1,232,744 results match your criteria reproduction

Birth Rights and Wrongs: How Medicine and Technology Are Remaking Reproduction and the Law, written by Fox, Dov.

Emma Milne

Eur J Health Law 2020 Mar 4;27(1):79-82. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

University of Plymouth Plymouth UK.

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Effects of estradiol treatments on PGF release in beef heifers submitted to estrous resynchronization 14 days after timed-AI.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 Mar 23;76:106625. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Animal Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) or estradiol benzoate (EB) on PGF2α release were studied in bred-non-pregnant and pregnant Nelore beef heifers. The day of timed artificial insemination (TAI) was designated day 0 (D0), and a single treatment was given on D14. All heifers also received an intravaginal P4 device on D14, and were randomly assigned to three groups: Control (C, P4 device only, n = 12); E2 (1 mg E2 + 9 mg P4, n = 10); or EB (1 mg, n = 10). Read More

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Bacillus subtilis BSH has a protective effect on Salmonella infection by regulating the intestinal flora structure in chickens.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 17:104898. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Animal Science and Technology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Salmonellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease that poses a serious threat to the reproduction of livestock and poultry and the health of young animals. Probiotics including Bacillus species, have received increasing attention as a substitute for antibiotics. In this study, chicks infected with Salmonella were fed feed supplemented with the BSH to observe the pathological changes in the liver, detect the number of viable bacteria in the liver and spleen, and record the death of the chicks. Read More

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Femtomolar Detection of Thrombin in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid via Direct Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction by the Covalent G4-Hemin-Aptamer Complex.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 1590-14, Aarhus C DK-8000, Denmark.

Thrombin, a serine protease playing a central role in the coagulation cascade reactions and a potent neurotoxin produced by injured brain endothelial cells, is a recognized cardiac biomarker and a critical biomarker for Alzheimer's disease development. Both in vivo and in vitro, its low physiological concentrations and nonspecific binding of other components of physiological fluids complicate electroanalysis of thrombin. Here, femtomolar levels of thrombin in serum and an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected by the indicator-free electrochemical methodology exploiting the O reduction reaction directly, with no electron transfer mediators, electrocatalyzed by the covalent G4-hemin DNAzyme complex naturally self-assembling upon thrombin binding to the hemin-modified 29-mer DNA aptamer sequence tethered to gold via an alkanethiol linker. Read More

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Еvaluation of the sensitivity of bacteriophage preparations to Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from the colon microbiota in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Klin Lab Diagn 2021 Apr;66(4):217-222

Scientific Centre for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems.

The level of sensitivity of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from children of the first half of life with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) to commercial bacteriophage preparations was assessed. The material was the feces of 67 children of the first half of life with FGID who are breastfed. Culture of K. Read More

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Enhanced triacylglycerol catabolism by Carboxylesterase 1 promotes aggressive colorectal carcinoma.

J Clin Invest 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Immunology and Inflammation, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

The ability to adapt to low-nutrient microenvironments is essential for tumor-cell survival and progression in solid cancers, such as colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Signaling by the NF-κB transcription-factor pathway associates with advanced disease stages and shorter survival in CRC patients. NF-κB has been shown to drive tumor-promoting inflammation, cancer-cell survival and intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) dedifferentiation in mouse models of CRC. Read More

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Two mouse lines selected for large litter size display different lifetime fecundities.

Reproduction 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

J Weitzel, Institut für Fortpflanzungsbiologie, FBN Dummerstorf, Dummerstorf, Germany.

We recently described two outbred mouse lines that were selected for large litter size at first delivery. However, lifetime fecundity appears to be economically more important for the husbandry of many polytocous species for which mouse lines might serve as bona fide animal models (e.g. Read More

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Cloning, mitochondrial replacement and genome editing: 25 years of ethical debate since Dolly.

