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Concentrations and health risks of heavy metals in five major marketed marine bivalves from three coastal cities in Guangxi, China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 28;223:112562. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, and School of Medicine, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China. Electronic address:

Seafood consumption provides essential elements to humans while also posing risks to human health. A total of 2610 individuals of five edible marine bivalve species (Ruditapes philippinarum, Paphia undulata, Meretrix meretrix, Sinonovacula constricta and Meretrix lyrata) were randomly sampled from six farmer markets in three cities (Beihai, Qinzhou and Fangchenggang) in the southernmost coastal region of China. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Hg and As) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Read More

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A randomized crossover trial of HEPA air filtration to reduce cardiovascular risk for near highway residents: Methods and approach.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jul 28:106520. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, United States of America.

Background: Near highway residents are exposed to elevated levels of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), including ultrafine particles, which are associated with adverse health effects. The efficacy of using in-home air filtration units that reduce exposure and potentially yield health benefits has not been tested in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: We will conduct a randomized double-blind crossover trial of portable air filtration units for 200 adults 30 years and older who live in near-highway homes in Somerville, MA, USA. Read More

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High prevalence of syphilis in women, minors, and precarious patients: a cross-sectional study in a Reunion Island sexually transmitted infection clinic, 2017-2020.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

CHU Réunion, Service des Maladies Infectieuses - Dermatologie, Saint Pierre, La Réunion, France.

Background: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) with a global prevalence estimated at 0.5% in 2012. Syphilis has been on the rise among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income countries and remains at endemic levels in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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Manikins versus simulated patients in emergency medicine training: a comparative analysis.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department for Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Frankfurt, Germany.

Purpose: Every physician must be able to sufficiently master medical emergencies, especially in medical areas where emergencies occur frequently such as in the emergency room or emergency surgery. This contrasts with the observation that medical students and young residents often feel insufficiently prepared to handle medical emergencies. It is therefore necessary to train them in the treatment of emergency patients. Read More

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Multiple climate change-driven tipping points for coastal systems.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 30;11(1):15560. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.

As the climate evolves over the next century, the interaction of accelerating sea level rise (SLR) and storms, combined with confining development and infrastructure, will place greater stresses on physical, ecological, and human systems along the ocean-land margin. Many of these valued coastal systems could reach "tipping points," at which hazard exposure substantially increases and threatens the present-day form, function, and viability of communities, infrastructure, and ecosystems. Determining the timing and nature of these tipping points is essential for effective climate adaptation planning. Read More

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Applied science facilitates the large-scale expansion of protected areas in an Amazonian hot spot.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 30;7(31). Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Laboratório de Sistemática de Vertebrados, Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 6681, 90619-900 Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Meeting international commitments to protect 17% of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide will require >3 million square kilometers of new protected areas and strategies to create those areas in a way that respects local communities and land use. In 2000-2016, biological and social scientists worked to increase the protected proportion of Peru's largest department via 14 interdisciplinary inventories covering >9 million hectares of this megadiverse corner of the Amazon basin. In each landscape, the strategy was the same: convene diverse partners, identify biological and sociocultural assets, document residents' use of natural resources, and tailor the findings to the needs of decision-makers. Read More

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Does the advanced training in laparoscopic suturing enhance laparoscopic suturing skill beyond fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery?

Surgery 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN. Electronic address:

Background: Laparoscopic suturing is associated with a steep learning curve. Hence, many general surgery graduate residents entering fellowship have reportedly not been able to proficiently suture laparoscopically despite achieving Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery certification. To address this deficiency, the Advanced Training in Laparoscopic Suturing curriculum was developed. Read More

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Learner-centered education: ICU residents' expectations of teaching style and supervision level.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Jul 31;21(1):411. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Clarunis, Department of Visceral Surgery, University Centre for Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: If the education of intensive care unit (ICU) residents focuses on individual learning behavior, the faculty's style of teaching and level of supervision need to be adapted accordingly. The aim of this study was to delineate the associations between residents' perceived learning behavior, experience, and demographics and their expectations with regard to teaching style and supervision levels.

