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Satisfaction with online learning in the new normal: perspective of students and faculty at medical and health sciences colleges.

Med Educ Online 2021 Dec;26(1):1920090

School of Medicine, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.

Online learning has become the new normal in many medical and health science schools worldwide, courtesy of COVID-19. Satisfaction with online learning is a significant aspect of promoting successful educational processes. This study aimed to identify factors affecting student and faculty satisfaction with online learning during the new normal. Read More

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December 2021

Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors Tricostatin A and Quisinostat on tight junction proteins of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and normal lung epithelial cells.

Histochem Cell Biol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Cell Science, Research Institute for Frontier Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, South-1, West-17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060-8556, Japan.

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have a potential therapeutic role for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, more preclinical studies of HDAC inhibitors in NSCLC and normal lung epithelial cells are required to evaluate their antitumor activities and mechanisms. The bicellular tight junction molecule claudin-2 (CLDN-2) is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and increase the proliferation of adenocarcinoma cells. Read More

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Cbl-b deficiency prevents functional but not phenotypic T cell anergy.

J Exp Med 2021 Jul 11;218(7). Epub 2021 May 11.

Russell/Engleman Rheumatology Research Center, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

T cell anergy is an important peripheral tolerance mechanism. We studied how T cell anergy is established using an anergy model in which the Zap70 hypermorphic mutant W131A is coexpressed with the OTII TCR transgene (W131AOTII). Anergy was established in the periphery, not in the thymus. Read More

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Ghrelin-Induced Food Intake, But not GH Secretion, Requires the Expression of the GH Receptor in the Brain of Male Mice.

Endocrinology 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Ghrelin stimulates both growth hormone (GH) secretion and food intake. The orexigenic action of ghrelin is mainly mediated by neurons that co-express agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the arcuate nucleus (ARH). GH also stimulates food intake and, importantly, ARH AgRP/NPY neurons express GH receptor (GHR). Read More

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Opioid Prescribing Practices and Quality Improvements Within an Outpatient Orthopedic Practice.

Cureus 2021 Apr 6;13(4):e14332. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Statistics, Twin Cities Orthopedics, Golden Valley, USA.

Background During the last several decades, the opioid epidemic throughout the United States has been recognized as an increasing problem. The aim of this study was to identify and implement processes throughout a single private orthopedic practice and managed ambulatory surgery centers to reduce opioid prescription pill quantity and strength, while also reducing consumption. Methodology A baseline assessment along with the development of four separate phases was implemented. Read More

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A longitudinal study of changes of congenital auricular deformity regarding self-correction.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea; Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with congenital auricular deformities and evaluate the long-term frequency of their self-correction. Ninety newborns were enrolled in the study, and data were collected within 2 weeks after birth and at 1 year. The shape of the auricle was classified into seven categories using a digital image. Read More

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'Hello, MaxFax on-call?' - maxillofacial 'bleep sheet' proforma for on-call referrals.

Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Sep 1. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Western Health and Social Care Trust.

The on-call component of a dental core training (DCT) post in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) is considered to be the most daunting and challenging aspect of the job. The average trainee is a singly-qualified dentist with limited knowledge and experience of managing OMFS presentations. Given the short duration of DCT posts, there is a continual rotation of junior staff through OMFS departments with a varying skillset and knowledge mix. Read More

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September 2020

Increasing prevalence of fasting hyperglycemia in adolescents aged 10-18 years and their relationship with metabolic indicators : The Korea National health and Nutrition Examination Study (KNHANES) 2007-2018.

Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Pediatric diabetes is a common health burden in worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of fasting hyperglycemia in Korean teenagers aged 10-18 years and to evaluate its association with metabolic indicators.

Methods: To assess the risk of diabetes in domestic children and adolescents, the prevalence of fasting hyperglycemia was calculated, and a trend was evaluated using multi-year Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data and multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between hyperglycemia and metabolic factor. Read More

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Cardio- and reno-protective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase III in diabetic mice.

J Biol Chem 2021 May 7:100761. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Molecular Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) causes injury to tissues and organs, including to the heart and kidney, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, novel potential therapeutics are continuously required to minimize DM-related organ damage. We have previously shown that dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPPIII) has beneficial roles in a hypertensive mouse model, but it is unknown whether DPPIII has any effects on DM. Read More

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Glucocorticoids and androgens protect from gastric metaplasia by suppressing group 2 innate lymphoid cell activation.

Gastroenterology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Molecular Endocrinology Group; Signal Transduction Laboratory. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The immune compartment is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis. A weak immune response increases susceptibility to infection, but immune hyperactivation causes tissue damage, and chronic inflammation may lead to cancer development. In the stomach, inflammation damages the gastric glands and drives the development of potentially pre-neoplastic metaplasia. Read More

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Role of Innate Immune System in Environmental Lung Diseases.

