50,552 results match your criteria respiratory epithelium


Kirigami-inspired stents for sustained local delivery of therapeutics.

Nat Mater 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Implantable drug depots have the capacity to locally meet therapeutic requirements by maximizing local drug efficacy and minimizing potential systemic side effects. Tubular organs including the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract and vasculature all manifest with endoluminal disease. The anatomic distribution of localized drug delivery for these organs using existing therapeutic modalities is limited. Read More

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Deep learning for discovering pathological continuum of crypts and evaluating therapeutic effects: An implication for in vivo preclinical study.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(6):e0252429. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Global Computational Biology and Digital Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Ridgefield, Connecticut, United States of America.

Applying deep learning to the field of preclinical in vivo studies is a new and exciting prospect with the potential to unlock decades worth of underutilized data. As a proof of concept, we performed a feasibility study on a colitis model treated with Sulfasalazine, a drug used in therapeutic care of inflammatory bowel disease. We aimed to evaluate the colonic mucosa improvement associated with the recovery response of the crypts, a complex histologic structure reflecting tissue homeostasis and repair in response to inflammation. Read More

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Lactate-induced dispersal of microcolonies is mediated by changes in cell density and pilus retraction and is influenced by temperature change.

Infect Immun 2021 Jun 14:IAI0029621. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.

is the etiologic agent of meningococcal meningitis and sepsis. Initial colonization of meningococci to the upper respiratory tract epithelium is crucial for disease development. The colonization occurs in several steps and expression of type IV pili (Tfp) is essential for both attachment and microcolony formation of encapsulated bacteria. Read More

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The management of paediatric rhinosinusitis.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jun 4;147:110786. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Lewisham and Greenwich NHS Trust, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Paediatric rhinosinusitis (PDRS) is commonly used as a synonym for rhinitis within healthcare. Although they may share common symptoms, the pathophysiology does differ; PDRS is the inflammation of the nasal mucosa in addition to the sinuses whereas rhinitis is the inflammation of just nasal mucosa. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis and management of PDRS. Read More

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Usefulness of cell-penetrating peptides and penetration accelerating sequence for nose-to-brain delivery of glucagon-like peptide-2.

J Control Release 2021 Jun 9;335:575-583. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan. Electronic address:

Neuropeptides are expected as therapeutic drug candidates for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Intracerebroventricular (i.c. Read More

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Giant skull base mass need not be a tumor - a rare presentation of IgG4-related disease.

Br J Neurosurg 2021 Jun 11:1-4. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Giant intracranial 'IgG4-related' lesions are uncommon. They may present as pachymeningitis or localized mass. Here we report, probably, the largest IgG4 skull base mass ever to be reported. Read More

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Insights Into the Effects of Mucosal Epithelial and Innate Immune Dysfunction in Older People on Host Interactions With .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 25;11:651474. Epub 2021 May 25.

Research Department of Infection, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

In humans, nasopharyngeal carriage of is common and although primarily asymptomatic, is a pre-requisite for pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Together, these kill over 500,000 people over the age of 70 years worldwide every year. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been largely successful in reducing IPD in young children and have had considerable indirect impact in protection of older people in industrialized country settings (herd immunity). Read More

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Does methotrexate influence COVID-19 infection? Case series and mechanistic data.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 06 10;23(1):166. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Internal Medicine 3, Friedrich-Alexander University (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg and Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: To investigate whether methotrexate treatment may affect the susceptibility to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Methods: Clinical assessment of symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in an initial case series of four families and confirmatory case series of seven families, within which one family member developed coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and exposed another family member receiving methotrexate treatment; experimental part with methotrexate treatment of mice and organoids followed by the assessment of mRNA and protein expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2.

