1,196 results match your criteria resident alveolar


Increased Levels of ER Stress and Apoptosis in a Sheep Model for Pulmonary Fibrosis Are Alleviated by Blockade of the KCa3.1 Ion Channel.

Can Respir J 2021 19;2021:6683195. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal interstitial lung disease, characterized by progressive damage to the lung tissues. Apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and lung macrophages have been linked with the development of IPF. Therefore, apoptosis- and ER stress-targeted therapies have drawn attention as potential avenues for treatment of IPF. Read More

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Induction of interferon signaling and allograft inflammatory factor 1 in macrophages in a mouse model of breast cancer metastases.

Wellcome Open Res 2021 8;6:52. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, 10461, USA.

Metastatic breast cancer cells recruit macrophages (metastasis-associated macrophages, or MAMs) to facilitate their seeding, survival and outgrowth. However, a comprehensive understanding of the gene expression program in MAMs and how this program contributes to metastasis remain elusive. We compared the transcriptomes of MAMs recruited to lung metastases and resident alveolar macrophages (RAMs) and identified a large variety of differentially expressed genes and their associated signaling pathways. Read More

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Beyond "Big Eaters": The Versatile Role of Alveolar Macrophages in Health and Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 24;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

REBIRTH Research Center for Translational and Regenerative Medicine, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Macrophages act as immune scavengers and are important cell types in the homeostasis of various tissues. Given the multiple roles of macrophages, these cells can also be found as tissue resident macrophages tightly integrated into a variety of tissues in which they fulfill crucial and organ-specific functions. The lung harbors at least two macrophage populations: interstitial and alveolar macrophages, which occupy different niches and functions. Read More

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Factors Affecting Functional Sensory Recovery After Inferior Alveolar Nerve Repair Using the Nerve Sliding Technique.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Cancer Center and Clinical Translational Research Center for Dental Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: The nerve sliding technique (NST) was introduced for repairing inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) defect and overcoming the disadvantages of conventional surgical treatment methods such as nerve graft. This study was conducted to identify factors associated with functional sensory recovery (FSR) following inferior alveolar nerve repair using the NST.

Patients And Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study including all patients who underwent IAN repair using the NST at Seoul National University Dental Hospital, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery from February 2009 to March 2020. Read More

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Precision control of mTORC1 is crucial for the maintenance and IL-13 responsiveness of alveolar macrophages.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Mar 17;95:107552. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. Electronic address:

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the lung resident macrophages critically involved in pulmonary homeostasis and immune response. Recent researches have uncovered a diversity of regulators responsible for the development, maintenance, and function of AMs. Nevertheless, the molecular underpinnings that determine the developmental and functional specification of AMs remain incompletely understood. Read More

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Interleukin-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, but not interleukin-25, are crucial for development of airway eosinophilia induced by chitin.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 15;11(1):5913. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Graduate School of Integrated Sciences for Life, Hiroshima University, 1-4-4 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima City, Hiroshima, 739-0046, Japan.

Exposure to various antigens derived from house dust mites (HDM) is considered to be a risk factor for development of certain allergic diseases such as atopic asthma, atopic dermatitis, rhinitis and conjunctivitis. Chitin is an insoluble polysaccharide (β-(1-4)-poly-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) and a major component in the outer shell of HDMs. Mice exposed to chitin develop asthma-like airway eosinophilia. Read More

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Proteomics: An advanced tool to unravel the role of alveolar macrophages in respiratory diseases.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 Mar 5;134:105966. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Dynamic Omics, Antibody Discovery and Protein Engineering, R&D AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA. Electronic address:

As we learn more about chronic lung diseases, we are seeing that an unbalanced immune system plays a key role in disease pathogenesis. Innate immune cells, particularly tissue-resident macrophages, are important navigators of immunity, both during infection and in non-communicable lung disease. In the lung, alveolar macrophages are considered some of the most critical and diverse immune cells, yet despite an array of studies over the years, alveolar macrophages remain poorly understood. Read More

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Macrophages in Lung Injury, Repair, and Fibrosis.

Cells 2021 Feb 18;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Basic Medicine, Haihe Hospital, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.