Andy Greenfield

Reproduction 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

A Greenfield, Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell Institute, Harwell, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

The birth of Dolly the sheep in 1996 elicited a tsunami of commentaries, both in the popular media and academic journals, including responses to the prospect of human reproductive cloning. Much of the anxiety expressed over this imagined consequence of Dolly's genesis revealed fundamental concerns about our losing our commitments to certain ethical goods, such as human dignity, or even 'what it means to be human'. Over the last 25 years, the focus of much of the ethical debate over human biotechnology has slowly shifted towards other genetic technologies that aim to influence inheritance, such as mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRT) and heritable genome editing. Read More

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Label-Free Evaluation of Chromatin Condensation in Human Normal Morphology Sperm Using Raman Spectroscopy.

Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Informatics and Microsystems Technology, University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern, Campus, Zweibrücken, Germany.

Chromatin condensation is one of the main factors essential for sperm function. Evaluation of chromatin condensation by current methods render the assessed sperm unsuitable for assisted reproduction. We examined the Raman spectra of normal morphology sperm to determine whether a non-invasive confocal Raman spectroscopy can detect spectral differences between groups having different levels of chromatin condensation. Read More

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A Mathematical Model of the Tuberculosis Epidemic.

Acta Biotheor 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Tuberculosis has continued to retain its title as "the captain among these men of death". This is evident as it is the leading cause of death globally from a single infectious agent. TB as it is fondly called has become a major threat to the achievement of the sustainable development goals (SDG) and hence require inputs from different research disciplines. Read More

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Management of women with uterine fibroids in reproductive center: retrospective analysis of clinical and reproductive outcomes.

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Reproductive Physiopathology and Andrology Unit, Sandro Pertini Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Background: Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumor in women. According to literature, submucosal myomas have a negative effect on reproductive outcomes in women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART) but there are fewer data concerning intramural fibroids. During last years, Ulipristal acetate (UPA) 5 mg was widely used as medical option of fibroid's treatment, but from 2020, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) has revoked the marketing authorisation after some cases of liver toxiciy. Read More

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Circular RNAs: Novel potential regulators in embryogenesis, female infertility, and pregnancy-related diseases.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are endogenous noncoding RNAs with unique cyclic structures. Although they were previously considered as nonfunctional transcription byproducts, numerous studies have demonstrated that circRNAs regulate gene transcription and expression via different mechanisms. Reproductive health influences the quality of life and affects offspring propagation in women. Read More

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Capture and metabolomic analysis of the human endometrial epithelial organoid secretome.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211;

Suboptimal uterine fluid (UF) composition can lead to pregnancy loss and likely contributes to offspring susceptibility to chronic adult-onset disorders. However, our understanding of the biochemical composition and mechanisms underpinning UF formation and regulation remain elusive, particularly in humans. To address this challenge, we developed a high-throughput method for intraorganoid fluid (IOF) isolation from human endometrial epithelial organoids. Read More

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Identification of a micropeptide and multiple secondary cell genes that modulate male reproductive success.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(15)

Department of Genetics and Evolution, Sciences III, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland;

Even in well-characterized genomes, many transcripts are considered noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) simply due to the absence of large open reading frames (ORFs). However, it is now becoming clear that many small ORFs (smORFs) produce peptides with important biological functions. In the process of characterizing the ribosome-bound transcriptome of an important cell type of the seminal fluid-producing accessory gland of , we detected an RNA, previously thought to be noncoding, called (). Read More

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Effects of parity and days in milk on milk composition in correlation with β-hydroxybutyrate in tropic dairy cows.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 19;53(2):270. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of parity and days in milk on milk yield and milk production traits and their correlation with β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in milk of Chinese tropic Holstein dairy cows which are adapted to a humid subtropical climate in central China. About 3055 milking records of Holstein cows were obtained from three farms in the hot region in the center of China. The records were classified according to parity to 4 categories: first parity, second parity, third parity, and greater than third parity. Read More

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Probability of severe postpartum hemorrhage in repeat cesarean deliveries: a multicenter retrospective study in China.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8434. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province,The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 63 Duobao Road, Guangzhou, 510150, Guangdong, China.

