684,664 results match your criteria respiratory

Competition between RSV and influenza: Limits of modelling inference from surveillance data.

Epidemics 2021 Mar 26;35:100460. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and Influenza cause a large burden of disease. Evidence of their interaction via temporary cross-protection implies that prevention of one could inadvertently lead to an increase in the burden of the other. However, evidence for the public health impact of such interaction is sparse and largely derives from ecological analyses of peak shifts in surveillance data. Read More

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Antiviral zinc oxide nanoparticles mediated by hesperidin and in silico comparison study between antiviral phenolics as anti-SARS-CoV-2.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Mar 26;203:111724. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Phytochemistry and Plant Systematics, Pharmaceutical Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the coronavirus (COVID-19), is the virus responsible for over 69,613,607 million infections and over 1,582,966 deaths worldwide. All treatment measures and protocols were considered to be supportive only and not curative. During this current coronavirus pandemic, searching for pharmaceutical or traditional complementary and integrative medicine to assist with prevention, treatment, and recovery has been advantageous. Read More

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Mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles enhanced inactivated PRRSV targeting dendritic cells and increased T cell immunity.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Apr 5;235:110237. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

College of Life Science and Technology, Dalian University, Dalian, 116622, PR China; Institute of Immunology, Dalian University, Dalian, 116622, PR China. Electronic address:

The objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel antigen carrier using mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles with entrapped inactivated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in inducing T cell mediated immunity in vitro. Gelatin nanoparticles (GNP) were modified with mannose to form mannosylated gelatin nanoparticles (MnGNP), which can efficiently and specifically target monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). The inactivated PRRSV was encapsulated in the MnGNP and GNP, referred to as MnGNP-PRRSV and GNP-PRRSV, respectively. Read More

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The role of FeNO in stable COPD patients with eosinophilic airway inflammation.

Respir Med 2021 Mar 28;181:106377. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Medicine, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.

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Prognostic impact of KRAS mutation status for patients with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung treated with first-line pembrolizumab monotherapy.

Lung Cancer 2021 Apr 5;155:163-169. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Medical Center Leeuwarden, Henri Dunantweg 2, 8934 AD, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objectives: Monotherapy with pembrolizumab is the preferred first-line treatment for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression ≥50 %, without targetable oncogenic drivers. Although targeted therapies are in development for patients with specific Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) mutations, these are not available in daily care yet. It is not clear whether there is a difference in survival on first-line pembrolizumab for patients with a high PD-L1 status with or without a KRAS mutation. Read More

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AFB-induced mice liver injury involves mitochondrial dysfunction mediated by mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 7;216:112213. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB) pollutes foodstuffs and feeds, causing a food safety problem and seriously endangering human and animal health. Liver is the principal organ for AFB accumulation and biotransformation, during which AFB can cause acute and chronic liver damage, however, the specific mechanism is not completely clear. Mitochondria are the primary organelle of cellular bio-oxidation, providing 95% energy for liver to execute its multiple functions. Read More

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Evaluating the mitochondrial activity and inflammatory state of dimethyl sulfoxide differentiated PLB-985 cells.

Mol Immunol 2021 Apr 7;135:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, Moncton, NB, Canada; New Brunswick Center for Precision Medicine, Moncton, NB, Canada. Electronic address:

Neutrophils play a key role in the innate immunity with their ability to generate and release inflammatory mediators that promote the inflammatory response and consequently restore the hemostasis. As active participants in several steps of the normal inflammatory response, neutrophils are also involved in chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, and arthritis. Given their dual role in the modulation of inflammation, regulating the inflammatory response of neutrophils has been suggested as an important therapeutic approach by numerous researchers. Read More

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The effects of antibiotics on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer differ based on PD-L1 expression.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 7;149:73-81. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Allergy and Respiratory Medicine, Okayama University Hospital, Japan.

