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The blood flow-klf6a-tagln2 axis drives vessel pruning in zebrafish by regulating endothelial cell rearrangement and actin cytoskeleton dynamics.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jul 28;17(7):e1009690. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

Recent studies have focused on capillary pruning in various organs and species. However, the way in which large-diameter vessels are pruned remains unclear. Here we show that pruning of the zebrafish caudal vein (CV) from ventral capillaries of the CV plexus in different transgenic embryos is driven by endothelial cell (EC) rearrangement, which involves EC nucleus migration, junction remodeling, and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Read More

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Nanopore sequencing reveals full-length Tropomyosin 1 isoforms and their regulation by RNA-binding proteins during rat heart development.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

Alternative splicing (AS) contributes to the diversity of the proteome by producing multiple isoforms from a single gene. Although short-read RNA-sequencing methods have been the gold standard for determining AS patterns of genes, they have a difficulty in defining full-length mRNA isoforms assembled using different exon combinations. Tropomyosin 1 (TPM1) is an actin-binding protein required for cytoskeletal functions in non-muscle cells and for contraction in muscle cells. Read More

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Primary carbohydrate metabolism genes participate in heat-stress memory at the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Mol Plant 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

University of Potsdam, Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Karl-Liebknecht-Straße 24-25, Haus 20, 14476 Potsdam, Germany; Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam, Germany. Electronic address:

In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is essential for the growth of aboveground organs. However, little is known about its molecular responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we show that the SAM of Arabidopsis thaliana displays an autonomous heat-stress (HS) memory of a previous non-lethal HS, allowing the SAM to regain growth after exposure to an otherwise lethal HS several days later. Read More

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Actuarial Analysis of Survival among Breast Cancer Patients in Lithuania.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Mathematics, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, LT-03225 Vilnius, Lithuania.

Breast cancer is the most common cause of mortality due to cancer for women both in Lithuania and worldwide. Chances of survival after diagnosis differ significantly depending on the stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. Extended term periods are required to estimate survival of, e. Read More

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Optimization of Ceftazidime/Avibactam for KPC-Producing .

Front Microbiol 2021 4;12:618087. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Ceftazidime/avibactam is an important treatment option for infections caused by carbapenemase-producing (KPC-Kp), however, resistance can emerge during treatment. The objective of the study was to define the ceftazidime/avibactam concentrations required to suppress bacterial regrowth in ceftazidime/avibactam susceptible isolates and identify active therapies against ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant KPC-Kp. Time-kill assays were performed against twelve ST258 KPC-Kp isolates that harbored or . Read More

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Membrane Permeant Inhibitor of Myosin Light Chain Kinase Worsens Survival in Murine Polymicrobial Sepsis.

Shock 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Surgery and Emory Critical Care Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University Department of Surgery and Emory Transplant Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Abstract: Sepsis-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is mediated by disruption of the epithelial tight junction, which is closely associated with the peri-junctional actin-myosin ring. Genetic deletion of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) reverses intestinal hyperpermeability and improves survival in a murine model of intra-abdominal sepsis. In an attempt to determine whether these findings could be translated using a more clinically relevant strategy, this study aimed to determine if pharmacologic inhibition of MLCK using the membrane permeant inhibitor of MLCK (PIK) improved gut barrier function and survival following sepsis. Read More

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February 2021

The yeast ISW1b ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler is critical for nucleosome spacing and dinucleosome resolution.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 18;11(1):4195. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Division of Developmental Biology, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Building 6A Room 2A02, 6 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Isw1 and Chd1 are ATP-dependent nucleosome-spacing enzymes required to establish regular arrays of phased nucleosomes near transcription start sites of yeast genes. Cells lacking both Isw1 and Chd1 have extremely disrupted chromatin, with weak phasing, irregular spacing and a propensity to form close-packed dinucleosomes. The Isw1 ATPase subunit occurs in two different remodeling complexes: ISW1a (composed of Isw1 and Ioc3) and ISW1b (composed of Isw1, Ioc2 and Ioc4). Read More

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February 2021

The tetraspanin protein CD9 modulates infection with human herpesvirus 6A and 6B in a CD46-dependent manner.

