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Accuracy of a flash glucose monitoring system in cats and determination of the time lag between blood glucose and interstitial glucose concentrations.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA.

Background: The FreeStyle Libre (Abbott Laboratories) is a flash glucose monitoring system (FGMS) that measures interstitial glucose concentration (IG). The system is factory-calibrated, easy to use, inexpensive, and could be useful for monitoring diabetic cats.

Objectives: To evaluate the analytical and clinical accuracy of the FGMS in cats and establish the lag-time between IG and blood glucose concentration (BG). Read More

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Evaluation of whether acepromazine maleate causes fentanyl to decrease the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats.

Am J Vet Res 2021 May;82(5):352-357

Objective: To determine whether isoflurane-anesthetized cats with demonstrated resistance to the immobilizing effects of fentanyl would exhibit naltrexone-reversible sparing of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane when fentanyl was coadministered with the centrally acting catecholamine receptor antagonist acepromazine.

Animals: 5 healthy male purpose-bred cats.

Procedures: Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Read More

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Clinicopathologic features of a feline SARS-CoV-2 infection model parallel acute COVID-19 in humans.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

The emergence and ensuing dominance of COVID-19 on the world stage has emphasized the urgency of efficient animal models for the development of therapeutics and assessment of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Shortcomings of current animal models for SARS-CoV-2 include limited lower respiratory disease, divergence from clinical COVID-19 disease, and requirements for host genetic modifications to permit infection. This study validates a feline model for SARS-CoV-2 infection that results in clinical disease and histopathologic lesions consistent with severe COVID-19 in humans. Read More

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The largest meta-analysis on the global prevalence of microsporidia in mammals, avian and water provides insights into the epidemic features of these ubiquitous pathogens.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 1;14(1):186. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Background: Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that can infect nearly all invertebrates and vertebrates, posing a threat to public health and causing large economic losses to animal industries such as those of honeybees, silkworms and shrimp. However, the global epidemiology of these pathogens is far from illuminated.

Methods: Publications on microsporidian infections were obtained from PubMed, Science Direct and Web of Science and filtered according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Read More

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Amino Acids in the Nutrition, Metabolism, and Health of Domestic Cats.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1285:217-231

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Domestic cats (carnivores) require high amounts of dietary amino acids (AAs) for normal growth, development, and reproduction. Amino acids had been traditionally categorised as nutritionally essential (EAAs) or nonessential (NEAAs), depending on whether they are synthesized de novo in the body. This review will focus on AA nutrition and metabolism in cats. Read More

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Cadaveric Evaluation of Injectate Distribution for Two Maxillary Nerve Block Techniques in Cats.

Front Vet Sci 2021 22;8:619244. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States.

Regional nerve blocks have been shown to decrease general anesthetic drug requirements and improve pain management in patients undergoing surgery. Regional nerve blocks are used routinely in patients undergoing oral surgery, such as dental extractions. There is little published information regarding the efficacy of feline maxillary and infraorbital nerve blocks. Read More

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February 2021

Relationship between a plant-based 'vegan' pet food and clinical manifestation of multiple nutrient deficiencies in two cats.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Nutrition Department, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse ENVT, Toulouse, France.

A topical subject in human nutrition is the steadily growing number of people choosing to limit or completely avoid all animal-derived food products either for moral dilemma, health concerns or both. To meet people's will of applying their dietary choices to their domestic animals, the pet food industry answered by launching on the market some plant-based diets. This leads to concerns about whether these diets are adequately formulated to satisfy the target species nutritional requirements, especially for cats which are still considered strict carnivores. Read More

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Canine and Feline Obesity Management.

Megan Shepherd

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2021 May 27;51(3):653-667. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Phase II Duck Pond Drive, Virginia Tech Mail Code 0442, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Electronic address:

Obesity and overweight have an impact on more than half of pet cats and dogs. Effective and team-based communication is essential for creating an effective weight loss plan. The diet should meet all essential nutrient requirements during energy/calorie restriction. Read More

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Calcium, Phosphorus, and Vitamin D in Dogs and Cats: Beyond the Bones.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2021 May 27;51(3):623-634. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 108, Utrecht 3584 CM, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D are nutrients that play a key role in maintaining normal organ, cell, and tissue function. Much is known about their role in bone metabolism, but these nutrients are also important in renal health, urinary tract disease, and multiple other organ systems. It is nutritionally important to meet the physiologic requirements for each of these nutrients, but the interplay between them should also be considered. Read More

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The impact of a stress-reducing protocol on the quality of pre-anaesthesia in cats.

