7,019 results match your criteria required vaccination

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Vaccines: A Concise Review.

Oral Dis 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Preventive and Restorative Dentistry, College of Dental Medicine, University of Sharjah, UAE.

The development of a successful vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in an unmatched period of ten months, is a tribute to human ingenuity in the face of a vicious pandemic. A return to pre-pandemic `normalcy` depends on the successful delivery of the vaccine to a majority (~70%) so as to develop herd immunity critical to arrest the community spread of infection. Vaccination against COVID-19 is particularly important for dentistry as the dental team works in an environment replete with aerosol-generating procedures (AGP) that facilitate virus spread. Read More

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Who let the dogs In? An epidemiological study quantifying domestically sourced and imported dogs in Southern Ontario, Canada.

Zoonoses Public Health 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada.

Dogs are reservoirs for many zoonoses. In southern Ontario, Canada, minimal data exist on the sources from which domestic dogs are acquired (i.e. Read More

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Acceptance of the coronavirus disease-2019 vaccine among medical students in Uganda.

Trop Med Health 2021 May 13;49(1):37. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda.

Background: COVID-19 is still a major global threat for which vaccination remains the ultimate solution. Uganda reported 40,751 cases and 335 deaths as of 9 April 2021 and started its vaccination program among priority groups like health workers, teachers, those with chronic diseases among others in early March 2021. Unanimous uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine is required to subsequently avert its spread; therefore, we assessed COVID-19 vaccine acceptability, hesitancy, and associated factors among medical students in Uganda. Read More

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Monoclonal Antibodies vs COVID-19: Eduardo Ojito-Magaz MS General Director, Molecular Immunology Center.

MEDICC Rev 2021 Apr 30;23(2):12. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Cuba has five COVID-19 vaccines in clinical trials and is on track to receive emergency use authorization from the country's regulatory agency to begin mass vaccination with two of those candidates: Abdala and SOBERANA 02. Results from phase 1 and 2 trials of these vaccines, the first developed and produced in Latin America, have been encouraging, both in terms of safety and immunogenicity. The ongoing phase 3 trials will continue to look at safety, together with efficacy; parallel intervention studies involving over a million people in Havana will begin generating data on effectiveness. Read More

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Risk Factors of Extensively Drug Resistant Typhoid Fever Among Children in Karachi: Case-Control Study.

JMIR Public Health Surveill 2021 May 11;7(5):e27276. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Public Health, Community Medicine and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: Extensively drug resistant typhoid fever (XDR-TF) has been responsible for an ongoing outbreak in Pakistan, which began in November 2016.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with XDR-TF.

Methods: This age- and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during May-October 2018 in Karachi. Read More

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SARS -CoV-2 T-cell immunity to variants of concern following vaccination.

bioRxiv 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Recently, two mRNA vaccines to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) have become available, but there is also an emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with increased transmissibility and virulence . A major concern is whether the available vaccines will be equally effective against these variants. The vaccines are designed to induce an immune response against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein , which is required for viral entry to host cells . Read More

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Protective heterologous T cell immunity in COVID-19 induced by MMR and Tdap vaccine antigens.

bioRxiv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

T cells are critical for control of viral infection and effective vaccination. We investigated whether prior Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) or Tetanus-Diphtheria-pertussis (Tdap) vaccination elicit cross-reactive T cells that mitigate COVID-19. Using co-cultures of antigen presenting cells (APC) loaded with antigens and autologous T cells, we found a high correlation between responses to SARS-CoV-2 (Spike-S1 and Nucleocapsid) and MMR and Tdap vaccine proteins in both SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and individuals immunized with mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Read More

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Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses in Mice Immunized with Vaccinia Virus Expressing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.

J Immunol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR;

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health emergency, and the development of a successful vaccine will ultimately be required to prevent the continued spread and seasonal recurrence of this disease within the human population. However, very little is known about either the quality of the adaptive immune response or the viral Ag targets that will be necessary to prevent the spread of the infection. In this study, we generated recombinant Vaccinia virus expressing the full-length spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 (VacV-S) to evaluate the cellular and humoral immune response mounted against this viral Ag in mice. Read More

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Routine Third Trimester Sonogram: Friend or Foe.

Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2021 Jun;48(2):359-369

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Cambridge, Box 223, The Rosie Hospital, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0SW, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Several risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes can be identified by a routine third trimester ultrasound scan. However, there is also potential for harm, anxiety, and additional health care costs through unnecessary intervention due to false positive results. The evidence base informing the balance of risks and benefits of universal screening is inadequate to fully inform decision making. Read More

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The success of Australia's 'No Jab, No Pay' policy at a local level; retrospective clinical audit of a single medical practice assessing incidence of catch-up vaccinations.

Health Soc Care Community 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Graduate School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.

Vaccination is a vital health care initiative to prevent individual and population infection. To increase vaccination rates the federal government implemented the 'No Jab, No Pay' policy, where eligibility for several government benefits required children to be fully vaccinated by removing 'conscientious objections' and expanding the age range of children whose families receive benefits. This study assesses the impact of this policy at a local area within a single medical practice community in NSW, Australia. Read More

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From hepatitis A to E: A critical review of viral hepatitis.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(16):1691-1715

Transplant Department, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, FL 33331, United States.

Viral infections affecting the liver have had an important impact on humanity, as they have led to significant morbidity and mortality in patients with acute and chronic infections. Once an unknown etiology, the discovery of the viral agents triggered interest of the scientific community to establish the pathogenesis and diagnostic modalities to identify the affected population. With the rapid scientific and technological advances in the last centuries, controlling and even curing the infections became a possibility, with a large focus on preventive medicine through vaccination. Read More

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Activation of chicken gamma-delta T lymphocytes by a purified ulvan extract.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 May 3;237:110255. Epub 2021 May 3.

Amadeite SAS, 56580, Bréhan, France; R&D Breizh, 56500 Moustoir Ac, France. Electronic address:

Chicken γδ T lymphocytes are present in a variety of tissues such as blood, spleen and intestine. They constitute a major cytotoxic population. In chicken, Salmonella immunization as well as vaccination against Newcastle disease virus are accompanied by an increase of γδ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood, which may be activated, and thus represent a protective immune response. Read More

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COVID-19 and endocrine and metabolic diseases. An updated statement from the European Society of Endocrinology.

Endocrine 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milano, Italy.

Background: COVID-19 has completely changed our daily clinical practice as well as our social relations. Many organs and biological systems are involved in SARS-Cov-2 infection, either due to direct virus-induced damage or to indirect effects that can have systemic consequences. Endocrine system is not only an exception but its involvement in COVID-19 is so relevant that an "endocrine phenotype" of COVID-19 has progressively acquired clinical relevance. Read More

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COVID-19 optimal vaccination policies: A modeling study on efficacy, natural and vaccine-induced immunity responses.

Math Biosci 2021 May 4:108614. Epub 2021 May 4.

Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Sonora, Blvd. Luis Encinas y Rosales S/N, Hermosillo, Sonora, C.P. 83000, Mexico. Electronic address:

About a year into the pandemic, COVID-19 accumulates more than two million deaths worldwide. Despite non-pharmaceutical interventions as social distance, mask-wearing, and restrictive lockdown, the daily confirmed cases remain growing. Vaccine developments from Pfizer, Moderna, and Gamaleya Institute reach more than 90% efficacy and sustain the vaccination campaigns in multiple countries. Read More

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Genetic Diversity of Recent Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Isolated From Vaccinated Poultry Flocks in Malaysia.

