1,024 results match your criteria require heating

Steady and Robust CNTs-Based Electric Heating Membrane Fabricated by Addition of Nanocellulose and Hot-Press Encapsulation.

Langmuir 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Resources, Environment and Materials, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

Herein, a type of biomass-based electric heating membrane (EHM) with excellent stability was fabricated; this was achieved by incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) as a natural dispersant and a biological substrate, as well as via the control of ultrasonic dispersion, grammage, and encapsulation using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with hot pressing. NFC entangles with CNTs in the form of an intertwined network and non-covalent interactions to fabricate a flexible EHM with steady electric heating performance; this formation is attributed to not only their similar morphology and surface-active groups but also the use of NFC that avoids additional disturbances in the overlapped interface among CNTs as far as possible. The obtained steady resistance varies as low as 5. Read More

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Reversible Vapochromic Luminescence Accompanied by Planar-Half-Chair Conformational Change of a Propeller-Shaped Boron β-Diketiminate Complex.

Chemistry 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Kyoto University: Kyoto Daigaku, Department of Polymer Chemistry, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, 615-8510, Kyoto, JAPAN.

Leakage of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the most severe industrial accidents because it can cause environmental pollution, global warming, fire, and explosion. Hence the visualization of leakage is an essential technology to detect it at an early stage. Molecular crystals whose fluorescence color can be changed by the exposure to VOCs could potentially serve as the sensing materials for realizing rapid and facile VOC detection. Read More

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Laser-Driven Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires from Colloidal Nanocrystals.

ACS Nano 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1750, United States.

Semiconductor nanowire production through vapor- and solution-based processes has propelled nanowire systems toward a wide range of technological applications. Although vapor-based nanowire syntheses enable precise control over nanowire composition and phase, they typically employ batch processes with specialized pressure management systems, limiting throughput. Solution-based nanowire growth processes have improved scalability but can require even more extensive pressure and temperature management systems. Read More

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Progressive Cellular Architecture in Microscale Gas Chromatography for Broad Chemical Analyses.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Center for Wireless Integrated MicroSensing and Systems (WIMS2), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Gas chromatography is widely used to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds for applications ranging from environmental monitoring to homeland security. We investigate a new architecture for microfabricated gas chromatography systems that can significantly improve the range, speed, and efficiency of such systems. By using a cellular approach, it performs a partial separation of analytes even as the sampling is being performed. Read More

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Offretite Zeolite Single Crystals Synthesized by Amphiphile-Templating Approach.

Molecules 2021 Apr 13;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), CNRS, Axe Matériaux à Porosité Contrôlée (MPC), Université de Haute-Alsace (UHA), 3 bis rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse, France.

Offretite zeolite synthesis in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) is reported. The offretite crystals were synthesized with a high crystallinity and hexagonal prismatic shape after only 72 h of hydrothermal treatment at 180 °C. The CTABr has dual-functions during the crystallization of offretite, viz. Read More

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Room-Temperature Catalyst Enables Selective Acetone Sensing.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.

Catalytic packed bed filters ahead of gas sensors can drastically improve their selectivity, a key challenge in medical, food and environmental applications. Yet, such filters require high operation temperatures (usually some hundreds °C) impeding their integration into low-power (e.g. Read More

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Properties of Surface Heating Textile for Functional Warm Clothing Based on a Composite Heating Element with a Positive Temperature Coefficient.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Fashion Industry, Incheon University, Incheon 22012, Korea.

A high-stretch positive temperature coefficient (PTC) surface heating textile (PTC-SHT) was fabricated using a composite of PTC powder and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The PTC-SHT (heating area = 100 × 100 mm) was produced by screen-printing the PTC-MWCNT composite paste onto a high-stretch textile with embroidered electrodes. Overall, the temperature increased to 56. Read More

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A Triple-Mode Midinfrared Modulator for Radiative Heat Management of Objects with Various Emissivity.

Nano Lett 2021 May 26;21(9):4106-4114. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, United States.

Thermal management is ubiquitous in the modern world and indispensable for a sustainable future. Radiative heat management provides unique advantages because the heat transfer can be controlled by the surface. However, different object emissivities require different tuning strategies, which poses challenges to develop dynamic and universal radiative heat management devices. Read More

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Enhancing the analysis of disorder in X-ray absorption spectra: application of deep neural networks to T-jump-X-ray probe experiments.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr;23(15):9259-9269

Chemistry - School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK.

