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Kinematic alignment fails to achieve balancing in 50% of varus knees and resects more bone compared to functional alignment.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2022 Aug 13. Epub 2022 Aug 13.

Orthopaedics Surgery and Sports Medicine Department, FIFA Medical Center of Excellence, Croix-Rousse Hospital, Lyon University Hospital, Lyon, France.

Purpose: Evidence is emerging that tibio-femoral compartmental balancing is related to clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to assess if kinematic alignment (KA) delivered a balanced knee in flexion and extension after TKA on varus deformity, compared to functional alignment (FA).

Methods: This single-centre retrospective cohort study assessed 110 consecutive TKAs performed with an image-based robotic system for pre-operative varus deformity. Read More

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Applicability of the IrisPlex system for eye color prediction in an admixed population from Argentina.

Ann Hum Genet 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Laboratorio de Diversidad Genética, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Celular IMBICE (CONICET-UNLP-CIC), La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Eye color prediction based on an individual's genetic information is of interest in the field of forensic genetics. In recent years, researchers have studied different genes and markers associated with this externally visible characteristic and have developed methods for its prediction. The IrisPlex represents a validated tool for homogeneous populations, though its applicability in populations of mixed ancestry is limited, mainly regarding the prediction of intermediate eye colors. Read More

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The influence of imagery vividness and internally-directed attention on the neural mechanisms underlying the encoding of visual mental images into episodic memory.

Cereb Cortex 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, United States.

Attention can be directed externally toward sensory information or internally toward self-generated information. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated the attentional processes underlying the formation and encoding of self-generated mental images into episodic memory. Participants viewed flickering words referring to common objects and were tasked with forming visual mental images of the objects and rating their vividness. Read More

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Use of a penicillin allergy clinical decision rule to enable direct oral penicillin provocation: an international multicentre randomised control trial in an adult population (PALACE): study protocol.

BMJ Open 2022 08 8;12(8):e063784. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Centre for Antibiotic Allergy and Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.

Introduction: Penicillin allergies are highly prevalent in the healthcare setting and associated with the prescription of second-line inferior antibiotics. More than 85% of all penicillin allergy labels can be removed by skin testing and 96%-99% of low-risk penicillin allergy labels can be removed by direct oral challenge. An internally and externally validated clinical assessment tool for penicillin allergy, PEN-FAST, can identify a low-risk penicillin allergy without the need for skin testing; a score of less than 3 has a negative predictive value of 96. Read More

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External validation and extension of the Early Prediction of Functional Outcome after Stroke (EPOS) prediction model for upper limb outcome 3 months after stroke.

PLoS One 2022 8;17(8):e0272777. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objective: The 'Early Prediction of Functional Outcome after Stroke' (EPOS) model was developed to predict the presence of at least some upper limb capacity (Action Research Am Test [ARAT] ≥10/57) at 6 months based on assessments on days 2, 5 and 9 after stroke. External validation of the model is the next step towards clinical implementation. The objective here is to externally validate the EPOS model for upper limb outcome 3 months poststroke in Switzerland and extend the model using an ARAT cut-off at 32 points. Read More

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3D single cell migration driven by temporal correlation between oscillating force dipoles.

Elife 2022 Jul 28;11. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Development and stem cells, University of Strasbourg, CNRS, IGBMC, Illkirch, France.

Directional cell locomotion requires symmetry breaking between the front and rear of the cell. In some cells, symmetry breaking manifests itself in a directional flow of actin from the front to the rear of the cell. Many cells, especially in physiological 3D matrices do not show such coherent actin dynamics and present seemingly competing protrusion/retraction dynamics at their front and back. Read More

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Development and validation of predictive risk models for sight threatening diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes to be applied as triage tools in resource limited settings.

EClinicalMedicine 2022 Sep 22;51:101578. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath Street, London EC1V 9EL, United Kingdom.

Background: Delayed diagnosis and treatment of sight threatening diabetic retinopathy (STDR) is a common cause of visual impairment in people with Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, systematic regular retinal screening is recommended, but global coverage of such services is challenging. We aimed to develop and validate predictive models for STDR to identify 'at-risk' population for retinal screening. Read More

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September 2022

Measuring the Usability and Quality of Explanations of a Machine Learning Web-Based Tool for Oral Tongue Cancer Prognostication.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 8;19(14). Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Research Program in Systems Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00100 Helsinki, Finland.