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are essential for treatment of various malignancies, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, several studies have shown that the gut microbiome plays an important role in ICI treatment of solid cancers, and antibiotic (ATB) use had a negative impact on the outcomes of ICI treatment via dysbiosis in the gut. However, whether this is applicable to NSCLC remains unclear. Read More

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Pre and postnatal exposure to mercury and respiratory health in preschool children from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohort Study.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 20;782:146654. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Region, FISABIO-Public Health, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020 Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. Pabellón 11, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Effects of mercury on maturing immune system have been reported, however the association with respiratory and allergy problems during infancy remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between pre and postnatal mercury exposure and respiratory and allergy problems among preschool children and to examine the role of potential modifying factors. Study subjects were children participant in Spanish Childhood and Environment Project (INMA, 2003-2008). Read More

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Treatment of B-cell depleted COVID-19 patients with convalescent plasma and plasma-based products.

Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 7:108723. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medicine, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infected patients, receiving background anti-CD20 therapy, were treated with convalescent plasma or plasma-based products. Eight patients were included in the study, presenting with prolonged disease course and delayed viral clearance. CP/plasma-based products were offered as an add-on therapy to standard medical treatment. Read More

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The effect of environmental diesel exhaust pollution on SARS-CoV-2 infection: The mechanism of pulmonary ground glass opacity.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:103657. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Ankara, Turkey.

Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are the major components of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and chronic exposure is recognized to enhance respiratory system complications. Although the spread of SARS-CoV-2 was found to be associated with the PMs, the mechanism by which exposure to DEP increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection is still under discussion. However, diesel fine PM (dPMs) elevate the probability of SARS-CoV-2 infection, as it coincides with the increase in the number of ACE2 receptors. Read More

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E-cigarette Vape and Lung ACE2 Expression: Implications for coronavirus vulnerability.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 7:103656. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA. Electronic address:

Evidence in humans suggests a correlation between nicotine smoking and severe respiratory symptoms with COVID-19 infection. In lung tissue, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) appears to mechanistically underlie viral entry. Here, we investigated whether e-cigarette vapor inhalation alters ACE2 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression in male and female mice. Read More

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Sporadic High Pacing and Shock Impedance at Remote Monitoring in Hybrid Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Systems: Clinical Impact and Management.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrological, Aenesthesiological and Geriatric Sciences "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome.

Background: Sporadic high impedance values without other anomalies have been recently described by remote monitoring for hybrid cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) systems. The clinical significance and related hazard of this phenomenon are not fully understood.

Objective: To describe prevalence, management and outcomes associated with hybrid implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) systems. Read More

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Iron deficiency is associated with impaired biventricular reserve and reduced exercise capacity in patients with unexplained dyspnea.

J Card Fail 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Cardiology, Hartcentrum, Jessa Hospital, Hasselt, Belgium; Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium.

Background: Iron deficiency (ID) is frequent and associated with diminished exercise capacity in heart failure (HF), but its contribution to unexplained dyspnea without a HF diagnosis at rest remains unclear.

Methods: Consecutive patients with unexplained dyspnea and normal echocardiography and pulmonary function tests at rest underwent prospective standardized cardiopulmonary exercise testing with echocardiography (CPETecho) in a tertiary care dyspnea clinic. ID was defined as ferritin <300µg/l and transferrin saturation (TSAT)<20% and its impact on peak oxygen uptake (peakVO), biventricular response to exercise, and peripheral oxygen extraction was assessed. Read More

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Clinical care of neonates undergoing opioid withdrawal in the immediate postpartum period.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 Apr 7:106978. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

As the opioid epidemic escalates in westernized countries around the world, chronic opioid use during pregnancy has become a growing public health issue. There are increasing concerns that chronic maternal opioid use might adversely affect the developing fetal brain. Furthermore, the sudden discontinuation of the trans-placental opioid supply at birth puts newborns at acute risk for neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS). Read More

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Update of a model to predict outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Discipline of Surgery, The University of Adelaide, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville South, South Australia 5011, Australia; Basil Hetzel Institute for Translational Health Research, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville South, Australia, 5011. Electronic address:

Objectives: Risk assessment models must be continuously validated and updated to ensure that predictions remain valid. Here, the Endovascular Aneurysm Repair Risk Assessment Model, developed in 2008, is updated and improved.