Many chemical and biological reactions, including ligand exchange processes, require thermal energy for the reactants to overcome a transition barrier and reach the product state. Temperature-jump (T-jump) spectroscopy uses a near-infrared (NIR) pulse to rapidly heat a sample, offering an approach for triggering these processes and directly accessing thermally-activated pathways. However, thermal activation inherently increases the disorder of the system under study and, as a consequence, can make quantitative interpretations of structural changes challenging. Read More

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[Characteristics of Two Pollution Episodes Before and After City Heating in Beijing from February to March of 2019].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 May;42(5):2110-2120

Environment Meteorology Forecast Center of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100089, China.

The characteristics of meteorological conditions and pollutant concentrations were analyzed based on two pollution episodes before and after city heating in Beijing during February to March of 2019. The backward trajectory and WRF-CAMx models were used to analyze the evolution of pollutants before and after city heating, and the influences of meteorological conditions, regional transport, and secondary transformation on the episodes were discussed. There was little difference in the average (PM) between February 21-24 (episode 1) and March 18-20 (episode 2), with concentrations of 100. Read More

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High-entropy ejecta plumes in Cassiopeia A from neutrino-driven convection.

Nature 2021 Apr 21;592(7855):537-540. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

Recent multi-dimensional simulations suggest that high-entropy buoyant plumes help massive stars to explode. Outwardly protruding iron (Fe)-rich fingers of gas in the galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A seem to match this picture. Detecting the signatures of specific elements synthesized in the high-entropy nuclear burning regime (that is, α-rich freeze out) would constitute strong substantiating evidence. Read More

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Fast and Accurate Control Strategy for Portable Nucleic Acid Detection (PNAD) System Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Mar;17(3):407-415

Portable nucleic acid detection (PNAD) systems are performed for sample processing, amplification and detection automatically in an individual device realizing "sample in, answer out." For this goal, numerous function modules should be integrated in a diminutive device, in which temperature controller is one of the most important modules. In a nucleic acid detection process, both sample processing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) require fast and accurate temperature control to increase concentration and purity of the extraction product and to improve amplification efficiency. Read More

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Earthworm, Lumbricus Terrestris: A Novel Microinjection Vasculature In vivo Invertebrate Model.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 1(170). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

US Food and Drug Administration.

Although vertebrates are indispensable to biomedical research, studies are often limited by factors such as cost, lengthy internal review, and ethical considerations. We present the earthworm as an alternative, low-cost, invertebrate applicable to certain preliminary vasculature studies. Due to the surgical availability of the earthworm's dorsal vessels, ventral vessels, and five pairs of pseudo hearts, earthworms are readily accessible, offer low-cost maintenance, and require administration of only small doses of a given compound. Read More

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Strategies to improve solid state anaerobic bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass: an overview.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 23;331:125036. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India. Electronic address:

Solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) of lignocellulosic biomass may be attractive solution for its valorisation. Compared to liquid state anaerobic digestion (LSAD), SSAD can handle higher organic loading rates (OLR), requires a less water and smaller reactor volume. It may require lower energy demand for heating or mixing and has higher volumetric methane productivity. Read More

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The Application of Ni-Ti SMA Wires in the External Prestressing of Concrete Hollow Cylinders.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 11;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Institut Pascal, Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, SIGMA Clermont, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

An innovative method for prestressing structural elements through the use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) is gaining increasing attention in research as this method does not require the use of mechanical anchorages for tendons. The activation of the memory effect by means of temperature variations (Joule effect) in effect produces high stresses in SMA components attached to concrete components as reported in the literature. This paper presents the work performed for the purpose of prestressing concrete hollow cylinders with the use of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) SMA wires. Read More

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Coupling ecological wastewater treatment with the production of livestock feed and irrigation water provides net benefits to human health and the environment: A life cycle assessment.