Results: In the initial case series, three of four women on a joint ski trip developed COVID-19, while the fourth woman, under treatment with methotrexate, remained virus-free. Read More

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Thyme oil alleviates Ova-induced bronchial asthma through modulating Th2 cytokines, IgE, TSLP and ROS.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 8;140:111726. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Medical Laboratories, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Bronchial asthma (BA) is a heterogeneous allergic respiratory disease with diverse inflammatory symptoms, pathology, and responses to treatment. Thyme is a natural product which is consisted of multiple phenolic compounds of therapeutic significance for treatment of cough and bronchitis. This study evaluated the efficacy of thyme oil against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced BA in an experimental rabbit model. Read More

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Adjuvant effects of bacterium-like particles in the intranasal vaccination of chickens against Newcastle disease.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jun 4;259:109144. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Given that the respiratory mucosa is an important site for the initial replication of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), developing intranasal vaccines for chickens is an effective strategy to protect against this disease. The low immunogenicity of inactivated NDV administered by the mucosal route motivated us to identify a safe and potent adjuvant. Previous studies have shown that bacterium-like particles (BLPs), which serve as mucosal adjuvants, induce effective local and systemic immune responses through TLR2 signaling in both mammals and humans. Read More

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expression in asthmatic epithelium depends on intronic methylation and ZNF263 binding.

ERJ Open Res 2021 Apr 7;7(2). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Paediatric Pneumology and Allergology, University Medical Centre Schleswig-Holstein, Airway Research Centre North, member of the German Centre for Lung Research (DZL), Lübeck, Germany.

Background: Reduction of COL4A3, one of the six isoforms of collagen 4, in asthmatic airways results in increased inflammation and angiogenesis, implicating it as a central part of asthma pathogenesis. However, to date, the path underlying these diminished COL4A3 levels has been elusive. This study investigated a possible mechanism underlying the reduction of COL4A3 expression. Read More

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Cigarette smoke exposure attenuates the induction of antigen-specific IgA in the murine upper respiratory tract.

Mucosal Immunol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

McMaster Immunology Research Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

The upper respiratory tract is highly exposed to airborne pathogens and serves as an important inductive site for protective antibody responses, including mucosal IgA and systemic IgG. However, it is currently unknown to what extent inhaled environmental toxins, such as a cigarette smoke, affect the ability to induce antibody-mediated immunity at this site. Using a murine model of intranasal lipopolysaccharide and ovalbumin (LPS/OVA) immunization, we show that cigarette smoke exposure compromises the induction of antigen-specific IgA in the upper airways and systemic circulation. Read More

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Treatment of COVID-19-Related Olfactory Disorder Promoted by Kakkontokasenkyushin'i: A Case Series.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2021 ;254(2):71-80

Department of Kampo Medicine, Tohoku University Hospital.

Olfactory disorders are one of the characteristic symptoms of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), which causes infection and inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract. To our knowledge, there are no treatments for COVID-19-related olfactory disorder. Here, we report five olfactory disorder cases in COVID-19, treated using the Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine, kakkontokasenkyushin'i. Read More

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Type-2 airway inflammation in mild asthma patients with high blood eosinophils and high fractional exhaled nitric oxide.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Type-2 (T2) inflammation is a characteristic feature of asthma. Biological therapies have been developed to target T2-inflammation in asthma. IL-13 is a key component of T2-inflammation in asthma, driving mucus hypersecretion, IgE-induction, and smooth muscle contraction. Read More

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FAM13A as potential therapeutic target in modulating TGF-beta-induced airway tissue remodeling in COPD.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pediatrics, grid.17091.3eUniversity of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Genome-wide association studies have shown that a gene variant in the Family with Sequence Similarity 13, Member A (FAM13A) is strongly associated with reduced lung function and the appearance of respiratory symptoms in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). A key player in smoking-induced tissue injury and airway remodeling is the transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). To determine the role of FAM13A in TGFβ1 signaling, FAM13A-/- airway epithelial cells were generated using CRISPR-Cas9, while over-expression of FAM13A was achieved using lipid nanoparticles. Read More

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Breathing, speaking, coughing or sneezing: What drives transmission of SARS-CoV-2?