To determine the factors predicting the probability of severe postpartum hemorrhage (SPPH) in women undergoing repeat cesarean delivery (RCD). This multicenter, retrospective cohort study involved women who underwent RCD from January 2017 to December 2017, in 11 public tertiary hospitals within 7 provinces of China. The all-variables model and the multivariable logistic regression model (pre-operative, operative and simple model) were developed to estimate the probability of SPPH in development data and external validated in validation data. Read More

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Intake of vitamin B and other characteristics of women of reproductive age on a vegan diet in Australia.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Apr 20:1-28. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Kelvin Grove, Australia, 4059.

Objective: (i) to examine demographic and health characteristics of women of reproductive age on a vegan diet in Australia and compare these to the general population, (ii) to identify sources and intake of vitamin B12, and compare intake to current recommendations (iii) examine associations between participant characteristics and adequacy of vitamin B12 intake.

Design: In this cross-sectional study data was collected via an online survey. Demographic and health characteristics of women on a vegan diet were compared to women in the general population (using Australian Bureau of Statistics data). Read More

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Identification of differentially expressed genes and signaling pathways in human conjunctiva and reproductive tract infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

Hum Genomics 2021 Apr 19;15(1):22. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510150, China.

Background: Currently, Chlamydia trachomatis-specific host defense mechanisms in humans remain poorly defined. To study the characteristics of host cells infected early with Chlamydia trachomatis, we used bioinformatics methods to analyze the RNA transcription profiles of the conjunctiva, fallopian tubes, and endometrium in humans infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

Method: The gene expression profiles of GSE20430, GSE20436, GSE26692, and GSE41075 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Synthesis (GEO) database. Read More

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Roles of three putative salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) prostaglandin E synthases in physiology and host-parasite interactions.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 19;14(1):206. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, SLCR-Sea Lice Research Centre, University of Bergen, P. box 7803, 5020, Bergen, Norway.

Background: The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a parasite of salmonid fish. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exhibit only a limited and ineffective immune response when infested with this parasite. Prostaglandins (PGs) have many biological functions in both invertebrates and vertebrates, one of which is the regulation of immune responses. Read More

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Molecular mechanism underlying the effect of maleic hydrazide treatment on starch accumulation in S. polyrrhiza 7498 fronds.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Apr 19;14(1):99. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Life Science, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin, 300071, China.

Background: Duckweed is considered a promising feedstock for bioethanol production due to its high biomass and starch production. The starch content can be promoted by plant growth regulators after the vegetative reproduction being inhibited. Maleic hydrazide (MH) has been reported to inhibit plant growth, meantime to increase biomass and starch content in some plants. Read More

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New Phytol 1993 Sep;125(1):221-223

Book Reviewed in this article: Carbon Partitioning within and between Organisms. Ed. by C. Read More

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September 1993

The biology of myco-heterotrophic ('saprophytic') plants.

Jonathan R Leake

New Phytol 1994 Jun;127(2):171-216

Department of Animal & Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, PO Box 60], Sheffield, S10 2UQ, UK.

More than 400 species of vascular plants, in 87 genera, are acholophyllous and heterotrophic, but not directly parasitic upon autotrophs. They are usually, but incorrectly, described as 'saprophytes'since they are in fact nourished by means of specialized mycorrhizal associations. Although distributed world-wide, they are most abundant and show the greatest species-richness in the Neotropics and Palaeotropical regions. Read More

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Male gametes and fertilization in angiosperms.