J Virol 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Tetraspanins are four-span transmembrane proteins that organize the membrane by forming tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. These have been shown to be important for virus entry. The human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A receptor CD46 is known to form complexes with the tetraspanin CD9 and β1-integrins, however the significance of this for HHV-6A infection remains unexplored. Read More

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January 2021

Noncanonical Sequences Involving NHERF1 Interaction with NPT2A Govern Hormone-Regulated Phosphate Transport: Binding Outside the Box.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 22;22(3). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Laboratory for GPCR Biology, Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Na/H exchange factor-1 (NHERF1), a multidomain PDZ scaffolding phosphoprotein, is required for the type II sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NPT2A)-mediated renal phosphate absorption. Both PDZ1 and PDZ2 domains are involved in NPT2A-dependent phosphate uptake. Though harboring identical core-binding motifs, PDZ1 and PDZ2 play entirely different roles in hormone-regulated phosphate transport. Read More

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January 2021

Reactivity of -Phosphinoguanidines of the Formula (HNR)(PhPNR)C(NAr) toward Main Group Metal Alkyls: Facile Ligand Rearrangement from -Phosphinoguanidinates to Phosphinimine-Amidinates.

Inorg Chem 2020 Oct 1;59(20):15262-15275. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Departamento de Quı́mica Orgánica e Inorgánica/IUQOEM, Universidad de Oviedo, E-33071 Oviedo, Spain.

We report the reactivity of -phosphinoguanidines of the formula (HNR)(PhPNR)C(NAr) (R = Pr and Ar = 2,6-PrCH [Dipp] for , R = Pr and Ar = 2,4,6-MeCH [Mes] for , and R = Cy and Ar = Dipp for ), prepared in high yields from the corresponding trisubstituted guanidines, toward main group metal alkyls AlMe, ZnEt, MgBu, and BuLi to obtain novel phosphinoguanidinato and phosphinimine-amidinato compounds. Reactions of - with AlMe at room temperature led to the kinetic phosphinoguanidinato products [Al{κ-'-(NR)C(NAr)(NRPPh)}Me] (-), whereas the mild heating (60-80 °C) of solutions of - give the thermodynamic phosphinimine-amidinato products [Al{κ-'-(NR)C(NAr)(PPhNR)}Me] (-) after ligand rearrangement. The reactions of equimolar amounts of - and ZnEt initially give solutions containing unstable phosphinoguanidinato compounds [Zn{κ--(NR)C(NAr)(NRPPh)}Et] (-), which rearrange upon mild heating to the phosphinimine-amidinato derivatives [Zn{κ-'-(NR)C(NAr)(PPhNR)}Et] (-). Read More

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October 2020

A case series of three patients presenting with isoniazid induced toxicity and N-acetyl transferase 2 gene mutation: A management conundrum for programmatic therapy of tuberculosis in India.

Indian J Tuberc 2020 Jul 20;67(3):407-410. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Medicine, LTM Medical College & LTM General Hospital, Mumbai, India.

Isoniazid is an essential drug in the management of tuberculosis but there is a high degree of variation in the Indian population's capacity to acetylate or inactivate isoniazid to the inactive metabolite acetyl isoniazid, and they can be distinctly characterized phenotypically as being either slow or rapid inactivators (the concentration of the enzyme being higher in rapid inactivators). Several mutations in the N-acetyl transference 2 (NAT2) gene account for majority of the slow acetylator genotypes in the human population (NAT2*5A, NAT2*5B, and NAT2*6A). Such individuals are at a greater risk of drug-induced adverse reactions due to reduced drug elimination, compared to those possessing the wild type allele. Read More

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Lysine Demethylase KDM6A in Differentiation, Development, and Cancer.