Methods: We used prospectively collected data from Australian patients who underwent elective endovascular aneurysm repair between 2009 and 2013 (n=695). Read More

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Olive oil-derived nitro-fatty acids: protection of mitochondrial function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Apr 7:108646. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Departamento de Bioquímica and Centro de Investigaciones Biomédicas (CENIBIO), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive liver fat deposition in the absence of significant alcohol intake. Since extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) reduces fat accumulation, we analyzed the involvement of nitro-fatty acids (NO-FA) on the beneficial effects of EVOO consumption on NAFLD. Nitro-fatty acids formation was observed during digestion in mice supplemented with EVOO and nitrite. Read More

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Therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with life-threatening COVID-19: a randomized control clinical trial.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Apr 7:106334. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Research & Innovation Centre, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) following life-threatening COVID-19.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Open-label, randomized clinical trial of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with life-threatening COVID-19 [positive real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction test, plus acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, organ failure, hyperinflammation]. The study was terminated after 87/120 patients were enrolled. Read More

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Dietary astaxanthin augments disease resistance of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790) against Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; International Institute of Aquaculture and Aquatic Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

This investigation describes the impacts of dietary provisioning with astaxanthin on hemato-biochemistry, non-specific immunity, and disease resistance of the Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer against the virulent Vibrio alginolyticus, with specific reference to dose-response associations and variations over different post-infection periods (0-, 7-, and 14-day). Triplicate groups of fish weighing 28 g, on average, were fed various diets (C, the control or astaxanthin-free; AXT50, 50 mg astaxanthin kg diet; AXT100, 100 mg astaxanthin kg diet; and AXT150, 150 mg astaxanthin kg diet) for 90 days and subsequently challenged with V. alginolyticus at the end of the feeding period. Read More

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RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 1,2-cyclopentanedione, 3,4,4-trimethyl-, CAS Registry Number 33079-56-0.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 7:112177. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Member Expert Panel, The Journal of Dermatological Science (JDS), Editor-in-Chief, Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, 431-3192, Japan.

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RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, butyl lactate, CAS Registry Number 138-22-7.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 7:112174. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

The Journal of Dermatological Science (JDS), Editor-in-Chief, Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, 431-3192, Japan.

Butyl lactate was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, and environmental safety. Data from read-across analog ethyl (L)-lactate (CAS # 687-47-8) show that butyl lactate is not expected to be genotoxic. Data on read-across materials butyl alcohol (CAS # 71-36-3) and lactic acid (CAS # 50-21-5) provide a calculated margin of exposure (MOE) >100 for the repeated dose and reproductive toxicity endpoints. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Ophthalmology Medical Student Teaching: Educational Innovations, Challenges, and Future Directions.

Surv Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Blanton Eye Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Houston, Texas, USA; Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa; The Departments of Neurology and Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York City, New York, USA; The Department of Ophthalmology, Baylor College of Medicine (Adjunct Professor), Houston, Texas, USA; The UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA; The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (Adjunct Professor), Iowa City, Iowa, US.

Graduate medical education (GME) in ophthalmology has faced and overcome many challenges over the past years and 2020 has been a game-changing year. Although the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) pandemic disrupted medical education globally, ophthalmic educators rapidly transformed their curricula to novel and effective virtual learning formats. Thus, while the COVID-19 outbreak has been one of the most significant challenges faced in the history of medical education, it has also provided an impetus to develop innovative teaching practices, bringing with it unprecedented success in allowing medical students to continue their education in ophthalmology despite these challenges. Read More

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Complementary and alternative medicine therapies and COVID-19: a systematic review.

Rev Environ Health 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Clinical Immunology Research Center, Ali-Ebne Abitaleb Hospital, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Objectives: Despite the high prevalence of coronavirus and various treatment approaches, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), there is still no definitive treatment for coronavirus. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CAM interventions on COVID-19 patients.