Fibrosis progression in the lung commonly results in impaired functional gas exchange, respiratory failure, or even death. In addition to the aberrant activation and differentiation of lung fibroblasts, persistent alveolar injury and incomplete repair are the driving factors of lung fibrotic response. Macrophages are activated and polarized in response to lipopolysaccharide- or bleomycin-induced lung injury. Read More

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February 2021

Myeloid cell dynamics in bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury in mice; effects of anti-TNFα antibody.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Apr 27;417:115470. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address:

Bleomycin is a cancer therapeutic known to cause lung injury which progresses to fibrosis. Evidence suggests that macrophages contribute to this pathological response. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α is a macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in lung injury. Read More

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Resident interstitial lung fibroblasts and their role in alveolar stem cell niche development, homeostasis, injury, and regeneration.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

The Perinatal Institute and Section of Neonatology, Perinatal and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Developing, regenerating, and repairing a lung all require interstitial resident fibroblasts (iReFs) to direct the behavior of the epithelial stem cell niche. During lung development, distal lung fibroblasts, in the form of matrix-, myo-, and lipofibroblasts, form the extra cellular matrix (ECM), create tensile strength, and support distal epithelial differentiation, respectively. During de novo septation in a murine pneumonectomy lung regeneration model, developmental processes are reactivated within the iReFs, indicating progenitor function well into adulthood. Read More

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February 2021

Role of pulmonary surfactant protein Sp-C dimerization on membrane fragmentation: An emergent mechanism involved in lung defense and homeostasis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 Jun 4;1863(6):183572. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology and Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain; Research Institute "Hospital 12 de Octubre (imas12)", Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Surfactant protein C (SP-C) is a protein present in the pulmonary surfactant system that is involved in the biophysical properties of this lipoprotein complex, but it also has a role in lung defense and homeostasis. In this article, we propose that the link between both functions could rely on the ability of SP-C to induce fragmentation of phospholipid membranes and generate small vesicles that serve as support to present different ligands to cells in the lungs. Our results using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and tunable resistive pulse sensing setups suggest that SP-C oligomerization could be the triggering event that causes membrane budding and nanovesiculation. Read More

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STING-Mediated Lung Inflammation and Beyond.

J Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 2;41(3):501-514. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Université de Paris, Imagine Institute, Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Neuroinflammation, 24 boulevard du Montparnasse, F-75015, Paris, France.

Mendelian autoinflammatory diseases characterized by constitutive activation of the type I interferon pathway, the so-called type I interferonopathies, constitute a rapidly expanding group of inborn errors of immunity. Among the type I interferonopathies, STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) and COPA syndrome were described in the last 6 years, both manifesting a major inflammatory lung component associated with significant morbidity and increased mortality. There is striking clinical and histopathological overlap between SAVI and COPA syndrome, although distinct features are also present. Read More

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Degree of Compression of the Inferior Alveolar Canal on Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Outcomes of Postoperative Nerve Injury in Mandibular Third Molar Surgery.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Consultant Surgeon and Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Royal Dental Hospital Melbourne, Carlton, Victoria, Australia; Consultant Surgeon and Associate Professor, Melbourne Dental School, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; and Consultant Surgeon and Associate Professor, School of Dentistry & Health Sciences Charles Sturt University Orange, NSW, Australia.

Purpose: Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) offers the advantage of a 3-dimensional representation of the anatomic relationship of the mandibular third molar tooth and the inferior alveolar canal (IAC), as compared to a panoramic radiograph. We hypothesized that a novel method of categorizing the degrees of compression of the IAC were reliable predictors for postoperative nerve injuries.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes in third molar surgery for patients who obtained a CBCT scan in additional to a plain film radiograph over a 12 months period and underwent surgical removal of their mandibular third molars; 257 consecutive patients were identified, and 416 mandibular third molars were surgically removed. Read More

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January 2021

NLRP3 inflammasome activation in alveolar epithelial cells promotes myofibroblast differentiation of lung-resident mesenchymal stem cells during pulmonary fibrogenesis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 May 27;1867(5):166077. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Immunology and Reproduction Biology Laboratory, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China; State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China. Electronic address:

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal and agnogenic interstitial lung disease, which has limited therapeutic options. Recently, the NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been demonstrated as an important contributor to various fibrotic diseases following its persistent activation. However, the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in pulmonary fibrogenesis still needs to be further clarified. Read More

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COVID-19 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4): SARS-CoV-2 May Bind and Activate TLR4 to Increase ACE2 Expression, Facilitating Entry and Causing Hyperinflammation.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 14;2021:8874339. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Cardiology, The Rayne Institute, St Thomas' Hospital, British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, School of Cardiovascular Medicine and Sciences, King's College London, UK.

Causes of mortality from COVID-19 include respiratory failure, heart failure, and sepsis/multiorgan failure. TLR4 is an innate immune receptor on the cell surface that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) including viral proteins and triggers the production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines to combat infection. It is expressed on both immune cells and tissue-resident cells. Read More

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February 2021

Does the quality of residual alveolar bone apical to a periodontal lesion beneath the maxillary sinus play a vital role in preventing the extension of periodontal disease to maxillary sinus? A CBCT-assisted retrospective study.