Mol Cell Biol 2020 09 28;40(20). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Laboratory of Endocrinology and Receptor Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Lysine demethylase 6A (KDM6A), also known as UTX, belongs to the KDM6 family of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylases, which also includes UTY and KDM6B (JMJD3). The KDM6A protein contains six tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains and an enzymatic Jumonji C (JmjC) domain that catalyzes the removal of di- and trimethylation on H3K27. KDM6A physically associates with histone H3 lysine 4 monomethyltransferases MLL3 (KMT2C) and MLL4 (KMT2D). Read More

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September 2020

Endogenization and excision of human herpesvirus 6 in human genomes.

PLoS Genet 2020 08 10;16(8):e1008915. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Laboratory for Statistical and Translational Genetics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Sequences homologous to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are integrated within the nuclear genome of about 1% of humans, but it is not clear how this came about. It is also uncertain whether integrated HHV-6 can reactivate into an infectious virus. HHV-6 integrates into telomeres, and this has recently been associated with polymorphisms affecting MOV10L1. Read More

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Molecular characterization of hepatitis C virus for subtype determination and resistance-associated substitutions detection among Chinese voluntary blood donors.

Antiviral Res 2020 09 24;181:104871. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

National Center for Clinical Laboratories, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, PR China; Beijing Engineering Research Center of Laboratory Medicine, Beijing Hospital, PR China; Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: The high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the resulting burden of the disease are significant issues to public health worldwide. Although direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAAs) with good tolerance and bioavailability are available, resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) often jeopardize the successful sustainment of virological responses in HCV treatment. High-frequency baseline RASs in treatment-naïve patients can lead to failures in DAA treatment. Read More

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September 2020

ACTL6A suppresses p21 expression to enhance the epidermal squamous cell carcinoma phenotype.

Oncogene 2020 09 2;39(36):5855-5866. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Epidermal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common and highly invasive form of cancer. SCC arises due to ultraviolet light exposure and is associated with increased expression of pro-cancer genes and reduced expression of cancer suppressors. Actin-Like Protein 6A (ACTL6A, BAF53a) is an important protein subunit of the SWI/SNF epigenetic chromatin regulatory complex. Read More

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September 2020

Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation, Mitochondrial Fragmentation, and the Coordination of Antiviral and Metabolic Phenotypes in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Immunohorizons 2020 04 23;4(4):201-215. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Lehrstuhl für Mikrobiologie, Julius-Maximilians Universität Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg, Germany;

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a multifactorial disorder with many possible triggers. Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and HHV-7 are two infectious triggers for which evidence has been growing. To understand possible causative role of HHV-6 in ME/CFS, metabolic and antiviral phenotypes of U2-OS cells were studied with and without chromosomally integrated HHV-6 and with or without virus reactivation using the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin-A. Read More

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Abnormal Cone and Rod Photoreceptor Morphogenesis in gdf6a Mutant Zebrafish.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 04;61(4)


Purpose: Analysis of photoreceptor morphology and gene expression in mispatterned eyes of zebrafish growth differentiation factor 6a (gdf6a) mutants.

Methods: Rod and cone photoreceptors were compared between gdf6a mutant and control zebrafish from larval to late adult stages using transgenic labels, immunofluorescence, and confocal microscopy, as well as by transmission electron microscopy. To compare transcriptomes between larval gdf6a mutant and control zebrafish, RNA-Seq was performed on isolated eyes. Read More

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Engineered Reporter Phages for Rapid Bioluminescence-Based Detection and Differentiation of Viable Cells.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 05 19;86(11). Epub 2020 May 19.

Institute of Food, Nutrition, and Health, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

The pathogen causes listeriosis, a severe foodborne disease associated with high mortality. Rapid and sensitive methods are required for specific detection of this pathogen during food production. Bioluminescence-based reporter bacteriophages are genetically engineered viruses that infect their host cells with high specificity and transduce a heterologous luciferase gene whose activity can be detected with high sensitivity to indicate the presence of viable target cells. Read More

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Evaluation of the Modified Naranjo Criteria for Assessing Causal Attribution of Clinical Outcome to Homeopathic Intervention as Presented in Case Reports.