Vet Rec 2021 Mar 1:e138. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Chair Affinity Foundation Animals and Health, Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: Transport to the clinic is a major source of stress for cats. The process involves being put into a carrier, driven in a car and handled. Cats are therefore removed from the safe-haven of their territory and experience many stressful stimuli and interactions. Read More

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Rabbit Carcasses for Use in Feline Diets: Amino Acid Concentrations in Fresh and Frozen Carcasses With and Without Gastrointestinal Tracts.

Front Vet Sci 2020 21;7:592753. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

Whole-prey diets for exotic feline species are common, and this practice has also increased in popularity for domestic cats. However, prior analyses of prey indicate possible essential amino acid inadequacy, and dilated cardiomyopathy from taurine deficiency was reported in cats fed whole ground rabbit. Crude protein, body water, and amino acid concentrations were evaluated in fresh and frozen ground rabbits with (=10) or without ( = 10) gastrointestinal tracts. Read More

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January 2021

Growth Curve and Energy Intake in Male and Female Cats.

Top Companion Anim Med 2021 Feb 5;44:100518. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Animal Science, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

The aim of this study were (1) to characterize the growth curve in male and female cats, (2) to associate the growth and metabolizable energy intake (MEI) as an indirect measurement of the energy requirements, and (3) to determine the short-term effects of neutering on energy intake to maintain the bodyweight in young adult cats. Eighteen 5-months-old mixed breed cats were used in this study (males, n = 7 and BW = 2.2 ± 0. Read More

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February 2021

Climatic requirements of the eastern paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, with a consideration of its possible geographic range up to 2090.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Mar 26;51(4):241-249. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Parasitology, School of Chemistry & Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

The eastern paralysis tick, Ixodes holocyclus, is an ectoparasite of medical and veterinary importance in Australia. The feeding of I. holocyclus is associated with an ascending flaccid paralysis which kills many dogs and cats each year, with the development of mammalian meat allergy in some humans, and with the transmission of Rickettsia australis (Australian scrub typhus) to humans. Read More

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A cross-sectional study of owner-reported health in Canadian and American cats fed meat- and plant-based diets.

BMC Vet Res 2021 Jan 28;17(1):53. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Rd. E, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada.

Background: Cats, being obligate carnivores, have unique dietary requirements for nutrients most commonly found in dietary ingredients of animal origin. As such, feeding a diet devoid of animal-derived ingredients has been postulated as a possible cause of nutrient imbalances and adverse health outcomes. A small proportion of cat owners feed strictly plant-based diets to the cats in their care, yet the health and wellness of cats fed these diets has not been well documented. Read More

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January 2021

The role of the environment in the spatial dynamics of an extensive hybrid zone between two neotropical cats.

J Evol Biol 2021 Apr 10;34(4):614-627. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Instituto Pró-Carnívoros, Atibaia, São Paulo, Brazil.

Identifying factors that create and maintain a hybrid zone is of great interest to ecology, evolution and, more recently, conservation biology. Here, we investigated the role of environmental features in shaping the spatial dynamics of a hybrid zone between the southern tigrina, Leopardus guttulus, and Geoffroy's cat, L. geoffroyi, testing for exogenous selection as the main force acting on its maintenance. Read More

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Feline comorbidities: Recognition, diagnosis and management of the cushingoid diabetic.

J Feline Med Surg 2021 Jan;23(1):4-16

DVM, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

Practical Relevance: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common feline endocrinopathy, and is often driven by underlying insulin resistance with associated pancreatic beta (β)-cell dysfunction. Although spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) with hypercortisolemia (hypercortisolism) is relatively uncommon in cats, it is a well-established cause of insulin resistance and is routinely associated with DM in this species.

Clinical Challenges: Many of the clinical signs associated with feline HAC are subtle and may be attributed to concurrent DM or the aging process. Read More

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January 2021

Pre-mortem risk factors for mortality in kittens less than 8 weeks old at a dedicated kitten nursery.

