratory syncytial virus genome.

Acta Virol 2021 ;65(1):49-57

Synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) is induced as an early response to viral challenges. Here, we studied effects of endogenous and exogenous NO on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) genome replication, using a persistently RSV infected macrophage-like cell line. NO was evaluated indirectly by nitrites accumulation and it was increased in infected macrophages with respect to non-infected cells. Read More

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January 2021

Engineering Protease-Resistant Peptides to Inhibit Human Parainfluenza Viral Respiratory Infection.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians & Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, United States.

The lower respiratory tract infections affecting children worldwide are in large part caused by the parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), particularly HPIV3, along with human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus, enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses. There are no vaccines for these important human pathogens, and existing treatments have limited or no efficacy. Infection by HPIV is initiated by viral glycoprotein-mediated fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Read More

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Complicated by Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Case Series.

Pediatrics 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Pediatric Critical Care, University of Tennessee Health Science Center and Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

In rare instances, severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections of the lower respiratory tract can cause life-threatening extrapulmonary complications. In this report, we describe 4 previously healthy, term and late-preterm infants admitted to the PICU with respiratory failure due to RSV bronchiolitis who developed necrotizing enterocolitis shortly after admission. All infants exhibited progressive abdominal distention, had typical radiographic findings, and developed simple or complex ascites. Read More

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Vaccination with prefusion-stabilized respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein induces genetically and antigenically diverse antibody responses.

Immunity 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

An effective vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an unrealized public health goal. A single dose of the prefusion-stabilized fusion (F) glycoprotein subunit vaccine (DS-Cav1) substantially increases serum-neutralizing activity in healthy adults. We sought to determine whether DS-Cav1 vaccination induces a repertoire mirroring the pre-existing diversity from natural infection or whether antibody lineages targeting specific epitopes predominate. Read More

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Construction and immunological evaluation of hepatitis B virus core virus-like particles containing multiple antigenic peptides of respiratory syncytial virus.

Virus Res 2021 Apr 2;298:198410. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Modern Virology Research Center, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. Electronic address:

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes severe disease in the lower respiratory tract of infants and young children. Currently, no licensed vaccine is available. In this study, we generated the chimeric virus-like particles (tHBc/F, tHBc/F/M2 and tHBc/F/M2/tG VLPs) containing multiple antigenic peptides of RSV proteins based on a truncated hepatitis B virus core carrier (tHBc). Read More

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NASYM, a live intranasal vaccine, protects young calves from bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the presence of maternal antibodies.

Vet Rec 2021 Jan 28:e83. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4, Canada.

Background: Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a major problem for cattle worldwide during their first year of life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate efficacy and longevity of immunity of a live vaccine (NASYM, HIPRA) in the presence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA).

Method: Calves (36) were distributed in four groups, based on MDA status and treatment. Read More

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January 2021

Variations in the pathophysiology of RSV infection depend on the age at onset.

Pediatr Int 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa-city, Hokkaido, Japan.

Background: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are associated with morbidity and mortality in infants and children. Thus precise elucidation of RSV-LRTI pathophysiology is important.

Methods: Medical records of hospitalized patients were reviewed. Read More

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Molecular epidemiology of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in children in sub-Saharan Africa.

Trop Med Int Health 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Center of Infectious Diseases, Virology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Objectives: This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) among febrile children with acute respiratory tract infection in Ghana, Gabon, Tanzania and Burkina Faso between 2014-2017 as well as the evolution and diversification of RSV strains from other sub-Saharan countries.

Methods: Pharyngeal swabs were collected at four study sites (Agogo, Ghana: n=490; Lambaréné, Gabon: n=182; Mbeya, Tanzania: n=293; Nouna, Burkina Faso: n=115) and analysed for RSV and other respiratory viruses using rtPCR. For RSV positive samples, sequence analysis of the second hypervariable region of the G-gene was performed. Read More

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The impact of the lockdown and the re-opening of schools and day cares on the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory infections in children - A nationwide register study in Finland.

EClinicalMedicine 2021 Apr 29;34:100807. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1, PL 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Nationwide restrictions started in Finland in March to prevent the spread of COVID-19, leading to school and day care closures. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of closures and re-openings on the respiratory pathogen epidemiology.

Methods: Laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); influenza (A & B); parainfluenza-, adeno-, and rhinoviruses; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; and Streptococcus pneumoniae in children were collected from the National Infectious Disease Register over the period of 2017-2020. Read More

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Does Airborne Pollen Influence COVID-19 Outbreak?

Sustain Cities Soc 2021 Mar 27:102887. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

The fast spread of SARS-CoV-2 presented a worldwide challenge to public health, economy, and educational system affecting human society's welfare. With high transmission rates and increasing evidence of COVID-19 spread via bioaerosols. The current review was conducted to examine airborne pollens impact on COVID-19 transmission and to identify the major gaps for post-pandemic research. Read More

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Activation and Inhibition of the NLRP3 Inflammasome by RNA Viruses.

J Inflamm Res 2021 26;14:1145-1163. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046, Gansu, People's Republic of China.

Inflammation refers to the response of the immune system to viral, bacterial, and fungal infections, or other foreign particles in the body, which can involve the production of a wide array of soluble inflammatory mediators. It is important for the development of many RNA virus-infected diseases. The primary factors through which the infection becomes inflammation involve inflammasome. Read More

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Nanostructured composite coating endowed with antiviral activity against human respiratory viruses deposited on fibre-based air filters.

Surf Coat Technol 2021 Mar 17;409:126873. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Dept. of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.

The widespread of viral airborne diseases is becoming a critical problem for human health and safety, not only for the common cold and flu, but also considering more serious infection as the current pandemic COVID-19. Even if the current heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems limit the disease transmission by air, the air filters are susceptible to microbial colonization. In addition, viruses spread via droplets (aerosol) produced by direct or indirect contact with infected people. Read More

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Adoption in Canada of an international risk scoring tool to predict respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization in moderate-to-late preterm infants.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Neonatology Service, Hospital Clinic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi Suñer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

The advisory board to the Ontario Ministry of Health considered adopting the new 3-variable international risk scoring tool (IRST) to guide prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus hospitalization (RSVH) in moderate-to-late preterm infants born 32-35 weeks' gestational age (wGA). Canada currently uses a nationally validated, 7-variable RST, to predict RSVH in 33-35 wGA infants. We explored the potential implications of switching from the Canadian to the IRST. Read More

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