Methods: This multicenter survey obtained data on ICU residents' base specialty, duration of ICU training, individual postgraduate year, gender, and number of repetitions of ICU skills. Read More

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Advance care planning conversations in primary care: a quality improvement project using the Serious Illness Care Program.

BMC Palliat Care 2021 Jul 30;20(1):122. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Background: Advance care planning (ACP) conversations are associated with improved end-of-life healthcare outcomes and patients want to engage in ACP with their healthcare providers. Despite this, ACP conversations rarely occur in primary care settings. The objective of this study was to implement ACP through adapted Serious Illness Care Program (SICP) training sessions, and to understand primary care provider (PCP) perceptions of implementing ACP into practice. Read More

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Enrichment differences and source apportionment of nutrients, stable isotopes, and trace metal elements in sediments of complex and fragmented wetland systems.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 26;289:117852. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China; The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China. Electronic address:

Anthropogenic activities significantly influence the lake environment and are reflected by the element contents in sediments/soils. The lake fragmentation provides a unique opportunity for comparing the influences of natural/anthropogenic activities of different wetlands systems. In this study, a complex and fragmented lake was investigated, and sediment/soil samples were collected from different systems. Read More

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Trends in initiation of hormonal contraceptive methods among teenagers born between 1989 and 1997 in Norway and the United States.

Contraception 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Objective: To assess initiation of hormonal contraception among women aged 15-19 in the US and Norway by birth cohort.

Study Design: We used population-based survey (US) and administrative (Norway) data to estimate the cumulative probability of age at first use of hormonal contraception for female residents born between 1989 and 1997 in 3-year birth cohorts. Differences between countries were assessed using confidence intervals, and differences between birth cohorts were assessed using survival analysis. Read More

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Exposure to mine fire related particulate matter and mortality: A time series analysis from the Hazelwood Health Study.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 8;285:131351. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: In 2014, the Morwell brown coal mine, located in the Latrobe Valley of South eastern Australia, caught fire covering nearby areas in plumes of smoke over a 6-week period.

Aims: To investigate the association between exposure to mine fire related air pollution and the risk of mortality.

Methods: Time series models were used to evaluate the risk of mortality during the first 30 days of the mine fire, when the smoke was most intense, and in the following six months. Read More

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Innovation for improved hand hygiene: Field testing the Autarky handwashing station in collaboration with informal settlement residents in Durban, South Africa.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 14;796:149024. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland; ETH Zürich, Institute of Environmental Engineering, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

Safe and accessible water services for hand hygiene are critical to human health and well-being. However, access to handwashing facilities is limited in cities in the Global South, where rapid urbanisation, service backlogs, lack of infrastructure and capacity, and water scarcity impact on the ability of local governments to provide them. Community participation and the co-production of knowledge in the development of innovative technologies, which are aligned with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) principles, can lead to more sustainable and socially-acceptable hand hygiene systems. Read More

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High prevalence of comorbidities at diagnosis in immigrants with multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Jul 30:13524585211031791. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Departments of Medicine and Community Health Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with certain comorbidities in general population studies, but it is unknown how comorbidity may affect immigrants with MS.

Objective: To compare prevalence of comorbidities in immigrants and long-term residents at MS diagnosis, and in matched control populations without MS.

Methods: We identified incident MS cases using a validated definition applied to health administrative data in Ontario, Canada, from 1994 to 2017, and categorized them as immigrants or long-term residents. Read More

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The effects of plant-soil feedback on invasion resistance are soil context dependent.

Oecologia 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

College of Life Sciences, Ludong University, Yantai, 264025, China.

There is growing interest in understanding the role that plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) may play in invasion resistance. However, recent studies have shown that there is great uncertainty in explaining community patterns by PSF studies regarding invasions. This uncertainty may be partly because soils used for PSF studies are usually collected from open areas rather than natural communities, thus ignoring the effects of community contexts that may specifically influence the soil feedbacks of community residents to invaders. Read More

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Public Perceptions of Physician Attire and Professionalism in the US.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2117779. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: In recent years, casual physician attire (fleece jackets and softshell jackets) has become increasingly popular, but to our knowledge, public perceptions of these garments have not been studied. Furthermore, gender biases may result in differing expectations and perceptions of female and male physicians and may be associated with patient rapport and trust building.

