Biomed Phys Eng Express 2020 05 6;6(3):035033. Epub 2020 May 6.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, United States of America. The UC Berkeley-UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, and University of California, San Francisco, United States of America. Thermal Therapy Research Group, Radiation Oncology Department, University of California, San Francisco, United States of America.
Therapeutic Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) has been applied clinically for bone fracture healing and has been shown to stimulate extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism in numerous soft tissues including intervertebral disc (IVD). In-vitro LIPUS testing systems have been developed and typically include polystyrene cell culture plates (CCP) placed directly on top of the ultrasound transducer in the acoustic near-field (NF). This configuration introduces several undesirable acoustic artifacts, making the establishment of dose-response relationships difficult, and is not relevant for targeting deep tissues such as the IVD, which may require far-field (FF) exposure from low frequency sources. Read More