: Machine learning models have been reported to assist in the proper management of cancer through accurate prognostication. Integrating such models as a web-based prognostic tool or calculator may help to improve cancer care and assist clinicians in making oral cancer management-related decisions. However, none of these models have been recommended in daily practices of oral cancer due to concerns related to machine learning methodologies and clinical implementation challenges. Read More

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Professionalism in dentistry: deconstructing common terminology.

BDJ Open 2022 Jul 23;8(1):21. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, Centre for Host Microbiome Interactions, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: There is a social expectation that dentists demonstrate professionalism. Although the General Dental Council puts it at the heart of their regulatory agenda, there is not yet consensus on the meaning and implications of the term.

Objective: To explore practising dentists' understanding of the character traits commonly associated with professionalism and what these mean in practice. Read More

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Lysozyme crystallization in hydrogel media under ultrasound irradiation.

Ultrason Sonochem 2022 Jul 18;88:106096. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Laboratorio de Estudios Cristalográficos, Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-UGR), UEQ, Avenida de las Palmeras 4, 18100 Armilla, Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

Sonocrystallization implies the application of ultrasound radiation to control the nucleation and crystal growth depending on the actuation time and intensity. Its application allows to induce nucleation at lower supersaturations than required under standard conditions. Although extended in inorganic and organic crystallization, it has been scarcely explored in protein crystallization. Read More

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A web-based review of global health programs in U.S. allopathic and osteopathic medical schools.

Med Teach 2022 Jul 22:1-5. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose: There is no current centralized database of structured global health programs at U.S. medical schools and no published review in the past decade. Read More

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Development of hypertensive complications in oocyte donation pregnancy: protocol for a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis (DONOR IPD).

BMJ Open 2022 07 18;12(7):e059594. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Gynecology and Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The assisted reproductive technique of oocyte donation (OD) is comparable to in vitro fertilisation (IVF), with the distinction of using a donated oocyte and thus involving two women. Compared with IVF and naturally conceived (NC) pregnancies, OD pregnancies have a higher risk for pregnancy complications as pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and pre-eclampsia (PE). Various covariates among women pregnant by OD, however, also contribute to an increased risk for developing hypertensive complications. Read More

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Utility of the IMPACT score for predicting heart transplant mortality. Analysis on a contemporary cohort of the Spanish Heart Transplant Registry.

Clin Transplant 2022 Jul 13:e14774. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction And Objectives: The Index for Mortality Prediction After Cardiac Transplantation (IMPACT) score was derived and validated as a predictor of mortality after heart transplantation (HT). The primary objective of this work is to externally validate the IMPACT score in a contemporary Spanish cohort.

Methods: Spanish Heart Transplant Registry data were used to identify adult (>16 years) HT patients between January 2000 and December 2015. Read More

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Expanding the strategic and clinical leadership role of accredited specialists.

Occup Med (Lond) 2022 Jul 11. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester, UK.

Background: We sought to explore the value and benefits of accredited specialists employed in the National Health Service (NHS), and proposed strategies for expanding their role.

Aims: To explore the core characteristics of accredited specialists and to examine how their skills could be further utilized to enhance occupational health (OH) services.

Methods: Mixed methods comprising a survey and qualitative work. Read More

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Endoscope Assisted Combined Drainage of Sino-Orbital Abscess: Technique Revisited.

Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2022 Jun 9;74(2):172-177. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Advanced Eye Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India.

Orbital complications of acute rhinosinusitis may present with painful proptosis and ophthalmoplegia. Surgical management, when required comprises of endonasal endoscopic sinus clearance with or without external orbital abscess drainage. External drainage involves blind dissection and carries a risk of iatrogenic injury to periorbital structures. Read More

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Fluorescent Phase-Changing Perfluorocarbon Nanodroplets as Activatable Near-Infrared Probes.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 30;23(13). Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Dartmouth College, 15 Thayer Drive, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

The sensitivity of fluorescence imaging is limited by the high optical scattering of tissue. One approach to improve sensitivity to small signals is to use a contrast agent with a signal that can be externally modulated. In this work, we present a new phase-changing perfluorocarbon nanodroplet contrast agent loaded with DiR dye. Read More

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External Validation of a Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening Model Using Artificial Intelligence in 3 Low- and Middle-Income Populations.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2022 Jul 7. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland.