Front Vet Sci 2021 20;8:643976. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Vaccination is an essential component in controlling infectious bursal disease (IBD), however, there is a lack of information on the genetic characteristics of a recent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that was isolated from IBD vaccinated commercial flocks in Malaysia. The present study investigated 11 IBDV isolates that were isolated from commercial poultry farms. The isolates were detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the hypervariable region (HVR) of VP2. Read More

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Modelling of COVID-19 vaccination strategies and herd immunity, in scenarios of limited and full vaccine supply in NSW, Australia.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Biosecurity Research Program, The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Several vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 are expected to be available in Australia in 2021. Initial supply is limited and will require a judicious vaccination strategy until supply is unrestricted. If vaccines have efficacy as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in contacts, this provides more policy options. Read More

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Current Challenges and Future Possibilities for Immunization Information Systems.

Acad Pediatr 2021 May-Jun;21(4S):S57-S64

American Immunization Registry Association (R Coyle, MB Kurilo, and E Abbott), Washington, DC.

Immunizations have proven to be an important tool for public health and for reducing the impact of vaccine preventable diseases. To realize the maximum benefits of immunizations, a coordinated effort between public policy, health care providers and health systems is required to increase vaccination coverage and to ensure high-quality data are available to inform clinical and public health interventions. Immunization information systems (IIS) are confidential, population-based, computerized databases that record all immunization doses administered by participating providers to persons residing within a given geopolitical area. Read More

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Reopening California : Seeking Robust, Non-Dominated COVID-19 Exit Strategies.

medRxiv 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Amid global scarcity of COVID-19 vaccines and the threat of new variant strains, California and other jurisdictions face the question of when and how to implement and relax COVID-19 Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs). While policymakers have attempted to balance the health and economic impacts of the pandemic, decentralized decision-making, deep uncertainty, and the lack of widespread use of comprehensive decision support methods can lead to the choice of fragile or inefficient strategies. This paper uses simulation models and the Robust Decision Making (RDM) approach to stress-test California's reopening strategy and other alternatives over a wide range of futures. Read More

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Recruiting for research on sensitive topics in schools: an experience with Vaxcards, a collectable vaccine card game.

Trials 2021 May 3;22(1):320. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of General Practice, Monash University, Building 1, 1/270 Ferntree Gully Road, Notting hill, Melbourne, Victoria, 3168, Australia.

Undertaking recruitment for research in schools is an effective way to recruit young people for research participation but it is not without its challenges. Gaining access and coordinating many levels of different organisations and stakeholders whose cooperation and approval are crucial all add time and sometimes logistical challenges for the research team. In addition, recruiting around sensitive research topics can elicit additional barriers to successful research. Read More

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A randomised controlled trial of the immunogenicity and safety of a formaldehyde-inactivated Coxiella burnetii vaccine in 8-week-old goats.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2021 Jun 25;236:110253. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.

Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in individuals exposed to infected ruminants. Vaccination in 3-4-month-old goats, has been reported to result in significantly greater reduction in C. burnetii shedding compared to goats vaccinated one month before breeding, the most commonly used strategy of controlling Q fever on infected intensively-managed herds. Read More

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First-dose mRNA vaccination is sufficient to reactivate immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 in recovered COVID-19 subjects.

J Clin Invest 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

The characterization of the adaptive immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in individuals who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection may define current and future clinical practice. To determine the effect of two doses BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination schedule in individuals who recovered from COVID-19 (COVID-19 recovered) compared to naïve subjects, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific T and B cell responses, as well as specific IgA, IgG, IgM and neutralizing antibodies titers in 22 individuals who received BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 11 of which had a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Evaluations were performed before vaccination and then weekly until 7 days post second injection. Read More

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Pediatric Vaccine Hesitancy and the Utilization of Antibody Measurements: A Novel Strategy with Implications for COVID 19.

Amrita Dosanjh

J Asthma Allergy 2021 23;14:427-431. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Pediatric Respiratory, San Diego, CA, USA.

Vaccine hesitancy is a well researched area with implications for both public health and the health of children and their families The factors leading to vaccine hesitancy are often complex and involve fear of the healthcare system and the process of vaccine development, cultural viewpoints and experiences. Pediatric patients often rely on parental guidance and decision making, and this may result in a lack of immunization for some children. The availability of the COVID 19 vaccine has been widely anticipated, yet not all individuals will seek the vaccine. Read More

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Guillain-Barre Syndrome in a Patient With Asymptomatic Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection and Major Depressive Disorder.

