55,581 results match your criteria repair chemotherapy

PrimPol-mediated repriming facilitates replication traverse of DNA interstrand crosslinks.

EMBO J 2021 Jun 15:e106355. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

DNA Replication Group, Molecular Oncology Programme, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) induced by endogenous aldehydes or chemotherapeutic agents interfere with essential processes such as replication and transcription. ICL recognition and repair by the Fanconi Anemia pathway require the formation of an X-shaped DNA structure that may arise from convergence of two replication forks at the crosslink or traversing of the lesion by a single replication fork. Here, we report that ICL traverse strictly requires DNA repriming events downstream of the lesion, which are carried out by PrimPol, the second primase-polymerase identified in mammalian cells after Polα/Primase. Read More

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Studying human nociceptors: from fundamentals to clinic.

Brain 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Chronic pain affects one in five of the general population and is the third most important cause of disability-adjusted life-years globally. Unfortunately, treatment remains inadequate due to poor efficacy and tolerability. There has been a failure in translating promising preclinical drug targets into clinic use. Read More

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Recent advances in stem cells and gene editing: Drug discovery and therapeutics.

Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2021 26;181:231-269. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon City, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The recently introduced genome editing technology has had a remarkable impact on genetic medicine. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas nucleases are the three major platforms used for priming of stem cells or correction of mutated genes. Among these nucleases, CRISPR/Cas is the most easily applicable. Read More

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February 2021

Reversible GABAergic dysfunction involved in hippocampal hyperactivity predicts early-stage Alzheimer disease in a mouse model.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 Jun 14;13(1):114. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Key Laboratory for Neurodegenerative Disorders of the Ministry of Education, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, China.

Background: Neuronal hyperactivity related to β-amyloid (Aβ) is considered an early warning sign of Alzheimer disease (AD). Although increasing evidence supports this opinion, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown.

Methods: Here, we recorded whole-cell synaptic currents and membrane potentials using patch clamping of acute hippocampal slices from human amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 transgenic (5XFAD) mice and their wild-type littermates. Read More

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The Exosomes: Staring biomarkers and novel therapeutic strategies.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Medical Plants Research Center, Basic Health Sciences Institute, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs, formerly known as exosomes) are small, extracellular membrane-bound particles that play a role in cellular communication via transporting different cargos including proteins, DNAs, RNAs, etc. Their role has been shown in different endocrine/paracrine signaling in different organs such as the cardiovascular system. These days mortality and morbidity rates caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD) have become an important issue among healthcare systems all over the world. Read More

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Potential benefits of phytochemicals for abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Curr Med Chem 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is an important cause of death in older adults due to aortic rupture. There are currently no effective medical therapies for AAA, with surgery being the only acceptable treatment. There is frequently an extended period between AAA diagnosis and treatment by corrective surgery, during which an effective drug therapy could prevent or delay the need for AAA repair. Read More

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Cinnamon oil as a co-chemotherapy agent through inhibition of cell migration and MMP-9 expression on 4T1 cells.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Cancer Chemoprevention Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Objectives: The long-term and high-dose use of doxorubicin as chemotherapy for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stimulates cancer metastasis. Cinnamaldehyde is a major compound of cinnamon oil (CO) suppressing Snail and NFκB activity that are involved in cell migration. This study aims to explore the activity of CO as a co-chemotherapeutic agent on 4T1 breast cancer cells. Read More

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SRp20: A potential therapeutic target for human tumors.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 14;224:153444. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Pathology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

As an important member of SR protein family, SRp20 plays a crucial role in alternative splicing. It not only participates in cell cycle regulation, export of mRNA, cleaving of primary microRNAs, homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair, cellular senescence and apoptosis, but also gets involved in the integrity and pluripotency of genome. Alternative splicing maintains a strict balance in the body to ensure the normal physiological function of cells. Read More

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Chitosan-based hydrogels to treat hydrofluoric acid burns and prevent infection.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 11217, Taipei, Taiwan.