B Roman R A Brennan

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 21;288:112361. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University Park, PA, 16802, USA. Electronic address:

Ecologically designed wastewater treatment systems (ex., Eco-Machines™) utilize a diverse ecosystem to treat wastewater to the same extent as conventional treatment, but require less energy and chemical inputs. The environmental benefits of Eco-Machines™ can be theoretically maximized by incorporating hyperaccumulating aquatic plants (ex. Read More

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Floral infrared emissivity estimates using simple tools.

Plant Methods 2021 Feb 25;17(1):23. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, Tyndall Ave, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, UK.

Background: Floral temperature has important consequences for plant biology, and accurate temperature measurements are therefore important to plant research. Thermography, also referred to as thermal imaging, is beginning to be used more frequently to measure and visualize floral temperature. Accurate thermographic measurements require information about the object's emissivity (its capacity to emit thermal radiation with temperature), to obtain accurate temperature readings. Read More

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February 2021

The application of hierarchical clustering to analyzing ashes from the combustion of wood pellets mixed with waste materials.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 17;276:116766. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarków 1, 40-166, Katowice, Poland.

Air pollution constitutes the greatest environmental threat to human health in the European Union. In Poland, the emission of particulate matter and harmful gases originating from local coal based boiler plants and the combustion of fuels in residential heating appliances is a considerable source of air pollution. The combustion of fuel in home furnaces is inefficient due to the use of cheap fuels of low heating parameters and the frequent addition of waste. Read More

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Preoperative imaging findings in patients undergoing transcranial magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 28;11(1):2524. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 129, 90127, Palermo, Italy.

The prevalence and impact of imaging findings detected during screening procedures in patients undergoing transcranial MR-guided Focused Ultrasound (tcMRgFUS) thalamotomy for functional neurological disorders has not been assessed yet. This study included 90 patients who fully completed clinical and neuroradiological screenings for tcMRgFUS in a single-center. The presence and location of preoperative imaging findings that could impact the treatment were recorded and classified in three different groups according to their relevance for the eligibility and treatment planning. Read More

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January 2021

Targeted Writing and Deleting of Magnetic Skyrmions in Two-Terminal Nanowire Devices.

Nano Lett 2021 Feb 22;21(3):1253-1259. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Controllable writing and deleting of nanoscale magnetic skyrmions are key requirements for their use as information carriers for next-generation memory and computing technologies. While several schemes have been proposed, they require complex fabrication techniques or precisely tailored electrical inputs, which limits their long-term scalability. Here, we demonstrate an alternative approach for writing and deleting skyrmions using conventional electrical pulses within a simple, two-terminal wire geometry. Read More

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February 2021

Design of taste-masked swellable drug particles using dry-coating technology with mechanical curing.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Mar 17;160:9-22. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, 150 Yagotoyama, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan. Electronic address:

A novel dry coating technique for fine particles that does not require any liquids has been developed. Swellable ordered-mixed drug particles (Swell-OM-spheres, SOS), using a modified starch as the core particle and a drug coating layer have been previously developed. In the present work, SOS particles were further processed to generate 100-μm taste-masking particles using an all dry coating processes. Read More

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Tough metal-ceramic composites with multifunctional nacre-like architecture.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 15;11(1):1621. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Complex Materials, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, 8093, Zurich, Switzerland.

The brick-and-mortar architecture of biological nacre has inspired the development of synthetic composites with enhanced fracture toughness and multiple functionalities. While the use of metals as the "mortar" phase is an attractive option to maximize fracture toughness of bulk composites, non-mechanical functionalities potentially enabled by the presence of a metal in the structure remain relatively limited and unexplored. Using iron as the mortar phase, we develop and investigate nacre-like composites with high fracture toughness and stiffness combined with unique magnetic, electrical and thermal functionalities. Read More

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January 2021

Assessing the Outcomes of Focused Heating of the Skin by a Long-Pulsed 1064 nm Laser with an Integrated Scanner, Infrared Thermal Guidance, and Optical Coherence Tomography.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Dermatology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, California, 92697.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Long-term benefits can be predicted by the incorporation of more intelligent systems in lasers and other devices. Such systems can produce more reliable zones of thermal injury when used in association with non-invasive monitoring and precise laser energy delivery. The more classical endpoint of tumor destruction with radiofrequency or long-pulsed (LP) 1064 nm laser is the non-specific appearance of tissue graying and tissue contraction. Read More

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January 2021

LIPUS far-field exposimetry system for uniform stimulation of tissues in-vitro: development and validation with bovine intervertebral disc cells.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2020 05 6;6(3):035033. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, United States of America. The UC Berkeley-UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, and University of California, San Francisco, United States of America. Thermal Therapy Research Group, Radiation Oncology Department, University of California, San Francisco, United States of America.