Technol Health Care 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

All Care Dental Center, Bengaluru, India.

Background: The mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus is sensitivis susceptible to infection or inflammation adjacent to it, which may contribute to mucous membrane thickening (MMT). Residual alveolar bone quality (RABQ) is considered a quality of the remaining bone apical to periodontal defect adjoining to the floor of the maxillary sinus.

Objective: The current study aimed to analyze the minimum RABQ to prevent the extension of periodontal pathology from reaching maxillary sinus using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Read More

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January 2021

Genome-Wide Histone Modifications and CTCF Enrichment Predict Gene Expression in Sheep Macrophages.

Front Genet 2020 7;11:612031. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, United States.

Alveolar macrophages function in innate and adaptive immunity, wound healing, and homeostasis in the lungs dependent on tissue-specific gene expression under epigenetic regulation. The functional diversity of tissue resident macrophages, despite their common myeloid lineage, highlights the need to study tissue-specific regulatory elements that control gene expression. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that subtle genetic changes alter sheep macrophage response to important production pathogens and zoonoses, for example, viruses like small ruminant lentiviruses and bacteria like . Read More

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January 2021

Discriminating mild from critical COVID-19 by innate and adaptive immune single-cell profiling of bronchoalveolar lavages.

Cell Res 2021 03 21;31(3):272-290. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Laboratory of Translational Genetics, Department of Human Genetics, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

How the innate and adaptive host immune system miscommunicate to worsen COVID-19 immunopathology has not been fully elucidated. Here, we perform single-cell deep-immune profiling of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 5 patients with mild and 26 with critical COVID-19 in comparison to BALs from non-COVID-19 pneumonia and normal lung. We use pseudotime inference to build T-cell and monocyte-to-macrophage trajectories and model gene expression changes along them. Read More

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Does tissue imprinting restrict macrophage plasticity?

Nat Immunol 2021 02 18;22(2):118-127. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Laboratory of Myeloid Cell Biology in Tissue Homeostasis and Regeneration, VIB Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent, Belgium.

Macrophages have long been considered as particularly plastic cells. However, recent work combining fate mapping, single-cell transcriptomics and epigenetics has undermined the macrophage plasticity dogma. Here, we discuss recent studies that have carefully dissected the response of individual macrophage subsets to pulmonary insults and call for an adjustment of the macrophage plasticity concept. Read More

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February 2021

X-ray patterns of COVID-19 in patients presenting to Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Jan-Feb;37(1):28-33

Shandana Latif Khan, MBBS. Resident, Department of Radiology, Lady Reading Hospital-Medical Teaching Institute, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Objective: To determine the pattern of COVID-19 on chest radiograph in patients presenting to Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan.

Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 178 consecutive swab positive COVID-19 patients presenting to Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan from 15 March to 15 June 2020. Patients of all ages and both genders were included. Read More

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January 2021

Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics in lungs of African green monkeys.

Sci Transl Med 2021 01 11;13(578). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA.

Detailed knowledge about the dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is important for uncovering the viral and host factors that contribute to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Old-World nonhuman primates recapitulate mild to moderate cases of COVID-19, thereby serving as important pathogenesis models. We compared African green monkeys inoculated with infectious SARS-CoV-2 or irradiated, inactivated virus to study the dynamics of virus replication throughout the respiratory tract. Read More

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January 2021

Expression of NR5A2, NUP153, HNF4A, USP15 and FNDC3B is consistent with their use as novel biomarkers for bovine mammary stem/progenitor cells.

J Mol Histol 2021 Apr 5;52(2):289-300. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Animal and Avian Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.

Mammary stem cells (MaSC) are essential for growth and maintenance of mammary epithelium. Previous studies have utilized morphological characteristics or retention of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) label to identify MaSC and progenitor cells, these approaches may not be feasible or may not identify all resident stem cells. Alternatively, these special cells may be identified by assessing protein and mRNA expression of appropriate markers. Read More

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Distinct developmental pathways from blood monocytes generate human lung macrophage diversity.

Immunity 2021 Feb 30;54(2):259-275.e7. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 52 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

The study of human macrophages and their ontogeny is an important unresolved issue. Here, we use a humanized mouse model expressing human cytokines to dissect the development of lung macrophages from human hematopoiesis in vivo. Human CD34 hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) generated three macrophage populations, occupying separate anatomical niches in the lung. Read More

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February 2021

QUALITY OF ORTHOPEDIC REHABILITATION OF PATIENTS WITH POST-TRAUMATIC DEFECTS OF THE UPPER JAW BY CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOCENOSIS OF THE ORAL CAVITY.