There is an urgent need for treatments for hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns and their derivative problems that prevent hydrogen ion dissociation and fluoride ion binding to tissues. This study evaluated the ability of chitosan-based hydrogels combined with a buffer solution containing either boric acid or Tris and calcium gluconate (CHS-BA-CG and CHS-Tris-CG) to repair HF burn wounds and prevent wound infections. We assessed calcium release rates and biocompatability and constructed a mouse HF burn model to assess the tissue repair effects of the hydrogels. Read More

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Frontline Maintenance Treatment for Ovarian Cancer.

Curr Oncol Rep 2021 Jun 14;23(8):97. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

UCL Cancer Institute, University College CRUK and UCL Cancer Trials Centre, London, WC1E 6DD, UK.

Purpose Of Review: Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynaecological cancer. Most patients with advanced disease will relapse within 3 years after primary treatment with surgery and chemotherapy. Recurrences become increasing difficult to treat due to the emergence of drug resistance and 5-year survival has changed little over the last decade. Read More

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Taurine Protects C2C12 Myoblasts From Impaired Cell Proliferation and Myotube Differentiation Under Cisplatin-Induced ROS Exposure.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 26;8:685362. Epub 2021 May 26.

Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis and Instrumentation, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

In cancer patients, chemotherapeutic medication induces aberrant ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation in skeletal muscles, resulting in myofiber degradation, muscle weakness, and even cachexia, which further leads to poor therapeutic outcomes. Acting as an antioxidant, taurine is extensively used to accelerate postexercise muscle recovery in athletes. The antioxidant effects of taurine have been shown in mature myotubes and myofibers but not yet in myoblasts, the myotube precursor. Read More

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Combination Strategies to Augment Immune Check Point Inhibitors Efficacy - Implications for Translational Research.

Front Oncol 2021 28;11:559161. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Medical Oncology, HealthCare Global Enterprises Limited, Bangalore, India.

Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy has revolutionized the field of cancer immunotherapy. Even though it has shown a durable response in some solid tumors, several patients do not respond to these agents, irrespective of predictive biomarker (PD-L1, MSI, TMB) status. Multiple preclinical, as well as early-phase clinical studies are ongoing for combining immune checkpoint inhibitors with anti-cancer and/or non-anti-cancer drugs for beneficial therapeutic interactions. Read More

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Doxycycline Therapy for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Inhibitory Effect on Matrix Metalloproteinases.

Cureus 2021 May 11;13(5):e14966. Epub 2021 May 11.

Health Care Administration, University of Cincinnati Health, Cincinnati, USA.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening condition associated with smoking, aging, atherosclerosis, and destruction of the connective tissue in the abdominal aortic wall. Disturbances in the synthesis and degradation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) have been known to contribute to the development of AAAs. The only available treatment of AAA is surgical repair. Read More

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Recent advances in cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles for inflammation therapy.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):1109-1119

Department of Pharmacy, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

During inflammation, inflammatory cells are rapidly recruited to sites of infection or injury, where they cross physiological barriers around the infected site and further infiltrate into the tissues. Other cells, such as erythrocytes, endothelial cells and stem cells, also play prominent roles in host defense and tissue repair. In recent years, nanotechnology has been exploited to deliver drugs to sites of inflammation. Read More

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December 2021

The Comparative Influence of 2 and 4 Weeks Preoperative Antituberculosis Treatment on Spinal Tuberculosis Surgery: A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Key Laboratory for Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Research, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Institute, Beiguan St #9, Beijing, 101149, China.

Introduction: A trade-off between successful surgery and minimizing the operation delay for patients with spinal tuberculosis (TB) is a major consideration to determine the duration of preoperational anti-TB treatment (AAT). In this study, 2 and 4 weeks preoperative AAT durations were compared for their influence on the operation outcomes.