Homeopathy 2020 11 25;109(4):191-197. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to establish the reliability and content validity of the "Modified Naranjo Criteria for Homeopathy-Causal Attribution Inventory" as a tool for attributing a causal relationship between the homeopathic intervention and outcome in clinical case reports.

Methods: Purposive sampling was adopted for the selection of information-rich case reports using pre-defined criteria. Eligible case reports had to fulfil a minimum of nine items of the CARE Clinical Case Reporting Guideline checklist and a minimum of three of the homeopathic HOM-CASE CARE extension items. Read More

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November 2020

The small Ca-binding protein CSE links Ca signalling with nitrogen metabolism and filament integrity in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

BMC Microbiol 2020 03 11;20(1):57. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Plant Biology, University of Turku, Tykistökatu 6A, 6. krs, 20520, Turku, Finland.

Background: Filamentous cyanobacteria represent model organisms for investigating multicellularity. For many species, nitrogen-fixing heterocysts are formed from photosynthetic vegetative cells under nitrogen limitation. Intracellular Ca has been implicated in the highly regulated process of heterocyst differentiation but its role remains unclear. Read More

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Coordinated demethylation of H3K9 and H3K27 is required for rapid inflammatory responses of endothelial cells.

EMBO J 2020 04 3;39(7):e103949. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Isotope Science Center, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Histone H3 lysine-9 di-methylation (H3K9me2) and lysine-27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3) are linked to repression of gene expression, but the functions of repressive histone methylation dynamics during inflammatory responses remain enigmatic. Here, we report that lysine demethylases 7A (KDM7A) and 6A (UTX) play crucial roles in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α signaling in endothelial cells (ECs), where they are regulated by a novel TNF-α-responsive microRNA, miR-3679-5p. TNF-α rapidly induces co-occupancy of KDM7A and UTX at nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)-associated elements in human ECs. Read More

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Human arm weight compensation in rehabilitation robotics: efficacy of three distinct methods.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2020 02 5;17(1):13. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Sensory-Motor Systems (SMS) Lab, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems (IRIS), Department of Health Sciences and Technology (D-HEST), ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Reharobotics Group, Spinal Cord Injury Center, Balgrist University Hospital, Medical Faculty, University of Zurich, Switzerland, Lengghalde 5, Zurich, 8092, Switzerland.

Background: Arm weight compensation with rehabilitation robots for stroke patients has been successfully used to increase the active range of motion and reduce the effects of pathological muscle synergies. However, the differences in structure, performance, and control algorithms among the existing robotic platforms make it hard to effectively assess and compare human arm weight relief. In this paper, we introduce criteria for ideal arm weight compensation, and furthermore, we propose and analyze three distinct arm weight compensation methods (Average, Full, Equilibrium) in the arm rehabilitation exoskeleton 'ARMin'. Read More

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February 2020

Synthesis and Evaluation of Anisomelic acid-like Compounds for the Treatment of HPV-Mediated Carcinomas.

Sci Rep 2019 12 30;9(1):20295. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Tykistökatu 6A, 20520, Turku, Finland.

The vast majority of cervical and 75% of oropharyngeal carcinomas are triggered by infection with a type of high-risk oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV). It is well-known that E6 and E7 oncoproteins are critical for viral-induced cancer, and hence, they represent valuable targets for therapeutic intervention in HPV-mediated cancers. Our earlier research on the cembranoid, anisomelic acid (AA) showed that, AA has the potential to induce apoptosis in HPV cells by the depletion of E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Read More

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December 2019

HHV-6A infection dysregulates autophagy/UPR interplay increasing beta amyloid production and tau phosphorylation in astrocytoma cells as well as in primary neurons, possible molecular mechanisms linking viral infection to Alzheimer's disease.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2020 03 19;1866(3):165647. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, laboratory affiliated to Instituto Pasteur Italia-Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

HHV-6A and HHV-6B are neurotropic viruses able to dysregulate autophagy and activate ER stress/UPR in several cell types. The appropriate functioning of these processes is required for cell homeostasis, particularly in post-mitotic cells such as neuronal cells. Interestingly, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often accompanied by autophagy dysregulation and abnormal UPR activation. Read More

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Novel 2-arylbenzothiazole DNA gyrase inhibitors: Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation, QSAR and molecular docking studies.