Content: Four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and EMBASE) were searched from the inception of databases until July 16, 2020. Read More

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Differences between infectious disease events in first liver transplant versus re-transplantation in the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study.

Liver Transpl 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

University Hospital Zurich, Division of Infectious Diseases and Hospital Epidemiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background & Aims: Re-transplantation after graft failure is increasingly performed, but inferior graft survival, patient survival and quality of life has been reported. The role of infectious disease (ID) events in this less favorable outcome is unknown.

Approach & Results: We analyzed ID events after first liver transplantation (FLTpx) and re-transplantation (re-LTpx) in the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. Read More

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Genotypic and phenotypic profiles of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients in Bangladesh.

Trop Med Int Health 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Institute for Developing Science and Health Initiatives, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Objectives: Characterization of resistance phenotype and genotype is crucial to understanding the burden and transmission of antimicrobial-resistance (AMR). This study aims to determine the spectrum of AMR and associated genes encoding aminoglycoside, macrolide and β-lactam classes of antimicrobials in bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients in Bangladesh.

Methods: 430 bacterial isolates from patients with respiratory, intestinal, wound infections, and typhoid fever, presenting to clinical care from 2015-2019, were examined. Read More

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Coronavirus genomic nsp14-ExoN, structure, role, mechanism, and potential application as a drug target.

Mohammed Tahir

J Med Virol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biology, University of Sulaimani, Iraq, Kurdistan region, Sulaimanyah city.

The recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causing a global pandemic with devastating effects on healthcare and social-economic systems, has no special antiviral therapies available for human coronaviruses (CoVs). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) possesses a non-structural protein (nsp14), with amino terminal domain coding for a proofreading exoribonuclease (ExoN) that is required for high-fidelity replication. The ability of CoVs during genome replication and transcription to proofread and exclude mismatched nucleotides has long hindered the development of anti-CoV drugs. Read More

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Simultaneous monitoring of SARS-CoV-2, bacteria, and fungi in indoor air of hospital: a study on Hajar Hospital in Shahrekord, Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

The novel SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was declared as pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Understanding the airborne route of SARS-CoV-2 transmission is essential for infection prevention and control. In this study, a total of 107 indoor air samples (45 SARS-CoV-2, 62 bacteria, and fungi) were collected from different wards of the Hajar Hospital in Shahrekord, Iran. Read More

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A Qualitative Exploration of Sleep Habits and Intervention Needs Among Youth with Cystic Fibrosis.

J Clin Psychol Med Settings 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Evidence suggests that individuals with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) experience difficulties with sleep architecture and hygiene, although research is limited. There are currently no behavioral sleep interventions for youth with CF. The current study used qualitative methods to understand sleep needs and concerns among youth with CF, as well as to obtain feedback about potentially useful behavioral sleep intervention strategies. Read More

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Home sleep apnea testing: an accuracy study.

Sleep Breath 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Neuro-Sono Sleep Center, Neurology Department, Unifesp, São Paulo, Brazil.

Aim: There are no studies comparing tests performed at home with those carried out in the laboratory, using the same device. The only studies that have been performed have compared the device used at home with the standard polygraph used in the laboratory. The purpose of this study was therefore to verify the accuracy of the home diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) via unassisted type 2 portable polysomnography, compared with polysomnography using the same equipment in a sleep laboratory. Read More

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Characteristics of a bolus created using thermoplastic sheets for postmastectomy radiation therapy.

Radiol Phys Technol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Radiation Therapy Center, Takarazuka City Hospital, 4-5-1 Kohama, Takarazuka, Hyogo, 665-0827, Japan.

This study applied a "shell bolus," an immobilizing thermoplastic shell locally thickened with extra layers over the radiation target, during postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). We performed ion chamber and film measurements for a solid water phantom for thermoplastic sheets and a gel bolus for dosimetric characterization using a 6-MV X-ray flattening-filter-free (FFF) beam. The air gaps between the body surface for the gel and shell bolus were measured using computed tomography (CT) images in patients who underwent PMRT. Read More

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