23,150 results match your criteria respect infections

Nanotherapeutics for treating coronavirus diseases.

J Drug Deliv Sci Technol 2021 Jun 10:102634. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Viral diseases have recently become a threat to human health and rapidly become a significant cause of mortality with a continually exacerbated unfavorable socio-economic impact. Coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), have threatened human life, with immense accompanying morbidity rates; the COVID-19 (caused by SARS-CoV-2) epidemic has become a severe threat to global public health. In addition, the design process of antiviral medications usually takes years before the treatments can be made readily available. Read More

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The "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Arctic: regional and temporal dynamics.

Int J Circumpolar Health 2021 12;80(1):1925446

Department of Geography, Texas State University, Round Rock, TX, USA.

This article focuses on the "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Arctic and examines spatiotemporal patterns between July 2020 and January 2021. We analyse available COVID-19 data at the regional (subnational) level to elucidate patterns and typology of Arctic regions with respect to the COVID-19 pandemic. This article builds upon our previous research that examined the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic between February and July 2020. Read More

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December 2021

A Rare Case of an Intramedullary Spinal Cord Abscess Due to Escherichia coli in a Pediatric Patient.

Child Neurol Open 2021 Jan-Dec;8:2329048X211011869. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA.

Spinal cord abscess is a rare entity, particularly in the pediatric population. Spinal cord abscesses can be located in extradural, subdural and intradural (intramedullary or extramedullary) regions of the cord. Among these locations, intramedullary is extremely uncommon. Read More

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Applying Cryo-X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to Study the Surface Chemical Composition of Fungi and Viruses.

Front Chem 2021 28;9:666853. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Interaction between microorganisms and their surroundings are generally mediated the cell wall or cell envelope. An understanding of the overall chemical composition of these surface layers may give clues on how these interactions occur and suggest mechanisms to manipulate them. This knowledge is key, for instance, in research aiming to reduce colonization of medical devices and device-related infections from different types of microorganisms. Read More

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Clinical and epidemiological features of patients colonized by different types of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Objectives: To compare the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients colonized or infected with different types of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) and to analyze the differences in their outcome.

Methods: A retrospective, comparative study of all patients colonized or infected by KPC-, NDM- or OXA-48 CPE that were hospitalized between 01/01/2018 and 30/06/2019. Microbiological, demographic and clinical data was collected from the patient's computerized files. Read More

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Natural killer cells in antiviral immunity.

Nat Rev Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immune responses to viral infections. Here, we review recent insights into the role of NK cells in viral infections, with particular emphasis on human studies. We first discuss NK cells in the context of acute viral infections, with flavivirus and influenza virus infections as examples. Read More

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[CME Dermatology 23/Answers: Hidradenitis suppurativa].

Praxis (Bern 1994) 2021 Jun;110(8):471-472

Institut für Dermatologie und Venerologie, Stadtspital Waid und Triemli, Zürich.

CME Dermatology 23/Answers: Hidradenitis suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa (Acne inversa) is a chronic skin disease characterized by recurrent inflammatory nodules, abscesses, and scarring mainly in the intertriginous areas. The prevalence is estimated to be 0.05 to 4. Read More

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[Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic from a nephrological perspective].

Internist (Berl) 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Klinik für Nephrologie, Klinikum Lüdenscheid, Lüdenscheid, Deutschland.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has also resulted in substantial challenges for nephrology worldwide. Patients with chronic kidney diseases are a particularly vulnerable patient group in this context and in severe courses of COVID-19 the kidneys are most frequently affected by organ failure after the lungs.

Material And Methods: In order to reliably evaluate the prevalence and mortality of dialysis patients in Germany with respect to COVID-19, during the first wave in spring 2020 the German Society of Nephrology implemented a registry for dialysis patients. Read More

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Systematic Literature Review on Burden of difficile Infection in India.

Clin Pathol 2021 Jan-Dec;14:2632010X211013816. Epub 2021 May 31.

Medical and Scientific Affairs, Pfizer Limited, Mumbai, India.

Background: Owing to limited diagnostic facilities and surveillance protocols, there is a paucity on the prevalence data of infections (CDIs) in developing countries such as India.