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2021 May 10;21(5):34. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

The lung mucosa functions as a principal barrier between the body and inhaled environmental irritants and pathogens. Precise and targeted surveillance mechanisms are required at this lung-environment interface to maintain homeostasis and preserve gas exchange. This is performed by the innate immune system, a germline-encoded system that regulates initial responses to foreign irritants and pathogens. Read More

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Acute urinary retention in the first and second-trimester of pregnancy: Three case reports.

World J Clin Cases 2021 May;9(13):3130-3139

Department of Obstetrics, Sichuan Provincial Hospital for Women and Children, Chengdu 610000, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Acute urinary retention (AUR) is rare during pregnancy.

Case Summary: We report on three pregnant women with AUR between the 10 and 18 wk of gestation. Case 1 was first diagnosed as urinary tract infection and developed a urinary tract infection due to urinary retention caused by urethral obstruction. Read More

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Mutations in RNA Methyltransferase Gene Confer High Risk of Outflow Tract Malformation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:623394. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

, encoding a cytosine-5 RNA methyltransferase and located in the 7q11.23 locus, is a candidate gene for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Deletion of the 7q11. Read More

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Treatment of Trichiasis by Releasing Follicle Roots of Eyelashes: A New Technique.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Mar 22;9(3):e3480. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Trichiasis is an acquired condition in which eyelashes are misdirected toward the ocular surface, resulting in eye irritation and ocular morbidities. Different treatment modalities have been described, including surgical and non-surgical methods. The goal of this article is to present a novel technique for treatment of trichiasis, with a brief review of treatment options. Read More

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Scurvy: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Cureus 2021 Apr 5;13(4):e14312. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Internal Medicine, Wright Patterson Air Force Base/Wright State University, Dayton, USA.

Scurvy is a rare disease which can manifest in a variety of presentations. Classically, scurvy is associated with poor dentition and bleeding diatheses. Rarely, scurvy can present with life-threatening hemodynamical instability. Read More

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Age-Related Changes in Thymic Central Tolerance.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:676236. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Epigenetics and Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX, United States.

Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and hematopoietic antigen presenting cells (HAPCs) in the thymus microenvironment provide essential signals to self-reactive thymocytes that induce either negative selection or generation of regulatory T cells (Treg), both of which are required to establish and maintain central tolerance throughout life. HAPCs and TECs are comprised of multiple subsets that play distinct and overlapping roles in central tolerance. Changes that occur in the composition and function of TEC and HAPC subsets across the lifespan have potential consequences for central tolerance. Read More

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Reduced Function Variants and Genotype/Phenotype Translations of CYP2D6 Intermediate Metabolizers: Implications for Personalized Drug Dosing in Psychiatry.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:650750. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Section of Pharmacogenetics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Biomedicum 5B, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Genetic differences in cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism have been known for several decades. The clinically most important polymorphic CYP enzyme is CYP2D6, which plays a key role in the metabolism of many antidepressants and antipsychotics, along with a range of non-psychiatric medications. Dose individualization based on genotype to improve the effect and safety of drug treatment has been an ambition for a long time. Read More

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Therapeutic Effect of Epidermal Growth Factor Combined With Nano Silver Dressing on Diabetic Foot Patients.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:627098. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

To investigate the clinical efficacy of epidermal growth factor combined with nano silver dressing in the treatment of diabetic foot wounds. A total of 160 patients with diabetic foot ulcers admitted to the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University from 2015-06 to 2018-06 were selected to participate in the experiment. A randomized table method was used to randomly divide 160 patients into 4 groups: 40 in the epidermal growth factor group, 40 in the nano-silver dressing group, 40 in the combined group, and 40 in the saline control group (normal saline). Read More

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ID4 Is Required for Normal Ependymal Cell Development.

Front Neurosci 2021 22;15:668243. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

INSERM, CNRS, APHP, Institut du Cerveau - Paris Brain Institute (ICM), Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Ependymal cells are radial glia-derived multiciliated cells lining the lateral ventricles of the brain and spinal cord. Correct development and coordinated cilia beating is essential for proper cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and neurogenesis modulation. Dysfunctions of ependymal cells were associated with transcription factor deregulation. Read More

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Complex bronchial ruptures in blunt thoracic trauma: management and outcome.

Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 15;37(3):311-315. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

General Surgery Department, Amiri Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait.

Complex bronchial ruptures are rare. Primary surgical repair is the preferred procedure. The aim of this retrospective case series was to study the clinical presentation of these complex bronchial injuries and their management and outcomes. Read More

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The utility of dithiothreitol treatment of periprosthetic tissues and explanted implants in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2021 Apr 18;39(2):179-183. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Purpose: The methods used for the processing of periprosthetic tissues and explanted implants to improve culture outcome especially in biofilm mediated prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are still debated upon. Studies have reported that Dithiothreitol (DTT) pretreatment of infected devices gives similar results as sonication. However, none of them evaluated the DTT treatment of periprosthetic tissues and explanted implants in the same cohort. Read More

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Focal splenic lesions: Imaging spectrum of diseases on CT, MRI and PET/CT.