J Feline Med Surg 2020 Nov 30:1098612X20974960. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Strategy and Research, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, New York, NY, USA.

Objectives: Kittens have unique requirements for care in a shelter setting given their higher susceptibility to infectious disease and socialization needs. Significant time and resources are necessary to care for this vulnerable population and dedicated kitten nurseries are one way to meet the requirements of kittens too young for neutering and rehoming. However, young kittens remain at a higher risk of dying relative to adult cats, even in specialized settings. Read More

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November 2020

Method comparison of targeted influenza A virus typing and whole-genome sequencing from respiratory specimens of companion animals.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Mar 24;33(2):191-201. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Epidemics of H3N8 and H3N2 influenza A viruses (IAVs) in dogs, along with recognition of spillover infections from IAV strains typically found in humans or other animals, have emphasized the importance of efficient laboratory testing. Given the lack of active IAV surveillance or immunization requirements for dogs, cats, or horses imported into the United States, serotype prediction and whole-genome sequencing of positive specimens detected at veterinary diagnostic laboratories are also needed. The conserved sequences at the ends of the viral genome segments facilitate universal amplification of all segments of viral genomes directly from respiratory specimens. Read More

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Dietary intake of amino acids and vitamins compared to NRC requirements in obese cats undergoing energy restriction for weight loss.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Nov 7;16(1):426. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.

Background: This study aimed to determine if obese cats undergoing energy restriction for weight loss would meet the National Research Council's (NRC) indispensable amino acid and vitamin recommendations when fed a purpose-formulated diet. Thirty cats were placed into one of two groups; obese (BCS 8 to 9/9; n = 16) and lean (BCS 4 to 5/9; n = 14) and included in a non-randomized retrospective observational study. Cats were fed a veterinary weight loss food during a 4-week period of weight maintenance. Read More

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November 2020

Evaluation of bioabsorbable calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads for local delivery of carboplatin.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(11):e0241718. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, United States of America.

The objectives of this study were to evaluate a novel kit of resorbable calcium sulfate beads marketed specifically for use in veterinary medicine and generally used for local delivery of antimicrobials as carboplatin-delivery system. The study characterized the elution of carboplatin in vitro, and investigated whether the initial dose and formulation of carboplatin, or the bead size significantly influences carboplatin elution in vitro. Calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads of 3- and 5-mm diameter were prepared. Read More

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January 2021

Dietary and Nutritional Approaches to the Management of Chronic Enteropathy in Dogs and Cats.

Aarti Kathrani

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2021 Jan 29;51(1):123-136. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK. Electronic address:

Nutrition can influence those functions of the gastrointestinal tract that can be adversely affected in chronic enteropathy, such as microbiota, mucosal immune system, intestinal permeability, and motility. Diet serves as a possible risk factor in disease pathogenesis and as a target for treatment in chronic enteropathy. Malnutrition is prevalent in people with inflammatory bowel disease and negatively affects outcome. Read More

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January 2021

Importation of cats and risk of parasite spread: a Caribbean perspective and case study from St Kitts.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Sep 23;13(1):488. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Center for Integrative Mammalian Research, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre, St Kitts and Nevis.

Background: In more recent years, international travel with cats has increased. The distribution of cat parasites can change with this movement. Already, subtropical and tropical parasites have been reported by veterinarians in areas where they are not naturally present. Read More

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September 2020

Modelling of sulphur amino acid requirements and nitrogen endogenous losses in kittens.

Arch Anim Nutr 2020 Oct 25;74(5):414-427. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Animal Science, State University of Maringá , Maringá, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to estimate the sulphur amino acid (methionine + cystine) requirements and nitrogen endogenous losses in kittens aged 150 to 240 d. Thirty-six cats were distributed in six treatments (six cats per treatment) consisting of different concentrations of methionine + cystine (M + C): T1, 6.5 g/kg; T2, 8. Read More

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October 2020

Use of precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay and digestible indispensable amino acid scores to characterize plant- and yeast-concentrated proteins for inclusion in canine and feline diets.