Therapeutic Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) has been applied clinically for bone fracture healing and has been shown to stimulate extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism in numerous soft tissues including intervertebral disc (IVD). In-vitro LIPUS testing systems have been developed and typically include polystyrene cell culture plates (CCP) placed directly on top of the ultrasound transducer in the acoustic near-field (NF). This configuration introduces several undesirable acoustic artifacts, making the establishment of dose-response relationships difficult, and is not relevant for targeting deep tissues such as the IVD, which may require far-field (FF) exposure from low frequency sources. Read More

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High Current Density in Monolayer MoS Doped by AlO.

ACS Nano 2021 Jan 6;15(1):1587-1596. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

Semiconductors require stable doping for applications in transistors, optoelectronics, and thermoelectrics. However, this has been challenging for two-dimensional (2D) materials, where existing approaches are either incompatible with conventional semiconductor processing or introduce time-dependent, hysteretic behavior. Here we show that low-temperature (<200 °C) substoichiometric AlO provides a stable -doping layer for monolayer MoS, compatible with circuit integration. Read More

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January 2021

Participation of calcium ions in induction of respiratory response caused by variation potential in pea seedlings.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Apr 6;16(4):1869415. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Biophysics, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

Electrical signals in plants caused by external stimuli are capable of inducing various physiological responses. The mechanisms of transformation of a long-distance electrical signal (ES) into a functional response remain largely unexplored and require additional research. In this work, we investigated the role of calcium ions in the development of ES-induced respiratory response. Read More

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Evaluation of Heating and Irradiation Methods for Production of Purified Protein Derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.

Arch Razi Inst 2021 01 1;75(4):439-449. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

. Reference Laboratory of Bovine Tuberculosis, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.

Tuberculin skin test, also known as the tuberculin or purified protein derivative (PPD) test, is an extensively applied diagnostic test for the detection of primary infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The production of PPD is accompanied by some difficulties that require a series of modifications in the production and purification processes. The present study aimed to determine the facilitation level of the manufacturing process by modifying evaluation methods for the production of PPD tuberculin. Read More

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January 2021

Sample chamber for synchrotron based in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments under electric fields and temperatures between 100 K and 1250 K.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 Jan 1;28(Pt 1):158-168. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09596 Freiberg, Germany.

Many scientific questions require X-ray experiments conducted at varying temperatures, sometimes combined with the application of electric fields. Here, a customized sample chamber developed for beamlines P23 and P24 of PETRA III at DESY to suit these demands is presented. The chamber body consists mainly of standard vacuum parts housing the heater/cooler assembly supplying a temperature range of 100 K to 1250 K and an xyz manipulator holding an electric contact needle for electric measurements at both high voltage and low current. Read More

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January 2021

Flow and extraction of energy and charge carriers in hybrid plasmonic nanostructures.

Nat Mater 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Strong interactions of electromagnetic fields with plasmonic nanomaterials have been exploited in various applications. These applications have centred on plasmon-enhanced scattering rates in nearby molecules or plasmon-induced heating. A question that has emerged recently is whether it is possible to use plasmonic nanostructures in a range of hot electron (hole) applications, including photocatalysis, photovoltaics and photodetection. Read More

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January 2021

The Prediction of Calorific Value of Carbonized Solid Fuel Produced from Refuse-Derived Fuel in the Low-Temperature Pyrolysis in CO.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 24;14(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Faculty of Life Sciences and Technology, Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 37/41 Chełmońskiego Str., 51-630 Wrocław, Poland.

The decrease in the calorific value of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is an unintended outcome of the progress made toward more sustainable waste management. Plastics and paper separation and recycling leads to the overall decrease in waste's calorific value, further limiting its applicability for thermal treatment. Pyrolysis has been proposed to densify energy in RDF and generate carbonized solid fuel (CSF). Read More

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December 2020