Method: A multicenter, prospective, randomized trial was conducted in four hospitals in China. Read More

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Shining light on single-strand lesions caused by the chemotherapy drug bleomycin.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Jun 10;105:103153. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Quantification of the DNA damage induced by chemotherapy in patient cells may aid in personalization of the dose used. However, assays to evaluate individual patient response to chemotherapy are not available today. Here, we present an assay that quantifies single-stranded lesions caused by the chemotherapeutic drug Bleomycin (BLM) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy individuals. Read More

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Cellulose supported magnetic nanohybrids: Synthesis, physicomagnetic properties and biomedical applications-A review.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Sep 30;267:118136. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Physics Division, Centre for foundation studies, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Cellulose and its forms are widely used in biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and lack of cytotoxicity. It provides ample opportunities for the functionalization of supported magnetic nanohybrids (CSMNs). Because of the abundance of surface hydroxyl groups, they are surface tunable in either homogeneous or heterogeneous solvents and thus act as a substrate or template for the CSMNs' development. Read More

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September 2021

Pneumocephalus with meningitis secondary to an old traumatic anterior cranial fossa defect.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 11;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Emergency Medicine, Kasturba Hospital Manipal, Manipal, Karnataka, India.

We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented with altered mental status, fever, headache and vomiting for 3 days. An initial CT scan of the brain revealed the presence of pneumocephalus with a bony defect in the anterior cranial fossa. The pneumocephalus was not explained initially and the patient was re-examined for any signs of trauma to the face, and a review of the history revealed a series of three traumatic events months prior to this illness. Read More

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Tim-4 cavity-resident macrophages impair anti-tumor CD8 T cell immunity.

Cancer Cell 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Departments of Surgery and Pathology, Center of Excellence for Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Michigan Rogel Cancer Center, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has been a remarkable clinical advance for cancer; however, the majority of patients do not respond to ICB therapy. We show that metastatic disease in the pleural and peritoneal cavities is associated with poor clinical outcomes after ICB therapy. Cavity-resident macrophages express high levels of Tim-4, a receptor for phosphatidylserine (PS), and this is associated with reduced numbers of CD8 T cells with tumor-reactive features in pleural effusions and peritoneal ascites from patients with cancer. Read More

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Rhodium Complexes Targeting DNA Mismatches as a Basis for New Therapeutics in Cancers Deficient in Mismatch Repair.

Biochemistry 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, United States.

Cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI), which include ≤20% of solid tumors, are characterized by resistance to chemotherapy due to deficiency in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. Rhodium metalloinsertors make up a class of compounds that bind DNA mismatches with high specificity and show selective cytotoxicity in MSI cancer cells. We determined that rhodium complexes with an N∧O coordination showed significantly increased cell potency compared with that of N∧N-coordinated compounds, and we identified [Rh(chrysi)(phen)(PPO)] (RhPPO) as the most potent, selective compound in this class. Read More

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Role of HOXC10 in Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:684021. Epub 2021 May 25.

Central Laboratory, Affiliated Jinhua Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jinhua, China.

The HOXC10 gene, a member of the HOX genes family, plays crucial roles in mammalian physiological processes, such as limb morphological development, limb regeneration, and lumbar motor neuron differentiation. HOXC10 is also associated with angiogenesis, fat metabolism, and sex regulation. Additional evidence suggests that HOXC10 dysregulation is closely associated with various tumors. Read More

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GLI1: A Therapeutic Target for Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:673154. Epub 2021 May 25.

Oncology Department, Drug Discovery Division, Southern Research, Birmingham, AL, United States.

GLI1 is a transcriptional effector at the terminal end of the Hedgehog signaling (Hh) pathway and is tightly regulated during embryonic development and tissue patterning/differentiation. GLI1 has low-level expression in differentiated tissues, however, in certain cancers, aberrant activation of GLI1 has been linked to the promotion of numerous hallmarks of cancer, such as proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, metastasis, metabolic rewiring, and chemotherapeutic resistance. All of these are driven, in part, by GLI1's role in regulating cell cycle, DNA replication and DNA damage repair processes. Read More

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Rectosigmoid-Junction Squamous Cell Carcinoma With pMMR/MSS Achieved a Partial Response Following PD-1 Blockade Combined With Chemotherapy: A Case Report.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:596342. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Internal Medicine-Oncology, Qingdao Tumor Hospital, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Colorectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is extremely rare and associated with a poor prognosis. And the pMMR/MSS colorectal cancer is related to a limited response to programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1) blockade monotherapy. However, the clinical activity of PD-1 blockade monotherapy or combination therapy in colorectal SCC is unknown. Read More

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Rare DNA Mismatch Repair-Related Protein Loss in Patients with Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma and Combined Hepatocellular-Cholangiocarcinoma and Their Response to Immunotherapy.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 31;13:4283-4290. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Abdominal Cancer, West China Medical School, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The patients with advanced mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) cancers can benefit from programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) pathway blockade, regardless of the tumor type. Little is known about the prevalence of dMMR in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC). This study aimed to assess the mismatch repair (MMR)-related protein expression in patients with ICC and cHCC-CC. Read More

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Introduction of a Handmade Vacuum-Assisted Sponge Drain for the Treatment of Anastomotic Leakage After Low Anterior Rectal Resection.