Transl Anim Sci 2020 Jul 21;4(3):txaa133. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

Increased consumer interest in high-quality and novel protein sources has driven the demand for the inclusion of protein-rich ingredients in companion animal diets. Novel protein concentrates, with protein contents of at least 50%, have been used to satisfy these consumer demands. However, minimal information is available regarding the macronutrient composition and protein quality of these ingredients that is needed for proper formulation of pet foods. Read More

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Assessing Nutritional Requirements and Current Intake.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2020 Sep 14;50(5):925-937. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Small Animal Clinical Sciences, The University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

To provide the best dietary recommendations to maintain optimal patient health, veterinarians must be able to assess a patient's nutritional status and offer necessary diet adjustment recommendations. Because obtaining accurate diet histories and answering owner questions about specific diet options can be time-consuming, this article summarizes efficient methods to complete this process. Short case illustrations of common nutrition calculation equations and an example diet history form are included. Read More

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September 2020

Anesthetic and analgesic effects of an opioid-free, injectable protocol in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy: A prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial.

Can Vet J 2020 06;61(6):621-628

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Nong Lam University, Vietnam (Diep, Le Quang), Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec J2S 2M2 (Monteiro, Evangelista, Balleydier, Watanabe, Ruel, Doodnaught, Steagall).

This study evaluated the effects of ketamine-dexmedetomidine-midazolam as part of an opioid-free, multimodal protocol in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. In a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial, cats received either 1 of 2 doses of ketamine [5 mg/kg body weight (BW), = 10, K5 or 7 mg/kg BW, = 13, K7] with midazolam (0.25 mg/kg BW) and dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg BW) intramuscularly, intraperitoneal bupivacaine (2 mg/kg BW) and subcutaneous meloxicam (0. Read More

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Feeding Cats for Optimal Mental and Behavioral Well-Being.

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2020 Sep 8;50(5):939-953. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Behavioral Medicine Service, Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Georgia, 501 D.W. Brooks Dr., Athens, GA 30602, USA.

In this article, we review cats' feeding behaviors, and discuss ways of feeding cats that promote physical and mental/behavioral health, while providing cats with choices that allow expression of preferences. We address the management of several feeding issues that cat owners may face, such as obesity, pickiness, begging for food, and feeding in multi-cat households. Food puzzles are one way to provide environmental enrichment for cats, and food can be used in multiple ways for behavior modification in the clinical setting, including counterconditioning and differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors. Read More

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September 2020

Appetite-stimulating effect of gabapentin vs mirtazapine in healthy cats post-ovariectomy.

J Feline Med Surg 2020 12 28;22(12):1176-1183. Epub 2020 May 28.

Nutrition Department, National Veterinary School of Toulouse (ENVT), Toulouse, France.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the appetite-stimulating effect of gabapentin by comparing it with mirtazapine in healthy cats in the first 8 h after ovariectomy surgery.

Methods: This double-masked, placebo-controlled, prospective clinical trial included 60 healthy cats presented to the hospital for ovariectomy: 20 received gabapentin, 21 received mirtazapine and 19 received a placebo immediately before and 6 h after surgery. Food was offered at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h post-ovariectomy. Read More

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December 2020

Rabies surveillance-response in Mali in the past 18 years and requirements for the future.

Acta Trop 2020 Oct 22;210:105526. Epub 2020 May 22.

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, PO Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, CH 4003 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Context: Rabies is endemic in Mali, but little is known about the distribution of rabies and its surveillance across the country. Documenting the evolution of rabies and the problems related to surveillance is useful to facilitate elimination of human rabies by 2030.

Method: Data collected at the Central Veterinary Laboratory (LCV) from 1999 to 2017 and through the surveillance system functioning at household, health and veterinary structure levels, as established by the Global Vaccine Alliance funded project on the burden of rabies, between 2016 and 2017 in Bamako and the Sikasso region were used in this study. Read More

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October 2020

Complex Disease Management: Managing a Cat with Comorbidities.

Margie Scherk

Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2020 Jul 7;50(4):811-822. Epub 2020 May 7.

catsINK, Vancouver BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Many older cats often suffer concurrently from multiple conditions. By focusing on the common concerns, rather than conflicting requirements, a management program can be devised. Optimize hydration, nutrition, and ensure comfort though providing analgesia and a low-stress environment in which the patient's feline-specific nature is respected both in the clinic and at home. Read More

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