Diagn Interv Imaging 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiology, Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 75014 Paris, France; Université de Paris, 75006 Paris, France.

The spleen can be affected by a variety of diseases. Some of them are readily identified as variations of normal or benign diseases on imaging. However, for a substantial number of focal splenic abnormalities, the diagnosis can be difficult so that histopathologic analysis may be required for a definite diagnosis. Read More

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Pathophysiological relationship between COVID-19 and olfactory dysfunction: A systematic review.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Universidade Federal do Vale São Francisco (UNIVASF), Paulo Afonso, BA, Brazil.

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is the pathogen of COVID-19. The virus is composed of the spike, membrane and envelope. On physiological smell, odoriferous substances bind to proteins secreted by sustentacular cells in order to be processed by olfactory receptor neurons. Read More

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A Validated Functional Analysis of PALB2 (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) Missense Variants for Use in Clinical Variant Interpretation.

J Mol Diagn 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC. Electronic address:

Clinical genetic testing readily detects germline genetic variants. Yet, the rarity of individual variants limits the evidence available for variant classification, leading to many variants of uncertain significance (VUS). VUS cannot guide clinical decisions, complicating counseling and management. Read More

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Intra- and interobserver agreement of histopathological findings in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

J Pediatr (Rio J) 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Universidade Federal do Paraná, Departamento de Pediatria, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.

Objective: To assess intra- and interobserver agreement among non-expert pathologists in identifying features of the eosinophilic esophagitis histologic scoring system (EoEHSS) in pediatric patients.

Patients And Methods: The authors used 50 slides from patients (aged 1-15 years; 72% male) with EoE. EoEHSS evaluates eosinophilic inflammation and other features including epithelial basal zone hyperplasia, eosinophilic abscesses, eosinophil surface layering, dilated intercellular spaces, surface epithelial alteration, dyskeratotic epithelial cells, and lamina propria fibrosis. Read More

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A mutation in SLC37A4 causes a dominantly inherited congenital disorder of glycosylation characterized by liver dysfunction.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

SLC37A4 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized multitransmembrane protein required for transporting glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6P) into the ER. Once transported into the ER, Glc-6P is subsequently hydrolyzed by tissue-specific phosphatases to glucose and inorganic phosphate during times of glucose depletion. Pathogenic variants in SLC37A4 cause an established recessive disorder known as glycogen storage disorder 1b characterized by liver and kidney dysfunction with neutropenia. Read More

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Chronic hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and metabolic syndrome are associated with risk of tendon injury.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Department of Orthopedic Surgery M, Copenhagen University Hospital - Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg and Center for Healthy Aging, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Tendon injury is a considerable problem affecting both physically active and sedentary people. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between markers for metabolic disorders (hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and metabolic syndrome) and the risk of developing tendon injuries requiring referral to a hospital. The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective study of diabetic and nondiabetic individuals from the Danish general population with different physical activity levels. Read More

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Pediatric mild head trauma: is outpatient follow-up imaging necessary or beneficial?

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 May 7:1-7. Epub 2021 May 7.

3Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; and.

Objective: Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death among children and is a significant cause of morbidity. However, the majority of injuries are mild (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15) without any need for neurosurgical intervention, and clinically significant neurological decline rarely occurs. Although the question of repeat imaging within the first 24 hours has been discussed in the past, the yield of short-term follow-up imaging has never been thoroughly described. Read More

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Soil legacy of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita: The potassium-sequestering glomalin improves peanut (Arachis hypogaea) drought resistance and pod yield.

Microbiol Res 2021 Apr 29;249:126774. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Functional Genomics, Jiangsu Engineering and Technology Research Center for Industrialization of Microbial Resources, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

In agroecosystems, drought stress severely threatens crops development. Although potassium (K) is required in amounts by crops under drought stress, the mobilization and availablity of K are limited by the soil water status. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can form mutualistic associations with most crops and play direct or indirect roles in the host drought resistance. Read More

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Guidance on validation of lethal control measures for foodborne pathogens in foods.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 May 7;20(3):2825-2881. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Food Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Food manufacturers are required to obtain scientific and technical evidence that a control measure or combination of control measures is capable of reducing a significant hazard to an acceptable level that does not pose a public health risk under normal conditions of distribution and storage. A validation study provides evidence that a control measure is capable of controlling the identified hazard under a worst-case scenario for process and product parameters tested. It also defines the critical parameters that must be controlled, monitored, and verified during processing. Read More

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