Ann Coloproctol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Disivion of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Anastomotic leakage, a known major postoperative complication, potentially leads to readmission, reoperation, and increased mortality rates in patients, such as rectal cancer patients following a low anterior resection (LAR). Currently, vacuum-assisted closure, as featured by B-Braun (B-Braun Medical B.V. Read More

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Cytoplasmic RRM1 activation as an acute response to gemcitabine treatment is involved in drug resistance of pancreatic cancer cells.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252917. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: RRM1 is functionally associated with DNA replication and DNA damage repair. However, the biological activity of RRM1 in pancreatic cancer remains undetermined.

Methods: To determine relationships between RRM1 expression and the prognosis of pancreatic cancer, and to explore RRM1 function in cancer biology, we investigated RRM1 expression levels in 121 pancreatic cancer patients by immunohistochemical staining and performed in vitro experiments to analyze the functional consequences of RRM1 expression. Read More

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Beyond Microsatellite Instability: Evolving Strategies Integrating Immunotherapy for Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Cancer.

Curr Treat Options Oncol 2021 Jun 10;22(8):69. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Clinical Oncology, Università Politecnica delle Marche, AOU Ospedali Riuniti, Via Conca 71, 60126, Ancona, Italy.

Opinion Statement: Advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease, characterized by several subtypes with distinctive genetic and epigenetic patterns. During the last years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revamped the standard of care of several tumors such as non-small cell lung cancer and melanoma, highlighting the role of immune cells in tumor microenvironment (TME) and their impact on cancer progression and treatment efficacy. An "immunoscore," based on the percentage of two lymphocyte populations both at tumor core and invasive margin, has been shown to improve prediction of treatment outcome when added to UICC-TNM classification. Read More

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Lineage-specific mechanisms and drivers of breast cancer chemoresistance revealed by 3D biomimetic culture.

Mol Oncol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Osteoncology and Rare Tumors Center, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, via P. Maroncelli 40, Meldola, Italy.

To improve the success rate of current preclinical drug trials there is a growing need for more complex and relevant models that can help predict clinical resistance to anticancer agents. Here, we present a three-dimensional (3D) technology, based on biomimetic collagen scaffolds, that enables the modeling of the tumor hypoxic state and the prediction of in vivo chemotherapy responses in terms of efficacy, molecular alterations and emergence of resistance mechanisms. The human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 (triple negative) and MCF-7 (luminal A) were treated with scaling doses of doxorubicin in monolayer cultures, 3D collagen scaffolds or orthotopically transplanted murine models. Read More

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Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis in tissue reconstruction using autologous fat grafting: Is there a benefit for wound healing?

Int Wound J 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Fat grafting is a well-established method in plastic surgery. Despite many technical advances, standardised recommendations for the use of prophylactic antibiotics in fat grafting are not available. This retrospective multicentre study aims to analyse the use of prophylactic antibiotics in fat grafting and to compare complication rates for different protocols. Read More

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Clinical activity of durvalumab for patients with advanced mismatch repair-deficient and repair-proficient endometrial cancer. A nonrandomized phase 2 clinical trial.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Jun;9(6)

Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: In this study, we assessed the activity of durvalumab, an antibody to programmed death ligand-1, in two cohorts of women with advanced endometrial cancers (AEC)-mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) and mismatch repair deficient (dMMR).

Methods: A multicenter phase two study was performed in women with AEC with pMMR tumor progressing after one to three lines of chemotherapy and women with AEC with dMMR tumor progressing after zero to three lines of chemotherapy. Mismatch repair status was based on immunohistochemistry expression. Read More

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