Objective: The aims of these studies are (1) to determine the prevalence of CDI in India, (2) to understand the risk factors of CDI, and (3) to determine the impact of different diagnostic methods on reported CDI rates.

Method: A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar database to identify Indian studies reporting the prevalence of CDI. Read More

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Development, Implementation, and Outcomes of a Global Infectious Disease Training Course.

J Med Educ Curric Dev 2021 Jan-Dec;8:23821205211015290. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Global Pediatric Medicine and the Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background: Skilled healthcare professionals are critical for providing quality healthcare for children with cancer globally. Training curricula addressing the knowledge needs in infection care and prevention (ICP) in cancer are scarce.

Program Description: We implemented a 10-week blended course in ICP. Read More

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Potential Role of Vitamins and Zinc on Acute Respiratory Infections Including Covid-19.

Glob Pediatr Health 2021 31;8:2333794X211021739. Epub 2021 May 31.

Dr Sardjito Hospital, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Vitamin C, E, D, A, zinc are considered to be essential in preventing and treating of acute respiratory infections (ARI) including COVID-19. We reviewed published studies evaluating the potential roles of these vitamin and zinc for ARIs and COVID-19 using Medline database, medRxiv, and bibliographic references. Vitamins C, D, and E did not reduce incidence of common cold in general, but vitamin C reduced by half in population with physical and environment stresses. Read More

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Depressive Disorders Lead to Increased Complications After Geriatric Hip Fractures.

Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2021 25;12:21514593211016252. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: Intertrochanteric hip fractures are a common injury treated by orthopedic surgeons and the incidence rate is rising. Preoperative depression is a known risk factor for postoperative complications in orthopaedic surgery, however its effects on outcomes after geriatric hip fractures is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between preoperative depression and potential complications following open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) and intramedullary nailing (IMN) of geriatric hip fractures. Read More

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Prevalence of Mastitis and Phenotypic Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant in Lactating Dairy Cows of Selected Dairy Farms in and Around Adama Town, Central Ethiopia.

Environ Health Insights 2021 28;15:11786302211021297. Epub 2021 May 28.

Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: The emergence of Methicillin resistant (MRSA) poses a serious public health threat. Strains of resistant to β-lactam antibiotics are known as MRSA. MRSA has gained attention as community pathogen. Read More

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An Analysis of Leptospirosis Control in a Flood-Affected Region of Kerala and the Role of Accredited Social Health Activists - A Questionnaire Study.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Jun 9:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Amrita School of Dentistry, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Kochi, Kerala, India.

Background: Chengannur, a town in the south Indian state of Kerala, was 1 of the worst affected towns during the floods of 2018. Post-flood, Kerala state was under the threat of many infectious diseases including leptospirosis, but did not report any leptospirosis infections.

Objectives: This study was conducted with the following objectives: (1) Assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the prevention of leptospirosis among the flood affected population and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) of Chengannur; and (2) Analyze the factors responsible for and contributing to leptospirosis control in the area post flood. Read More

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A strong effect of individual compliance with mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis on sustained clearance of soil-transmitted helminth infections.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Jun 8;14(1):310. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

TransVIHMI, Université Montpellier, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), INSERM, Montpellier, France.

Background: The impact of semiannual mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole (ALB; 400 mg) alone on lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections was assessed during two trials conducted from 2012 to 2018 in the Republic of Congo and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The collected data were analyzed to evaluate the effect of compliance with ALB treatment on STH infections.

Methods: STH infections were diagnosed with duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears and the results are reported as eggs per gram of stool. Read More

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Immunomodulatory role and potential utility of various nutrients and dietary components in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2021 Jun 8:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Recently, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome cornoavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become a great perturbation all around the globe and has many devastating effects on every aspect of life. Apart from the oxygen therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, Remdesivir and Dexamethasone have been proven to be efficacious against COVID-19, along with various vaccine candidates and monoclonal antibody cocktail therapy for Regeneron. All of these are currently at different stages of clinical trials. Read More

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A comparison of five epidemiological models for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in India.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 7;21(1):533. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Background: Many popular disease transmission models have helped nations respond to the COVID-19 pandemic by informing decisions about pandemic planning, resource allocation, implementation of social distancing measures, lockdowns, and other non-pharmaceutical interventions. We study how five epidemiological models forecast and assess the course of the pandemic in India: a baseline curve-fitting model, an extended SIR (eSIR) model, two extended SEIR (SAPHIRE and SEIR-fansy) models, and a semi-mechanistic Bayesian hierarchical model (ICM).