Cureus 2021 Mar 28;13(3):e14161. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Psychiatry, St. Luke's University Hospital Network, Bethlehem, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a devastating effect on all aspects of society, including the economy, healthcare, and educational institutions. One underrecognized effect of the pandemic is the decline of mental health in our communities. Studies have shown that pandemic-related stress is associated with increased depression and anxiety. Read More

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Milestones to reach Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) elimination in Italy: From free-of-charge screening to regional roadmaps for an HCV-free nation.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Surgical, Oncological and Gastroenterological Sciences, Gastroenterology Unit, University of Padua, Padua, Italy. Italy Co-ordinating Committee of Associazione Italiana Studio Fegato (AISF), Italy.

Although Italy has been on track for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) elimination since 2019, it fell off track due to the decrease in the number of treated patients. HCV elimination in Italy will be possible if immediate action is taken. A health policy was implemented beginning in 2021, consisting of screening among key populations and birth cohorts (1969-1989), estimated to have a high prevalence of undiagnosed individuals. Read More

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Identification of Highly Conserved SARS-CoV-2 Antigenic Epitopes with Wide Coverage Using Reverse Vaccinology Approach.

Viruses 2021 04 28;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

One of the most effective strategies for eliminating new and emerging infectious diseases is effective immunization. The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) warrants the need for a maximum coverage vaccine. Moreover, mutations that arise within the virus have a significant impact on the vaccination strategy. Read More

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The Long-Term Impact of Rotavirus Vaccines in Korea, 2008-2020; Emergence of G8P[8] Strain.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Health and Environment Research Institute of Gwangju, Gwangju 61954, Korea.

This study evaluated the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccination on prevalence, seasonality, and genotype distribution in Gwangju, Korea for 13 seasons. Rotavirus was identified using ELISA and then sequenced for G and P genotypes by Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reactions for diarrhoeagenic patient specimens from local hospitals between January 2008 and August2020. Of 26,902 fecal samples, 2919 samples (10. Read More

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Structure and Activities of the NS1 Influenza Protein and Progress in the Development of Small-Molecule Drugs.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 19;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 46241, Korea.

The influenza virus causes human disease on a global scale and significant morbidity and mortality. The existing vaccination regime remains vulnerable to antigenic drift, and more seriously, a small number of viral mutations could lead to drug resistance. Therefore, the development of a new additional therapeutic small molecule-based anti-influenza virus is urgently required. Read More

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Lessons Learned and Paths Forward for Rabies Dog Vaccination in Madagascar: A Case Study of Pilot Vaccination Campaigns in Moramanga District.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 12;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

Canine rabies causes an estimated 60,000 human deaths per year, but these deaths are preventable through post-exposure prophylaxis of people and vaccination of domestic dogs. Dog vaccination campaigns targeting 70% of the population are effective at interrupting transmission. Here, we report on lessons learned during pilot dog vaccination campaigns in the Moramanga District of Madagascar. Read More

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Would Parents Get Their Children Vaccinated Against SARS-CoV-2? Rate and Predictors of Vaccine Hesitancy According to a Survey over 5000 Families from Bologna, Italy.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Unit of Hygiene, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Public Health and Medical Statistics, University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

In the near future, COVID-19 vaccine efficacy trials in larger cohorts may offer the possibility to implement child and adolescent vaccination. The opening of the vaccination for these strata may play a key role in order to limit virus circulation, infection spreading towards the most vulnerable subjects, and plan safe school reopening. Vaccine hesitancy (VH) could limit the ability to reach the coverage threshold required to ensure herd immunity. Read More

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COVID-19 Vaccination Scenarios: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Turkey.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 18;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Pharmacy Management, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06230, Turkey.

As of March 2021, COVID-19 has claimed the lives of more than 2.7 million people worldwide. Vaccination has started in most countries around the world. Read More

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