Objective: To characterize public perceptions of casual physician attire and implicit gender biases in public assessment of physicians' professional attire. Read More

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Supporting Patient-Clinician Interaction in Chronic HIV Care: Design and Development of a Patient-Reported Outcomes Software Application.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 30;23(7):e27861. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Patient-Centered Outcomes Research, Health Economics Clinical Trial Unit, Hospital Hotel-Dieu, AP-HP, University de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: The consideration of health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a hallmark of best practice in HIV care. Information technology offers an opportunity to more closely engage patients with chronic HIV infection in their long-term management and support a focus on HRQL. However, the implementation of patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures, such as HRQL in routine care, is challenged by the need to synthesize data generated by questionnaires, the complexity of collecting data between patient visits, and the integration of results into clinical decision-making processes. Read More

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Volunteers do the fun stuff -- Experiences from volunteer-professional caregiver cooperation in nursing homes.

Scand J Caring Sci 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Nursing and Nutrition, Faculty of Health, University College Copenhagen (KP), Copenhagen NV, Denmark.

Background: The number of volunteers in Danish nursing homes is increasing. Volunteers cooperate with professional caregivers to improve the residents' well-being and quality of life as part of their palliative care. The Danish government encourages this volunteer involvement, which is partly intended to alleviate the resource constraints in municipal healthcare. Read More

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Genomic epidemiology and transmission dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in congregate healthcare facilities in Santa Clara County, California.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

County of Santa Clara, Public Health Department, San Jose, California, USA.

Background: Outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 in long term care facilities (LTCFs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. Mapping viral transmission within and between by combining genomic sequencing with epidemiologic investigations enables targeting infection control interventions.

Methods: We conducted weekly surveillance of residents and staff in LTCFs in Santa Clara County, CA with at least one confirmed COVID-19 case between March and July 2020. Read More

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[PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN TERMS OF THE SPREAD OF THE NEW CORONAVIRUS INFECTION COVID-19].

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2021 Jun;29(Special Issue):774-778

Committee for social policy of St. Petersburg, 191060, St. Petersburg, Russia.

One of the vulnerable categories of the population during a pandemic of coronavirus infection is the disabled, both from the point of view of the high risk of a severe course of the disease, and from the point of view of the possibility of significantly limiting everyday, professional and social activities. The article discusses the regulatory and organizational measures taken to ensure the rights of people with disabilities in Russia to prevent the spread of coronavirus infection. The epidemiological situation and features of the spread of coronavirus in long-term care facilities have been analyzed. Read More

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[THE ATTITUDE OF RUSSIANS TO VACCINATION AGAINST COVID-19: PROBLEMS AND CONTRADICTIONS].

Authors:
E S Bogomiagkova

Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2021 Jun;29(Special Issue):736-742

Saint-Petersburg State University, 199034, Saint-Petersburg, Russia,

Despite the unfolding of the COVID-19 pandemic, the rate of involvement of Russians in vaccination remains low, which makes the study of attitudes to this technology particularly relevant. Based on the results of the author's empirical research and data from mass surveys of the Foundation "Public Opinion" and All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion, the article assesses the attitude of residents of our country to immunoprophylaxis against coronavirus. The study revealed that vaccination attitudes are a continuum, and the perception of vaccination against a new virus is associated in Russians with seasonal flu shots, and not with the National Vaccination Calendar. Read More

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An unmet need for paediatric LGBTQ training.

Clin Teach 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Population and Family Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York City, New York, USA.

Background: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning (LGBTQ) youth have increased health risks, exacerbated by discrimination and lack of provider training. Currently, no graduate medical education requirements address the need for LGBTQ health training, particularly for paediatric providers. We aimed to perform a needs assessment of provider knowledge, comfort and awareness of community resources regarding LGBTQ youth. Read More

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A Conference-Friendly, Hands-on Introduction to Deep Learning for Radiology Trainees.

J Digit Imaging 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Radiology, Brigham & Women's Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Artificial or augmented intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning will be an increasingly important part of clinical practice for the next generation of radiologists. It is therefore critical that radiology residents develop a practical understanding of deep learning in medical imaging. Certain aspects of deep learning are not intuitive and may be better understood through hands-on experience; however, the technical requirements for setting up a programming and computing environment for deep learning can pose a high barrier to entry for individuals with limited experience in computer programming and limited access to GPU-accelerated computing. Read More

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County-level phenomapping to identify disparities in cardiovascular outcomes: An unsupervised clustering analysis: Short title: Unsupervised clustering of counties and risk of cardiovascular mortality.

Am J Prev Cardiol 2020 Dec 20;4:100118. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Introduction: Significant heterogeneity in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and healthcare resource allocation has been demonstrated in the United States, but optimal methods to capture heterogeneity in county-level characteristics that contribute to CVD mortality differences are unclear. We evaluated the feasibility of unsupervised machine learning (ML)-based phenomapping in identifying subgroups of county-level social and demographic risk factors with differential CVD outcomes.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using county-level data from 2008 to 2018 from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) WONDER platform and the 2020 Robert Wood Johnson County Health Rankings program. Read More

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December 2020

Effects of housing value and medical subsidy on treatment and outcomes of breast cancer patients in Singapore: A retrospective cohort study.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Jan 8;6:100065. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Singapore General Hospital, Outram Rd, Singapore, 169608, Singapore.

Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is likely to affect survival in breast cancer patients. Housing value is a reasonable surrogate for SES in Singapore where most residents own their own homes, which could be public (subsidised) or private housing. We evaluated effects of housing value and enhanced medical subsidies on patients' presentation, treatment choices, compliance and survival in a setting of good access to healthcare. Read More

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January 2021

Incidence of multiple sclerosis in China: A nationwide hospital-based study.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2020 Aug 6;1:100010. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a leading cause of disability among young adults and effects considerable social and economic burdens. Data of MS incidence in China at the national level is lacking. We conducted the first nationwide hospital-based study to estimate the incidence and hospitalization burden of MS in China. Read More

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Healed Varicella Pneumonia: A Case of Diffuse Pulmonary Microcalcifications.

Cureus 2021 Jun 24;13(6):e15890. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Internal Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine - Jacksonville, Jacksonville, USA.

Varicella pneumonia is a potentially fatal complication of the Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes the well-known chickenpox disease of childhood. Identifying this type of pneumonia by characteristic features is important for radiologists and radiology residents. Typical manifestations of active Varicella pneumonia include diffuse pulmonary nodules, which may mimic other diseases. Read More

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Impact of Pediatric Dentistry Residents Posted in Pediatrics Department: A Retrospective Assessment of 6 Years.

Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2021 Jan-Feb;14(1):84-87

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Thiruvalla, Kerala, India.

Aim: To measure the influence of rotatory pediatrics postings for dental residents on the outpatient census of the pediatric dentistry department. The secondary aims were to assess the change in trend toward the number of preschool children visiting the department before and after the initiation of pediatrics posting and also to find the percentage of children affected with caries among children visiting the pediatricians.

Materials And Methods: Retrospectively, the census of the pediatric dentistry department was calculated from 2010 to 2016. Read More

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Impact of indoor temperature instability on diurnal and day-by-day variability of home blood pressure in winter: a nationwide Smart Wellness Housing survey in Japan.

Hypertens Res 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute for Building Environment and Energy Conservation, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Home blood pressure (HBP) variability is an important factor for cardiovascular events. While several studies have examined the effects of individual attributes and lifestyle factors on reducing HBP variability, the effects of living environment remain unknown. We hypothesized that a stable home thermal environment contributes to reducing HBP variability. Read More

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Relationship between burnout and mistreatment: Who plays a role?

Am J Surg 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Surgery, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Introduction: Surgery residents have high burnout rates and mistreatment occurs during training. We hypothesized that residents who reported mistreatment would be more likely to experience burnout.

Methods: A multi-institutional observational study asked residents to complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory and to rate how often they experienced mistreatment. Read More

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