Methods: Using COVID-19 case-recovery-death count data reported in India from March 15 to October 15 to train the models, we generate predictions from each of the five models from October 16 to December 31. Read More

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Squalene nanoemulsion reinforces mucosal and immunological fingerprints following intravaginal delivery.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 5;141:111799. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan. Electronic address:

This study describes the assessment of mucosal adjuvant activity of a squalene-based nanoemulsion ([email protected]) following intravaginal delivery in mice. After immunization, a high level of recruitment of CD11b/c granulocytes and F4/80 macrophages was observed in the vaginal mucosal tissues of the mice immunized with a model protein ovalbumin (OVA) formulated with [email protected], and then downstream regulated the expression of MHC II and costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86 on CD11c cells harvested from the associated draining lymph node. With respect to cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunity, the mice immunized with [email protected] OVA elicited a high population of OVA-specific CD8 cells in the spleen and increased the secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-17 from OVA-restimulated splenocytes compared with those immunized with OVA alone. Read More

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NAD Metabolism, Metabolic Stress, and Infection.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 19;8:686412. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an essential metabolite with wide-ranging and significant roles in the cell. Defects in NAD metabolism have been associated with many human disorders; it is therefore an emerging therapeutic target. Moreover, NAD metabolism is perturbed during colonization by a variety of pathogens, either due to the molecular mechanisms employed by these infectious agents or by the host immune response they trigger. Read More

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Molecular Epidemiology and Drug Resistant Mechanism of Carbapenem-Resistant in Elderly Patients With Lower Respiratory Tract Infection.

Front Public Health 2021 20;9:669173. Epub 2021 May 20.

Intensive Care Department of Taian City Central Hospital, Shandong, China.

Infection by carbapenem-resistant (CRKp) hampers the treatment of elderly patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI); however, relevant data with respect to the characteristics of CRKp in elderly patients with LRTIs are limited. In the present study, isolated from elderly patients with LRTIs was collected and identified by VITEK-MS. VITEK 2 compact was used for drug sensitivity test to screen CRKps, and broth dilution method was used for drug sensitivity of tigecycline and colistin. Read More

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Use of extended HR-HPV Genotyping in improving the Triage Strategy of 2019 ASCCP recommendations in Women with positive HR-HPV diagnosis and Simultaneous LSIL Cytology Results.

J Cancer 2021 19;12(14):4332-4340. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Gynecology, Laboratory of Gynecologic Oncology, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, Fujian, P.R. China.

According to the 2019 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) recommendations, women with a positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) diagnosis and low-grade cervical intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology result should be referred for further colposcopy examination. However, this strategy results in over-treatment in several cases. In this study, we assessed the performance of extended HR-HPV genotyping in women with a simultaneous positive HR-HPV and LSIL diagnosis with the aim of improving the current triage strategy. Read More

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Herpes Simplex Virus: A Versatile Tool for Insights Into Evolution, Gene Delivery, and Tumor Immunotherapy.

Virology (Auckl) 2020 29;11:1178122X20913274. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Biology, Texas Woman's University, Denton, TX, USA.

Herpesviruses are prevalent throughout the animal kingdom, and they have coexisted and coevolved along with their host species for millions of years. Herpesviruses carry a large (120-230 kb) double-stranded DNA genome surrounded by a protein capsid, a tegument layer consisting of viral and host proteins, and a lipid bilayer envelope with surface glycoproteins. A key characteristic of these viruses is their ability to enter a latent state following primary infection, allowing them to evade the host's immune system and persist permanently. Read More

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Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Klebsiella spp. meningitis in France.