J Intern Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

From the, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is highly contagious, as demonstrated by numerous well-documented superspreading events. The infection commonly starts in the upper respiratory tract (URT) but can migrate to the lower respiratory tract (LRT) and other organs, often with severe consequences. Whereas LRT infection can lead to shedding of virus via breath and cough droplets, URT infection enables shedding via abundant speech droplets. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection activates a subset of intrinsic pathways to inhibit type I interferons and .

Int J Med Sci 2021 28;18(12):2561-2569. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, Institute of Biomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, PR China.

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a global challenge to human health. Upon viral infection, host cells initiate the innate antiviral response, which primarily involves type I interferons (I-IFNs), to enable rapid elimination of the invading virus. Previous studies revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection limits the expression of I-IFNs and , but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely elucidated. Read More

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The Use of Physostigmine in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Anticholinergic Toxicity After Olanzapine Overdose: Literature Review and Case Report.

J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun;62(3):285-297. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA. Electronic address:

Background: Second-generation antipsychotic agents are commonly used by clinicians for the treatment of various psychiatric and medical conditions. Despite their presumed safety, an overdose with olanzapine may lead to the development of anticholinergic toxicity. The anticholinergic toxidrome is characterized by both central and peripheral physical findings. Read More

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January 2021

Airway Administration of Flagellin Regulates the Inflammatory Response to .

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

INRAE, 27057, Infectiologie et Santé Publique, Nouzilly, France;

Excessive lung inflammation and airway epithelium damage are hallmarks of human inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Enhancement of innate immunity provides protection against pathogens while reducing lung-damaging inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying innate immunity-mediated protection in the lung remain mysterious, in part because of the lack of appropriate animal models for these human diseases. Read More

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IGFBP-3 Mediates Metabolic Homeostasis During Hyperosmolar Stress in the Corneal Epithelium.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Jun;62(7):11

Department of Ophthalmology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States.

Purpose: The insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is a multifunctional secretory protein with well-known roles in cell growth and survival. Data in our laboratory suggest that IGFBP-3 may be functioning as a stress response protein in the corneal epithelium. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of IGFBP-3 in mediating the corneal epithelial cell stress response to hyperosmolarity, a well-known pathophysiological event in the development of dry eye disease. Read More

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An initial assessment of the involvement of transglutaminase2 in eosinophilic bronchitis using a disease model developed in C57BL/6 mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 7;11(1):11946. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Sino-French Hoffmann Institute, Guangzhou, China.

The detailed pathogenesis of eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) remains unclear. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) has been implicated in many respiratory diseases including asthma. Herein, we aim to assess preliminarily the relationship of TG2 with EB in the context of the development of an appropriate EB model through ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge in the C57BL/6 mouse strain. Read More

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Mechanisms and biomarkers of airway epithelial cell damage in asthma: a review.

Clin Respir J 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous disease with complex pathological mechanisms representing different phenotypes, including severe asthma. The airway epithelium is a major site of complex pathological changes in severe asthma due, in part, to activation of inflammatory and immune mechanisms in response to noxious agents. Current imaging procedures are unable to accurately measure epithelial and airway remodeling. Read More

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E-cigarette exposures, respiratory tract infections, and impaired innate immunity: a narrative review.

Pediatr Med 2021 Feb 28;4. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Pulmonology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester NY, USA.

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are commonly used devices by adolescents and young adults. Since their introduction, the popularity of e-cigarettes has increased significantly with close to twenty percent of United States high school students reporting current use in 2020. As the number of e-cigarette users has increased, so have reports of vaping related health complications. Read More

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February 2021

The effect of coronaviruses on olfaction: systematic review.

Rhinology 2021 Jun;59(3):226-235

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Unlike other respiratory viruses, SARS-CoV-2 causes anosmia without sinonasal inflammation. Here we systematically review the effects of the 7 known human coronaviruses on olfaction to determine if SARS-CoV-2 distinctly affects the olfactory system.