New Phytol 1993 Dec;125(4):679-694

School of Botany, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

Double fertilization appears to have evolved as a product of change directly related to an accelerated rate and timing of reproduction. In this review, the focus is on the angiosperm male gametophyte, where changes include a reduction in the number of mitoses, establishment of the male germ unit and involvement of both members of the pair of sperm cells in reproduction. The organization of the generative cell during mitosis indicates that there may be basic similarities between this process in plant and animal cells. Read More

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December 1993

Variations in habitat, season, flower traits and pollinators in dimorphic Narcissus tazetta L. (Amaryllidaceae) in Israel.

New Phytol 1995 Jan;129(1):135-145

Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Haifa 31905, Israel.

Narcissus tazetta shows a genetically-based discrete polymorphism for style length similar to that well known in heterostylous plants. Plants are either short- (S) or long-styled (1). In Israel, marsh populations are dominated by S plants and hill populations by L plants. Read More

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January 1995

Pollination ecology and patch-dependent reproductive success of the rare perennial Gentiana pneumonanthe L.

New Phytol 1995 Jan;129(1):155-163

Hugo de Vries Laboratory, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 318, 1098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The reproductive behaviour of Gentiana pneumonanthe L., a rare plant species in The Netherlands, was studied in a relatively large wet heathland population during summer 1989. The species co-occurred with the grass Molinia caerulea and co-flowered with Erica tetralix and Calluna vulgaris. Read More

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January 1995

The effects of mycorrhizal infection on components of plant growth and reproduction.

New Phytol 1994 Oct;128(2):211-218

Program in Plant Physiology and Department of Horticulture, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA.

We studied the effects of mycorrhizal infection by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerd. and P amendment (three levels) on growth and reproduction of Abutilon theophrasti Medic. Mycorrhizal infection increased total leaf area, but individual leaf size was more-affected than leaf number. Read More

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October 1994

Reproductive responses to mycorrhizal colonization of Abutilon theophrasti Medic, plants grown for two generations in the field.

New Phytol 1994 Oct;128(2):219-224

Department of Horticulture, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA.

Plants of Abutilo theophrasti Medic, were grown for two consecutive years in the field. First generation (maternal) plants were grown either with or without mycorrhizal inoculation with Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith. We collected early and late cohorts of seeds which were used to product second generation (offspring) plants. Read More

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October 1994

Control of flowering and reproduction in temperate grasses.

O M Heide

New Phytol 1994 Oct;128(2):347-362

Department of Biology and Nature Conservation, Agricultural University of Norway, P.O. Box 5014, N-1432 ÅRs, Norway.

Temperate grasses of the subfamily Festucioideae can be grouped into two main categories according to their environmental control of flowering, species with regular long day (LD) induction, and those with dual induction requirements. The former group includes the temperate annual crosses and a few perennial species such as Phleum pratense and Poa nemoralis. These species base no winter requirement and require only LD to flower. Read More

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October 1994

Nutrient supply, nutrient demand and plant response to mycorrhizal infection.

Roger T Koide

New Phytol 1991 Mar;117(3):365-386

Department of Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA.

One of the most dramatic effects of infection by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the physiology of the host plant is an increase in phosphorus absorption. When phosphorus is limiting, the maximum extent to which mycorrhizal infection can improve plant performance is thus predicted to be a function of the phosphorus deficit of the plant, the difference between phosphorus demand and phosphorus supply. Phosphorus demand is defined as the rate of phosphorus absorption that would result in optimum performance of the plant as measured by growth rate, reproduction or fitness. Read More

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Light-activated plant defence.

Kelsey R Downum

New Phytol 1992 Nov;122(3):401-420

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA and Fairchild Tropical Garden, 10901 Old Cutler Road, Miami, FL 33156, USA.

Sunlight provides the energy required for all biochemical, physiological and developmental processes necessary for plant growth, reproduction and survival. The role of light in photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis has been appreciated for some time; however, the role of light in plant defence is a comparatively recent realization. Between 75-100 photosensitizers or phototoxins, molecules that become toxic in the presence of light, have been extracted from higher plant tissues. Read More

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November 1992