Infect Dis Now 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Institut Micalis UMR 1319, Université Paris-Saclay, INRAe, AgroParisTech, Châtenay Malabry, France. Service de microbiologie clinique, GH Paris Saint-Joseph, 75014 Paris, France; Laboratoire de Bactériologie, Département des Agents infectieux, CHU Saint Louis-Lariboisière-Fernand Widal, APHP, 75010 Paris, France.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of Klebsiella spp. meningitis in France with respect to clinical and bacteriological data.

Methods: We performed a four-year multicenter, retrospective, observational study. Read More

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Barriers and motivators of contraceptive use among young people in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review of qualitative studies.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252745. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Population and Behavioural Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Hohoe, Ghana.

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, about 80% of young women either use a traditional method or do not use any form of contraception at all. The objectives of this review were to ascertain the barriers and motivators of contraceptive use among young people in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Materials And Methods: We conducted electronic literature searches in PubMed, EMBASE, Ebsco/PsycINFO and Scopus. Read More

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Inclusive Design as a Market Differentiator: An Industry and Academic Perspective on Diversity-Driven Initiatives in Built Environment Design Across North America, Europe, the UK, and Australia.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2021 Jun;282:13-31

Queensland University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment.

Industry and academic perspectives have become more focused on designing for Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) over the past few years, both in general and particularly within the built environment. This renewed interest appears to have stemmed from a basis of respect-based 'due diligence' in 2018 to one of necessity in 2020, when the COVID-19 pandemic brought areas of difference into focus and exacerbated them, making it harder for people to live their everyday lives. In this paper, the authors seek to bridge the divide between academia and industry on the subject of Inclusive Design (ID) through their use of a combination of an academic and grey literature review as well as empirical research conducted with scholars and practitioners. Read More

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Patterns in COVID-19 Vaccination Coverage, by Social Vulnerability and Urbanicity - United States, December 14, 2020-May 1, 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 Jun 4;70(22):818-824. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Disparities in vaccination coverage by social vulnerability, defined as social and structural factors associated with adverse health outcomes, were noted during the first 2.5 months of the U.S. Read More

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Molecular targets for antifungals in amino acid and protein biosynthetic pathways.

Amino Acids 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry and BioTechMed Center, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland.

Fungi cause death of over 1.5 million people every year, while cutaneous mycoses are among the most common infections in the world. Mycoses vary greatly in severity, there are long-term skin (ringworm), nail or hair infections (tinea capitis), recurrent like vaginal candidiasis or severe, life-threatening systemic, multiorgan infections. Read More

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Impact of COVID-19 on Case Reporting for HTLV and HIV-2 in Spain.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Universidad Internacional de La Rioja, 247680, Health Sciences School & Medical Center, calle Almansa 101, Madrid, Spain, 28035;

The medical demand imposed by COVID-19 has distracted proper care of other illnesses. Herein, we report the impact on new diagnoses of HTLV-1, HTLV-2 and HIV-2 in Spain, where these infections are mostly driven by immigration flows from endemic regions. As expected, case reporting declined for all three retroviral infections with respect to prior years. Read More

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COVID-19: Seroprevalence and Vaccine Responses in UK Dental Care Professionals.

J Dent Res 2021 Jun 2:220345211020270. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Dental care professionals (DCPs) are thought to be at enhanced risk of occupational exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, robust data to support this from large-scale seroepidemiological studies are lacking. We report a longitudinal seroprevalence analysis of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, with baseline sampling prior to large-scale practice reopening in July 2020 and follow-up postimplementation of new public health guidance on infection prevention control (IPC) and enhanced personal protective equipment (PPE). Read More

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Organisation and timeline of measures in French psychiatric establishments during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic: EvOlu'Psy study.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 06 2;21(1):284. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Association Hospitalière Sainte-Marie, Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Marie de Clermont-Ferrand, 33 Rue Gabriel Péri, 63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: The onset of COVID-19 required rapid organisational changes in the mental health domain. Most mental health-care departments appear to have set up infection control measures and also organised planning, coordination and measures that enabled them to provide psychiatric care in a restrictive environment. Our objective was to assess the organisation by psychiatric facilities in France of their response to COVID-19, during the first wave. Read More

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