Method: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, bioRxiv, medRxiv and DOAJ were searched for studies describing pathophysiological, immunohistochemical, cytological and clinical data. Read More

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Oxidation-Dependent Activation of Src Kinase Mediates Epithelial IL-33 Production and Signaling during Acute Airway Allergen Challenge.

J Immunol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Robert Larner, M.D. College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT;

The respiratory epithelium forms the first line of defense against inhaled pathogens and acts as an important source of innate cytokine responses to environmental insults. One critical mediator of these responses is the IL-1 family cytokine IL-33, which is rapidly secreted upon acute epithelial injury as an alarmin and induces type 2 immune responses. Our recent work highlighted the importance of the NADPH oxidase dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) in acute airway epithelial IL-33 secretion by various airborne allergens associated with HO production and reduction-oxidation-dependent activation of Src kinases and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Read More

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Effectiveness and safety of a new dental plaque removal device utilizing micro mist spray for removing oral biofilm in vitro.

BMC Oral Health 2021 06 4;21(1):286. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Advanced Prosthetic Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, 4-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575, Japan.

Background: Removal of oral biofilm from the oral mucosa is essential for preventing risk of respiratory and gastrointestinal infection in elderly people. Currently, no device is available which can remove oral biofilm from oral mucosa effectively and safely. Therefore, the effectiveness and safety of the Micro Scale Mist UNIT (MSM-UNIT), a newly developed dental plaque removal device utilizing high speed sprays of fine water droplets, were evaluated for biofilm removal, including the rate and surface roughness for simulated tooth surface and mucous membrane. Read More

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Chitosan-centered nanosystems as sustained therapeutics for allergic rhinitis intervention: Inhibition of histamine-induced cascades.

J Control Release 2021 Jun 2;335:422-436. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Marine Life Science, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, PR China. Electronic address:

Allergic rhinitis (AR), histamine-mediated upper airway inflammatory disorder, is characterized by sneezing, itching, airway hyperreactivity, etc. Though it is clinically well-managed by non-invasive inhaled antihistamines, for example, ketotifen (KT, histamine release inhibitor) and cetirizine (CTZ, histamine receptor antagonist), inherent defects of short mucosal in situ retention, frequent administration resulting in irritation to mucosa, and lack of target-specific sequential release of dual drug systems which have been proven to be more effective are inevitable, urging for alternative therapeutic strategies. Recent advances in nanotechnology may be pivotal to generating muco-adhesive nanosystems, which is desirable to prolong local retention, reduce dosing frequency and relieve mucosal irritation. Read More

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Acute abdomen in a 54-year-old COVID-19 patient: a case teport.

J Surg Case Rep 2021 May 28;2021(5):rjab198. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Surgery, St. Joseph's University Medical Center, Paterson, NJ, USA.

Although primarily a respiratory virus, coronavirus-19 acts on the gastrointestinal tract to cause symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. One possible mechanism involves the ACE2 receptor, which serves as the primary receptor for virus entry into the gastrointestinal epithelium. We describe the case of a 54-year-old-male with recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, who later presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and progressively worsening diffuse abdominal pain for 1 week. Read More

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Single-Dose Lentiviral Mediated Gene Therapy Recovers CFTR Function in Cystic Fibrosis Knockout Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2021 18;12:682299. Epub 2021 May 18.

Adelaide Medical School, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator () gene, resulting in defective ion transport in the airways. Addition of a functioning gene into affected airway cells has the potential to be an effective treatment for lung disease. The therapeutic efficacy of airway gene transfer can be quantified in animal models by assessing ion transport in the treated nasal epithelium using the nasal potential difference (PD) measurement technique. Read More

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Tube placement using 'IRIS': A pilot assessment of its utility and safety.

Intensive Crit Care Nurs 2021 May 31:103077. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Anaesthetics, Level 3, Gate 38, Brunel Building, Southmead Hospital Bristol, BS105NB, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Most critically ill patients have a feeding tube placed blindly, but 0.5% result in a major lung complication because misplacement is only detected at the end of procedure. Real-time guided tube placement may pre-empt such complications. Read More

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