430,171 results match your criteria renal function


A review and perspective on the assessment, management and prevention of fragility fractures in patients with osteoporosis and chronic kidney disease.

Endocrine 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicine, Holbæk Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark.

This article aims to review the methods used for the assessment of fracture risk and the use of osteoporosis medications for fracture prevention in the population with CKD, and highlights the difficulties faced by clinicians in the management of these patients and the latest recommendations and guidelines. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and osteoporosis often co-exist in older adults, and they present a major healthcare challenge. CKD mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) occurs as renal function declines and this syndrome affects most patients in CKD stages 4 and 5. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Heritable disorders of oxygen sensing.

Authors:
Gregg L Semenza

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

McKusick-Nathans Department of Genetic Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Maryland, Baltimore, USA.

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) activate gene transcription in response to reduced O availability and play critical roles in development, physiology, and disease pathogenesis. Mutations that dysregulate HIF activity are the genetic basis for tumor predisposition in the von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and excess red blood cell production in hereditary erythrocytosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Shengxuening Extracted from Silkworm Excrement Mitigates Myelosuppression via SCF-Mediated JAK2/STAT3 Signaling.

Chem Biodivers 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Hematology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No. 169 Donghu Road, Wuhang District, Wuhan, 430071, P. R. China.

Shengxuening (SXN) is a Chinese patent medicine with main ingredients (including chlorophyll derivatives and sodium iron chlorophyllin) extracted from silkworm excrement. SXN exhibited efficacy in clinical trials of renal anemia and iron deficiency anemia; however, the specific mechanisms remain unclear. This study found that SXN increased the number of peripheral blood cells and improved the bone marrow morphology in myelosuppressed mouse model, reversed the reduction in body weight and spleen indices, and increased the serum levels of erythropoietin and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pelvic Renal Ectopia: Unusual Position Abnormality.

Cureus 2021 Apr 8;13(4):e14365. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Endocrinology, University of Antioquia, Medellín, COL.

Pelvic renal ectopia is a congenital anomaly secondary to poor renal migration to the lower back. Usually, these pathologies are of asymptomatic course, therefore its finding is usually fortuitous during radiological examinations for other causes or in work-up of the infrequent symptomatic cases characterized by the occurrence of recurrent infections or symptoms of obstructive uropathy. The objective of this report is to present a case of a 37-year-old female with the unusual manifestation of left pelvic renal ectopia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cadmium-induced hypertension is associated with renal myosin light chain phosphatase inhibition via increased T697 phosphorylation and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase levels.

Hypertens Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.

Dietary intake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is implicated in hypertension, but potassium supplementation reportedly mitigates hypertension. This study aims to elucidate the hypertensive mechanism of Cd. Vascular reactivity and protein expression were assessed in Cd-exposed rats for 8 weeks to determine the calcium-handling effect of Cd and the possible signaling pathways and mechanisms involved. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Factors contributing to discrepant estimated glomerular filtration values measured by creatinine and cystatin C in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9884. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Rheumatology, Kanazawa University Hospital, 13-1, Takaramachi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8641, Japan.

This study aimed to clarify the factors underlying the discrepancy that has been noted between estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR) measured using serum creatinine (Cr) and eGFR using serum cystatin C (CysC) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to identify those patients whose renal function should be evaluated using CysC. We retrospectively evaluated clinical features, disease activity, Steinbrocker radiological staging, and co-morbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia) in 238 RA patients. eGFR using serum creatinine (eGFR-Cr) and eGFR using serum cystatin C (eGFR-CysC) were calculated using the new Japanese coefficient-modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of the inclusion of an aminoglycoside to the initial empirical antibiotic therapy for Gram-negative bloodstream infections in hematological neutropenic patients: a propensity-matched cohort study (AMINOLACTAM study).