Importance: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of preventable blindness that disproportionately affects children born in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In-person and telemedical screening examinations can reduce this risk but are challenging to implement in LMICs owing to the multitude of at-risk infants and lack of trained ophthalmologists.

Objective: To implement an ROP risk model using retinal images from a single baseline examination to identify infants who will develop treatment-requiring (TR)-ROP in LMIC telemedicine programs. Read More

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Systematic comparison of machine learning algorithms to develop and validate predictive models for periodontitis.

J Clin Periodontol 2022 Jul 4. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

School of Oral Hygiene, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the validity of different machine learning algorithms to develop and validate predictive models for periodontitis.

Materials And Methods: Using national survey data from Taiwan (n = 3453) and the United States (n = 3685), predictors of periodontitis were extracted from the datasets and pre-processed, and then 10 machine learning algorithms were trained to develop predictive models. The models were validated both internally (bootstrap sampling) and externally (alternative country's dataset). Read More

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Automated brain tumor identification using magnetic resonance imaging: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neurooncol Adv 2022 Jan-Dec;4(1):vdac081. Epub 2022 May 27.

Division of Imaging Science and Technology, School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

Background: Automated brain tumor identification facilitates diagnosis and treatment planning. We evaluate the performance of traditional machine learning (TML) and deep learning (DL) in brain tumor detection and segmentation, using MRI.

Methods: A systematic literature search from January 2000 to May 8, 2021 was conducted. Read More

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Which model is superior in predicting ICU survival: artificial intelligence versus conventional approaches.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2022 06 26;22(1):167. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

Endocrine Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: A disease severity classification system is widely used to predict the survival of patients admitted to the intensive care unit with different diagnoses. In the present study, conventional severity classification systems were compared with artificial intelligence predictive models (Artificial Neural Network and Decision Tree) in terms of the prediction of the survival rate of the patients admitted to the intensive care unit.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed on the data of the patients admitted to the ICU of Ghaemshahr's Razi Teaching Care Center from March 20th, 2017, to September 22nd, 2019. Read More

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Evaluation of prognostic risk models for postoperative pulmonary complications in adult patients undergoing major abdominal surgery: a systematic review and international external validation cohort study.

Authors:

Lancet Digit Health 2022 07;4(7):e520-e531

Background: Stratifying risk of postoperative pulmonary complications after major abdominal surgery allows clinicians to modify risk through targeted interventions and enhanced monitoring. In this study, we aimed to identify and validate prognostic models against a new consensus definition of postoperative pulmonary complications.

Methods: We did a systematic review and international external validation cohort study. Read More

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The rate of thermodynamic cost against adiabatic and nonadiabatic fluctuations of a single gene circuit in Drosophila embryos.

J Chem Phys 2022 Jun;156(22):225101

Department of Chemistry and of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3400, USA.

We study the stochastic dynamics of the externally regulating gene circuit as an example of an eve-skipped gene stripe in the development of Drosophila. Three gene regulation regimes are considered: an adiabatic phase when the switching rate of the gene from the OFF to ON state is faster than the rate of mRNA degradation; a nonadiabatic phase when the switching rate from the OFF to ON state is slower than that of the mRNA degradation; and a bursting phase when the gene switching is fast and transcription is very fast, while the ON state probability is very low. We found that the rate of thermodynamic cost quantified by the entropy production rate can suppress the fluctuations of the gene circuit. Read More

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Successful treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infection of an external ventricular drain with 2 weeks of intravenous linezolid.

Access Microbiol 2022 29;4(3):000335. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow G51 4TF, UK.

Hydrocephalus is a common condition worldwide, and is frequently managed by diversion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), either externally with a drain or internally with a shunt. An external ventricular drain (EVD) can be an essential treatment modality, but is associated with a risk of infection, most commonly caused by species, which can result in meningitis or ventriculitis and a delay in the definitive management of the hydrocephalus. Here, we report the case of a patient who required an EVD to manage post-operative hydrocephalus following a craniotomy and microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia. Read More

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Just How Confident Can We Be in Predicting Sports Injuries? A Systematic Review of the Methodological Conduct and Performance of Existing Musculoskeletal Injury Prediction Models in Sport.

