J Control Release 2021 Jun 2;335:422-436. Epub 2021 Jun 2.
College of Marine Life Science, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, PR China. Electronic address:
Allergic rhinitis (AR), histamine-mediated upper airway inflammatory disorder, is characterized by sneezing, itching, airway hyperreactivity, etc. Though it is clinically well-managed by non-invasive inhaled antihistamines, for example, ketotifen (KT, histamine release inhibitor) and cetirizine (CTZ, histamine receptor antagonist), inherent defects of short mucosal in situ retention, frequent administration resulting in irritation to mucosa, and lack of target-specific sequential release of dual drug systems which have been proven to be more effective are inevitable, urging for alternative therapeutic strategies. Recent advances in nanotechnology may be pivotal to generating muco-adhesive nanosystems, which is desirable to prolong local retention, reduce dosing frequency and relieve mucosal irritation. Read More