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Department, Bellvitge University Hospital, Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

To test the hypothesis that the addition of an aminoglycoside to a ß-lactam antibiotic could provide better outcomes than ß-lactam monotherapy for the initial empirical treatment of hematological neutropenic patients with subsequently documented Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bloodstream infection (BSI). Multinational, retrospective, cohort study of GNB BSI episodes in hematological neutropenic patients in six centers (2010-2017). Combination therapy (ß-lactam plus aminoglycoside) was compared to ß-lactam monotherapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Urinary Diversion: Core Curriculum 2021.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Urinary diversion after cystectomy has been a historical standard for the treatment of numerous benign and malignant diseases of the bladder. Since the first published description in the early 1900s, improvements in surgical technique and a better understanding of the metabolic sequelae postoperatively have greatly enhanced patient outcomes. Both continent and incontinent diversions are available to patients after cystectomy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dietary protein source contributes to the risk of developing maternal syndrome in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2021 May 5;24:126-134. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physiology, Augusta University, United States.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy, which is categorized by hypertension and proteinuria or signs of end-organ damage. Though PE is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms leading to PE remain unclear. The present study examined the contribution of dietary protein source (casein versus wheat gluten) to the risk of developing maternal syndrome utilizing two colonies of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/JrHsdMcwi) rats. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Factors associated with acute kidney injury during delivery or the postpartum period: A case control study.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 27;261:200-204. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Obstetrics, Maternal Medicine Service, St George's Hospital, Blackshaw Road, London, SW17 0QT, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: To investigate the incidence of risk factors associated with acute kidney injury(AKI) occurring during the intrapartum or the immediate postpartum period.

Material And Methods: A retrospective case control study in a tertiary UK hospital of pregnant women identified with AKI in labour or in the postpartum period between July 2019 and June 2020 was carried out. Women identified with pregnancy related AKI (pr-AKI) in labour or postpartum were compared with a matched cohort of women with no evidence of pr-AKI, using multiple regression analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Three-dimensional spheroid culture induces apical-basal polarity and the original characteristics of immortalized human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

Exp Cell Res 2021 May 7:112630. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Glial Cell Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan. Electronic address:

The proximal tubules, which are part of the kidney, maintain blood homeostasis by absorbing amino acids, glucose, water, and ions such as sodium (Na), potassium, and bicarbonate. Proximal tubule dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) are responsible for the main functions of the proximal tubules. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Efficacy and safety of voclosporin versus placebo for lupus nephritis (AURORA 1): a double-blind, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Research, Aurinia Pharmaceuticals, Victoria, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Voclosporin, a novel calcineurin inhibitor approved for the treatment of adults with lupus nephritis, improved complete renal response rates in patients with lupus nephritis in a phase 2 trial. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of voclosporin for the treatment of lupus nephritis.

Methods: This multicentre, double-blind, randomised phase 3 trial was done in 142 hospitals and clinics across 27 countries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pharmacokinetics Parameters of Diagoxin among Saudi Patients in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia.

Drug Metab Lett 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Drogheda, Ireland.

Background: The pharmacodynamic effects of digoxin are susceptible to multiple factors, most notably, heart uptake of the digoxin dose and its concentration in the serum. Another important factor to mention is the renal function state of an individual.

Objective: In this study, we aimed to develop a simple algorithm based on subsets of clinically relevant information, which will help to personalize digoxin based on pharmacokinetic (PK) approach, which can help on marketing the appropriate utilization of this medication. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Improved creatinine-based early detection of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg, Germany.

Objectives: This study aims to improve early detection of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) compared to classical clinical scores.

Methods: Data from 7633 patients who underwent cardiac surgery between 2008 and 2018 in our institution were analysed. CSA-AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Functional joint models for chronic kidney disease in kidney transplant recipients.

Stat Methods Med Res 2021 May 10:9622802211009265. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Nephrology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, NE, USA.