Sports Med 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology, and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Centre for Statistics in Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: An increasing number of musculoskeletal injury prediction models are being developed and implemented in sports medicine. Prediction model quality needs to be evaluated so clinicians can be informed of their potential usefulness.

Objective: To evaluate the methodological conduct and completeness of reporting of musculoskeletal injury prediction models in sport. Read More

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Classification of painful or painless diabetic peripheral neuropathy and identification of the most powerful predictors using machine learning models in large cross-sectional cohorts.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2022 05 29;22(1):144. Epub 2022 May 29.

Neural Injury Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neuroscience, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Level 6, West Wing, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK.

Background: To improve the treatment of painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN) and associated co-morbidities, a better understanding of the pathophysiology and risk factors for painful DPN is required. Using harmonised cohorts (N = 1230) we have built models that classify painful versus painless DPN using quality of life (EQ5D), lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption), demographics (age, gender), personality and psychology traits (anxiety, depression, personality traits), biochemical (HbA1c) and clinical variables (BMI, hospital stay and trauma at young age) as predictors.

Methods: The Random Forest, Adaptive Regression Splines and Naive Bayes machine learning models were trained for classifying painful/painless DPN. Read More

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Emergency Airway Management in a Patient with a T-Tube Tracheal Stent.

J Emerg Med 2022 06 9;62(6):789-792. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Hennepin Healthcare, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Abnormal anatomy complicates emergency airway management. In this case, we describe definitive airway management in a critically injured emergency department (ED) patient with a history of partial tracheal resection who had a Montgomery T-tube, a type of T-shaped tracheal stent, in place at the time of the motor vehicle collision. The Montgomery T-tube is not a useful artificial airway during resuscitation, as it lacks a cuff or the necessary adapter for positive pressure ventilation. Read More

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Optimizing discharge after major surgery using an artificial intelligence-based decision support tool (DESIRE): An external validation study.

Surgery 2022 Aug 4;172(2):663-669. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: In the DESIRE study (Discharge aftEr Surgery usIng aRtificial intElligence), we have previously developed and validated a machine learning concept in 1,677 gastrointestinal and oncology surgery patients that can predict safe hospital discharge after the second postoperative day. Despite strong model performance (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.88) in an academic surgical population, it remains unknown whether these findings can be translated to other hospitals and surgical populations. Read More

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Multi-omics analysis predicts fibronectin 1 as a prognostic biomarker in glioblastoma multiforme.

Genomics 2022 May 2;114(3):110378. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most malignant and intractable central nervous system tumors with high recurrence, low survival rate, and poor prognosis. Despite the advances of aggressive, multimodal treatment, a successful treatment strategy is still elusive, often leading to therapeutic resistance and fatality. Thus, it is imperative to search for and identify novel markers critically associated with GBM pathogenesis to improve the existing trend of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Read More

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Machine learning-based model for prediction of clinical deterioration in hospitalized patients by COVID 19.

Sci Rep 2022 05 2;12(1):7097. Epub 2022 May 2.

Osakidetza Basque Health Service, Respiratory Service, Galdakao-Usansolo University Hospital, Galdakao, Spain.

Despite the publication of great number of tools to aid decisions in COVID-19 patients, there is a lack of good instruments to predict clinical deterioration. COVID19-Osakidetza is a prospective cohort study recruiting COVID-19 patients. We collected information from baseline to discharge on: sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities and associated medications, vital signs, treatment received and lab test results. Read More

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DNA binding by polycomb-group proteins: searching for the link to CpG islands.

Nucleic Acids Res 2022 05;50(9):4813-4839

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Polycomb group proteins predominantly exist in polycomb repressive complexes (PRCs) that cooperate to maintain the repressed state of thousands of cell-type-specific genes. Targeting PRCs to the correct sites in chromatin is essential for their function. However, the mechanisms by which PRCs are recruited to their target genes in mammals are multifactorial and complex. Read More

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