Wiad Lek 2020 ;73(10):2138-2143

KHARKIV NATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, KHARKIV, UKRAINE.

Objective: The aim of the research was to study the dynamics of the microbiota's features of oral mucosal membrane during orthopedic rehabilitation of patients with removable dentures which has an obturating part with two-layer bases.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: To achieve this goal, our bacteriological examination of oral cavity mucosa was performed for 25 patients with partial adentia of the upper jaw and defect of hard palate and alveolar process.

Results: Results and conclusions: Of the conducted studies indicate significant shifts in the qualitative and quantitative composition of microbiocenosis in the oral cavity in patients with partial adenia of the upper jaw and a defect of hard palate and alveolar process due to representatives of moraksel, enterobacteria (representatives of the kinds Klebsiella and E. Read More

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December 2020

DCIR3 and DCIR4 are widely expressed among tissue-resident macrophages with the exception of microglia and alveolar macrophages.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2020 Dec 18;24:100840. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Integrated Biosciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8562, Japan.

Dendritic cell inhibitory receptor 3 (DCIR3, Clec4a3) and dendritic cell inhibitory receptor 4 (DCIR4, Clec4a1) are C-type lectin receptors that belong to mouse dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR) family. We recently showed that DCIR3 and DCIR4 are co-expressed on inflammatory and patrolling monocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression of DCIR3 and DCIR4 on tissue-resident macrophages. Read More

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December 2020

Soft Tissue Management: A Critical Part of Implant Rehabilitation After Vascularized Free-Flap Reconstruction.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Mar 14;79(3):560-574. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Implant rehabilitation after jaw reconstruction is challenging, and postoperative peri-implantitis is common. Our aim was to present our management protocol for implant rehabilitation after vascularized free-flap reconstruction and report the outcomes of soft tissue management.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients who received vascularized free-flap reconstruction, implant rehabilitation, apical reposition flaps (ARFs), and free gingival grafts (FGGs) at Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology from January 1, 2009 to January 1, 2020. Read More

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Fractured Needle Removal With a 3-Dimensionally Printed Surgical Guide: A Case Report and Literature Review.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Nov 9. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Visiting Professor, Department of OMFS, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Needle breakage is a rare complication of inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia. This study proposes a new localization technique. We used a three-dimensionally printed surgical guide, supported by the lower dental arch to minimize the required surgical access. Read More

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November 2020

The environment shapes swine lung bacterial communities.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 16;758:143623. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Previous studies of the lung microbiome have focused on characterizing the community and attempts to understand the role of community membership concerning disease or exposures such as cigarette smoke. However, we still lack an understanding of two critical aspects of the lung microbiome: the origin of the community members and their fate. As we continue to better understand how the lung microbiome influences human health, it is essential to determine how the environment shapes the lung microbiome membership. Read More

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Distribution of Droplets and Immune Responses After Aerosol and Intra-Nasal Delivery of Influenza Virus to the Respiratory Tract of Pigs.

Front Immunol 2020 27;11:594470. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Enhanced Host Responses, The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, United Kingdom.

Recent evidence indicates that local immune responses and tissue resident memory T cells (T) are critical for protection against respiratory infections but there is little information on the contributions of upper and lower respiratory tract (URT and LRT) immunity. To provide a rational basis for designing methods for optimal delivery of vaccines to the respiratory tract in a large animal model, we investigated the distribution of droplets generated by a mucosal atomization device (MAD) and two vibrating mesh nebulizers (VMNs) and the immune responses induced by delivery of influenza virus by MAD in pigs. We showed that droplets containing the drug albuterol, a radiolabel (Tc-DTPA), or a model influenza virus vaccine (S-FLU) have similar aerosol characteristics. Read More

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October 2020

Autogenous Iliac Crest Versus rhBMP-2 for Alveolar Cleft Grafting: A 14-Year Single-Institution Experience.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 02 20;79(2):431-440. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Assistant Professor, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, NewYork-Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study sought to compare radiographic outcomes and resource utilization between recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and anterior iliac crest bone graft (AICBG) when used for secondary alveolar grafting.

Materials And Methods: This is a 14-year retrospective study of patients with alveolar clefts treated at the Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital of New York-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center between January 2006 and January 2020. Patients who had alveolar grafting with either rhBMP-2 or AICBG were included in this study. Read More

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February 2021