This functional joint model paper is motivated by a chronic kidney disease study post kidney transplantation. The available kidney organ is a scarce resource because millions of end-stage renal patients are on the waiting list for kidney transplantation. The life of the transplanted kidney can be extended if the progression of the chronic kidney disease stage can be slowed, and so a major research question is how to extend the transplanted kidney life to maximize the usage of the scarce organ resource. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prognostic Factors of Mortality in Sepsis and Soft Tissue Infections: Meta-Analysis.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

is a rare but life-threatening infection that effects the population near warm coastal areas. This infection could be fulminant and rapidly progress to severe sepsis and necrotizing soft tissue infection. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to saving patients' lives. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vascular Control of Kidney Epithelial Transporters.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Nephrology, Duke University School of Medicine, United Statesgrid.471396.e.

A major pathway in hypertension pathogenesis involves direct activation of Ang II (AT) receptors in the kidney, stimulating sodium reabsorption. AT receptors in tubular epithelia control expression and stimulation of sodium transporters and channels. Recently, we found reduced blood pressure and enhanced natriuresis in mice with cell-specific deletion of AT receptors in smooth muscle (SMKOs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inward calcium current through the polycystin-2-dependent channels of renal primary cilia.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Pharmacology & Systems Physiology, University of Cincinnati, United Statesgrid.24827.3b.

In 15% of cases, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) arises from defects in polycystin-2 (PC2). PC2 is a member of the TRPP subfamily of cation-conducting channels and is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum and primary cilium of renal epithelial cells. PC2 opposes a pro-cystogenic influence of the cilium, and it has been proposed that this beneficial effect is mediated in part by a flow of Ca through PC2 channels into the primary cilium. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Induction of renal tumor necrosis factor-alpha and other autacoids and the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline in acute decompensated heart failure.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, United Statesgrid.260917.b.

While administration of Hypertonic Saline (HSS) in combination with diuretics has yielded improved weight loss, preservation of renal function, and reduction in hospitalization time in the clinical setting of patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), the mechanisms that underlie these beneficial effects remain unclear and additional studies are needed before this approach can be adopted on a more consistent basis. As high salt conditions stimulate production of several renal autacoids that exhibit natriuretic effects, renal physiologists can contribute to the understanding of mechanisms by which HSS leads to increased diuresis both as an individual therapy, as well as in combination with loop diuretics. For instance, since HSS increases TNF-α production by proximal tubule (PT) and thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) epithelial cells, this 'Perspective article' is aimed at highlighting how the effects of TNF-α produced by these cell types may contribute to the beneficial effects of HSS in patients with ADHF. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Protective Functions of Liver X Receptor α in Established Vulnerable Plaques: Involvement of Regulating Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Macrophage Apoptosis and Efferocytosis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 May 8:e018455. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cardiology Renji Hospital School of Medicine Shanghai Jiao Tong University Shanghai China.

Background Liver X receptor (LXR) belongs to the metabolic nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays a critical regulatory role in vascular physiology/pathology. However, effects of systemic LXR activation on established vulnerable plaques and the potential isotype-specific role involved remain unclear. Methods and Results The 8-week-old male apolipoprotein E mice went through carotid branch ligation and renal artery constriction, combined with a high-fat diet. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Circular RNA ITCH Is a Tumor Suppressor in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasis through miR-106b-5p/PDCD4 Axis.

J Immunol Res 2021 20;2021:5524344. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Urology, Huai'an Second People's Hospital and The Affiliated Huai'an Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Huai'an, China.

High metastasis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) significantly influenced survival rate of ccRCC patients. Here, we intended to investigate the impacts of circular RNA ITCH (circ-ITCH) on the metastasis of ccRCC. The expression of circ-ITCH in ccRCC tissues and cells was evaluated utilizing qRT-PCR. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mechanism of and Ameliorates Hypertensive Renal Damage.

Biomed Res Int 2021 21;2021:5598351. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250011, China.