Bioorg Chem 2019 12 24;93:103373. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini Street, P.O. Box 11562, Cairo, Egypt; Molecular Modeling Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini Street, P.O. Box 11562, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, New Giza University, Newgiza, km 22 Cairo-Alexandria Desert Road, Cairo, Egypt.

A series of new 2-arylbenzothiazole derivatives (4, 5, 6a-j, 7a-i and 8a,b) was synthesized and tested for their antimicrobial activity against different Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast using ciprofloxacin and fluconazole as positive controls for the antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively. The target compounds showed stronger inhibitory activity against Gram-negative than Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for those compounds showed zone of inhibition ≥ 13 mm. Read More

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December 2019

Antiferromagnetic Semiconductor BaFMnTe with Unique Mn Ordering and Red Photoluminescence.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 Oct 21;141(43):17421-17430. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Chemistry , Northwestern University , Evanston , Illinois 60208 , United States.

Semiconductors possessing both magnetic and optoelectronic properties are rare and promise applications in opto-spintronics. Here we report the mixed-anion semiconductor BaFMnTe with a band gap of 1.76 eV and a work function of 5. Read More

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October 2019

A novel five-step synthetic route to 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with potent α-glucosidase inhibitory potential and their in silico studies.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2019 Dec 23;352(12):e1900095. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Subang Jaya, Malaysia.

A series of new N-aryl/aralkyl derivatives of 2-methyl-2-{5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2ylthiol}acetamide were synthesized by successive conversions of 4-chlorobenzoic acid (a) into ethyl 4-chlorobenzoate (1), 4-chlorobenzoylhydrazide (2) and 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol (3), respectively. The required array of compounds (6a-n) was obtained by the reaction of 1,3,4-oxadiazole (3) with various electrophiles (5a-n) in the presence of DMF (N,N-dimethylformamide) and sodium hydroxide at room temperature. The structural determination of these compounds was done by infrared, H-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), C-NMR, electron ionization mass spectrometry, and high-resolution electron ionization mass spectrometry analyses. Read More

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December 2019

New 2,4-disubstituted-2-thiopyrimidines as VEGFR-2 inhibitors: Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2019 Nov 29;352(11):e1900089. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products, Division of Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

A new series of 2,4-disubstituted-2-thiopyrimidines 6a-t, 9a, and 9b was efficiently designed and synthesized as antiangiogenic and cytotoxic agents. Compounds 6j, 6l, and 6d showed IC values of 1.23, 3. Read More

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November 2019

Src family kinase activity drives cytomegalovirus reactivation by recruiting MOZ histone acetyltransferase activity to the viral promoter.

J Biol Chem 2019 08 4;294(35):12901-12910. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Institute of Immunity and Transplantation, Division of Infection and Immunity, Royal Free Hospital, University College London, Hampstead, London NW3 2PF, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency and reactivation rely on a complex interplay between cellular differentiation, cell signaling pathways, and viral gene functions. HCMV reactivation in dendritic cells (DCs) is triggered by IL-6 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. However, activation of the same pathway fails to reactivate HCMV in other myeloid cell types, despite this signaling axis being active in those cells. Read More

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Integrative Analysis of the Wheat Gene Family Reveals A Novel Member Involved in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Phosphate Transport and Immunity.

Cells 2019 05 22;8(5). Epub 2019 May 22.

The Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Food Crops, Agronomy College, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China.

Phosphorus (P) deficiency is one of the main growth-limiting factors for plants. However, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can significantly promote P uptake. Generally, PHT1 transporters play key roles in plants' P uptake, and thus, genes have been investigated in some plants, but the regulation and functions of these genes in wheat () during AM symbiosis have not been studied in depth. Read More

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