Hypertensive-induced renal damage (HRD) is an important public health and socioeconomic problem worldwide. The herb pair - (RA-) (RS) is a common prescribed herbal formula for the treatment of HRD. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Single-Nucleus Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Important Cell Cross-Talk in Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 21;8:657956. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Nephrology, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) leads to the loss of renal function and cell cross-talk is one of the crucial mechanisms participating in the pathogenesis of DKD. However, the mechanisms of cell communication were not fully elucidated in previous studies. In this study, we performed cell cross-talk analysis using CellPhoneDB based on a single-nucleus transcriptomic dataset (GSE131882) and revealed the associations between cell communication-related genes and renal function, providing overall insight into cell communication in DKD. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Endogenous Retroviral-K Envelope Is a Novel Tumor Antigen and Prognostic Indicator of Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:657187. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Erlangen, Comprehensive Cancer Center, European Metropolitan Area Erlangen-Nuremberg (CCC ER-EMN), Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most common cancers for men and women with an approximate 75% overall 5-year survival. Sixteen histological tumor subtypes exist and the most common are papillary, chromophobe and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) representing 85% of all RCC. Although epigenetically silenced, endogenous retroviral (ERV) genes become activated in tumors and function to ignite immune responses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Camrelizumab monotherapy leading to partial remission for relapsed upper tract urothelial carcinoma after radical nephroureterectomy: a case report.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Apr;10(4):1821-1826

Department of Urology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare malignant disease, and while locally advanced non-metastatic UTUC can be cured by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU), this procedure leaves patients at high risk of relapse and death from cancer. Though the FDA has currently approved five agents for the systemic immunotherapy treatment of urothelial carcinoma (UC) patients, the effect of immunotherapy in patients with recurrent UTUC still lacks specific evidence. Camrelizumab is a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor which has been approved for the treatment of recurrent or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma in China and have achieved improvement in a verity of solid tumors with manageable safety profile. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Modified ileal conduit intracorporeally accomplished following laparoscopic radical cystectomy with enhanced recovery protocols: experience with 48 cases.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Apr;10(4):1596-1606

Institute of Urology, Capital Medical University, Department of Urology, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: This study introduces the results of laparoscopic radical cystectomy with modified intracorporeal ileal conduit (mICIC), which was accompanied by enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols.

Methods: From March 2014 to June 2020, 48 patients underwent mICIC. Patients were divided into ERAS (n=17) and non-ERAS groups (n=31). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fabry disease-what cardiologists can learn from the nephrologist: a narrative review.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):672-682

Department II of Internal Medicine and Center for Rare Diseases Cologne, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, X-linked lysosomal storage disorder resulting in decreased or absent activity of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A. Subsequent accumulation of storage material can occur in virtually all cells of the body. Organs and structures affected by storage material deposition include the heart, the kidney, the central and peripheral nervous system and the cornea of the eyes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Abdominal compartment syndrome among surgical patients.

World J Gastrointest Surg 2021 Apr;13(4):330-339

Department of Medicine, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, TX 78405, United States.

Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) develops when organ failure arises secondary to an increase in intraabdominal pressure. The abdominal pressure is determined by multiple factors such as blood pressure, abdominal compliance, and other factors that exert a constant pressure within the abdominal cavity. Several conditions in the critically ill may increase abdominal pressure compromising organ perfusion that may lead to renal and respiratory dysfunction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Integrated Analysis to Identify a Redox-Related Prognostic Signature for Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 21;2021:6648093. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030 Hubei, China.

The imbalance of the redox system has been shown to be closely related to the occurrence and progression of many cancers. However, the biological function and clinical significance of redox-related genes (RRGs) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are unclear. In our current study, we downloaded transcriptome data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database of ccRCC patients and identified the differential expression of RRGs in tumor and normal kidney tissues. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pathological Hyperinsulinemia and Hyperglycemia in the Impaired Glucose Tolerance Stage Mediate Endothelial Dysfunction Through miR-21, PTEN/AKT/eNOS, and MARK/ET-1 Pathways.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 23;12:644159. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

NHC Key Laboratory of Hormones and Development, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Metabolic Disease, Chu Hsien-I Memorial Hospital & Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Background: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is an important prediabetic stage characterized by elevated concentrations of glucose and insulin in the blood. The pathological hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in IGT may regulate the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and affect the downstream insulin signaling pathways, leading to endothelial cell dysfunction and early renal damage.

Methods: The individual and combined effects of insulin and glucose were investigated using human glomerular endothelial cells (HGECs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF