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The Role of O-GlcNAcylation in Immune Cell Activation.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 27;12:596617. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Pathology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States.

O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification where the sugar, O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is added to or removed from various cytoplasmic, nuclear, and mitochondrial proteins. This modification is regulated by only two enzymes: O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which adds O-GlcNAc, and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), which removes the sugar from proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is integral to maintaining normal cellular function, especially in processes such as nutrient sensing, metabolism, transcription, and growth and development of the cell. Read More

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Anaphylaxis caused by artisanal honey in a child: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 14;15(1):235. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital, Piacenza, Italy.

Background: Honey is a rare cause of food allergy, especially in children, but it can cause severe systemic allergic reactions. In the pediatric age group, only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Honey allergy may be caused by pollen content or bee-derived proteins. Read More

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Cellular carbon stress is a mediator of obesity-associated osteoarthritis development.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University, OH, 45701, USA; Ohio Musculoskeletal and Neurological Institute (OMNI), Ohio University, OH, 45701, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: 'Carbon stress' is a newly found mechanism that links obesity and dysregulated metabolism. It is defined as the cellular accumulation of metabolites during obesity post-translationally modifying metabolic proteins and decreasing their enzymatic activity. The objective of this study was to investigate if 'carbon stress' also occurs in cartilage and contributes to obesity associated OA development. Read More

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Specular highlight removal based on an iterative light field method.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):4039-4046

In this paper, a novel, to the best of our knowledge, iterative approach for highlight removal is proposed using lenselet-based plenoptic cameras without multiple exposures. An unsupervised k-means clustering approach that relates unsaturated pixels to chromatic dispersion based on the intrinsic decomposition and dichromatic reflection model is proposed to recover unsaturated highlights. Meanwhile, an adaptive direction method along with a Gaussian probability distribution model is designed to recover the saturated highlights. Read More

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A Multi-Rater Latent Growth Curve Model.

Multivariate Behav Res 2021 May 13:1-22. Epub 2021 May 13.

NWEA, Portland, OR, USA.

To avoid the subjectivity of having a single person evaluate a construct of interest (e.g., a student's self-efficacy in school), multiple raters are often used. Read More

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Ultralow amounts of DNA from long-term archived serum samples produce high-quality methylomes.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 May 12;13(1):107. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Long-term stored serum is considered challenging for epigenomic analyses: as there are no cells, circulating DNA is scarce, and amplification removes epigenetic signals. Additionally, pre-analytical treatments and storage might introduce biases and fragmentation to the DNA. In particular, starting with low-input DNA can result in low-diversity libraries. Read More

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Features of low functional load in mono- and bilinguals' lexical access: evidence from Swedish tonal accent.

Phonetica 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Swedish makes use of tonal accents (Accents 1 and 2) to contrast words, but the functional load is very low, with some regional dialects not even exhibiting the contrast. In particular given the low number of minimal pairs, the question is whether tonal word accent is used in lexical access. Here we present two cross-modal fragment semantic priming studies in order to address this question. Read More

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Endocystectomy as a conservative surgical treatment for hepatic cystic echinococcosis: A systematic review with single-arm meta-analysis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 May 12;15(5):e0009365. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: In patients with hepatic cystic echinococcosis (CE), treatment effectiveness, outcomes, complications, and recurrence rate are controversial. Endocystectomy is a conservative surgical approach that adequately removes cyst contents without loss of parenchyma. This conservative procedure has been modified in several ways to prevent complications and to improve surgical outcomes. Read More

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Electronic State Manipulation of Surface Titanium Activates Dephosphorylation over TiO2 Near Room Temperature.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

City University of Hong Kong, Chemistry, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, 0000, Hong Kong, HONG KONG.

Dephosphorylation that removes a phosphate group from substrates is an important reaction for not only living organisms but also environmental protection. Although CeO2 has been shown to catalyze this reaction, as one of the rare earth elements, cerium is low in natural abundance and has a narrow global distribution (> 90% of these reserves are located within six countries). It is thus imperative to find another element/material with high worldwide abundance that can also efficiently extract the phosphate out of agricultural wastes for phosphorus recycle. Read More

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Vps34 and TOR Kinases Coordinate mRNA Translation in the presence or absence of Ire1-dependent Splicing.

Mol Cell Biol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI-53211, USA

In the budding yeast an mRNA, called , exists in a translationally repressed form in the cytoplasm. Under conditions of cellular stress, such as when unfolded proteins accumulate inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an RNase Ire1 removes an intervening sequence (intron) from the mRNA by non-conventional cytosolic splicing. Removal of the intron results in translational de-repression of mRNA and production of a transcription factor that activates expressions of many enzymes and chaperones to increase the protein-folding capacity of the cell. Read More

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Peroxiredoxin 5 is involved in cancer cell invasion and tumor growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Dis 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Dental Hygiene, College of Health Science, Eulji University, 13135, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are antioxidant enzymes that can coordinate cell signal transduction via reactive species scavenging or by acting as redox sensors. The mechanism by which Prxs promote cancer invasion and progression is not yet fully understood. This study aims to elucidate the precise mechanism through which Prx type 5 (Prx5) promotes cancer invasion and tumor growth. Read More

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3D Printing of Monolithic Capillarity-Driven Microfluidic Devices for Diagnostics.

Adv Mater 2021 May 10:e2008712. Epub 2021 May 10.

Centre for Membrane Separations, Adsorption, Catalysis and Spectroscopy (cMACS), KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 F, Leuven, Box 2454, Belgium.

Rapid diagnostic testing at the site of the patient is essential when a fully equipped laboratory is not accessible. To maximize the impact of this approach, low-cost, disposable tests that require minimal user-interference and external equipment are desired. Fluid transport by capillary wicking removes the need for bulky ancillary equipment to actuate and control fluid flow. Read More

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A Novel Grid Regression Demodulation Method for Radiographic Grid Artifact Correction.

Med Phys 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Mathematics, Union College, Schenectady, NY, 12308, USA.

Purpose: In X-ray radiography, the commonly used anti-scatter grid for enhancing image quality causes artifacts in the form of periodic noises, such as shadows, cutoff, and Moiré fringes. Software degridding is traditionally performed via linear or homomorphic filtering in the spectral domain. These methods inevitably result in image blurring, information loss and distortion, thus hindering detection and assessment of diseases. Read More

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Deletion of the last two exons of FGF10 in a family with LADD syndrome and pulmonary acinar hypoplasia.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, Aotearoa, New Zealand.

Pulmonary acinar hypoplasia (PAH) and lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital (LADD) syndrome have both been associated with loss-of-function variants in, or deletions of FGF10. Here we report a multi-generational family with seven members manifesting varying features of LADD syndrome, with one individual dying in early infancy of PAH. Whole genome sequencing in one family member identified a 12,158 bp deletion on chromosome 5p12 that removes two of the three exons of FGF10. Read More

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WNT/β-catenin-suppressed FTO expression increases mA of c-Myc mRNA to promote tumor cell glycolysis and tumorigenesis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 8;12(5):462. Epub 2021 May 8.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Pancreatic Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, and Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 310029, Hangzhou, China.

FTO removes the N6-methyladenosine (mA) modification from genes and plays a critical role in cancer development. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of FTO and its subsequent impact on the regulation of the epitranscriptome remain to be further elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that FTO expression is downregulated and inversely correlated with poor survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients. Read More

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Myosin 1c; a novel regulator of glucose uptake in brown adipocytes.

Mol Metab 2021 May 6:101247. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, SE-106 91, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objective: The potential of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to influence energy homeostasis in animals and humans is encouraging since the tissue can increase fatty acid and glucose utilization to produce heat through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) but the actual mechanism how the cell regulates glucose uptake is not fully understood. Myosin 1c (Myo1c) is an unconventional motor protein involved in several cellular processes, including insulin-mediated glucose uptake via GLUT4 vesicle fusion in white adipocytes but its role in glucose uptake in BAT has previously not been investigated.

Methods: Using the specific inhibitor pentachloropseudilin (PCIP), a neutralizing antibody assay and siRNA, we examined the role of Myo1c in mechanisms leading to glucose uptake both in vitro in isolated mouse primary adipocytes and in vivo in mice. Read More

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Proton-detected solid-state NMR spectroscopy of spin-1/2 nuclei with large chemical shift anisotropy.

J Magn Reson 2021 Apr 20;327:106983. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011, USA; Iowa State University, Department of Chemistry, Ames, IA 50011, USA. Electronic address:

Constant-time (CT) dipolar heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (D-HMQC) has previously been demonstrated as a method for proton detection of high-resolution wideline NMR spectra of spin-1/2 nuclei with large chemical shift anisotropy (CSA). However, H transverse relaxation and t-noise often reduce the sensitivity of D-HMQC experiments, preventing the theoretical gains in sensitivity provided by H detection from being realized. Here we demonstrate a series of improved pulse sequences for H detection of spin-1/2 nuclei under fast MAS, with Pt SSNMR experiments on cisplatin as an example. Read More

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Laundry Hygiene and Odor Control - State of the Science.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Environmental Science, University of Arizona. Tucson, AZ 85721.

Laundering of textiles - clothing, linens, cleaning cloths - functionally removes dirt and bodily fluids which, prevent the transmission and re-exposure to pathogens as well as odor control. Thus, proper laundering is key to controlling microbes that cause illness and produce odors. The practice of laundering varies from region to region and is influenced by culture and resources. Read More

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Detailed nature of tire pyrolysis oil blended with light cycle oil and its hydroprocessed products using a NiW/HY catalyst.

Waste Manag 2021 May 4;128:36-44. Epub 2021 May 4.

Chemical Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644-48080, Bilbao, Spain; Multiscale Reaction Engineering, KAUST Catalysis Center (KCC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.

The pyrolysis of scrap tires is a very attractive strategy to valorize chemically these end-of-life wastes. The products of this step and any additional one, such as hydrotreating, are relatively complex in nature entangling the understanding and limiting the viability. In this work, we have investigated in detail the composition of a tire pyrolysis oil blended with light cycle oil (from a refinery) and its hydrotreated products using a bifunctional NiW/HY catalyst at 320-400 °C. Read More

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Microdeletion of 9q22.3: A patient with minimal deletion size associated with a severe phenotype.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Mater Research Institute-University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia.

Basal cell nevus syndrome (also known as Gorlin Syndrome; MIM109400) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent pathological features such as basal cell carcinomas and odontogenic keratocysts as well as skeletal abnormalities. Most affected individuals have point mutations or small insertions or deletions within the PTCH1 gene on human chromosome 9, but there are some cases with more extensive deletion of the region, usually including the neighboring FANCC and/or ERCC6L2 genes. We report a 16-year-old patient with a deletion of approximately 400,000 bases which removes only PTCH1 and some non-coding RNA genes but leaves FANCC and ERCC6L2 intact. Read More

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Insights into the substrate discrimination mechanisms of methyl-CpG-binding domain 4.

Biochem J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States.

G:T mismatches, the major mispairs generated during DNA metabolism, are repaired in part by mismatch-specific DNA glycosylases such as methyl-CpG-binding domain 4 (MBD4) and thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG). Mismatch-specific DNA glycosylases must discriminate the mismatches against million-fold excess correct base pairs. MBD4 efficiently removes thymine opposite guanine but not opposite adenine. Read More

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Cross-Scanner Harmonization of Neuromelanin-Sensitive MRI for Multisite Studies.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, USA.

Background: Neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (NM-MRI) is a validated measure of neuromelanin concentration in the substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area (SN-VTA) complex and is a proxy measure of dopaminergic function with potential as a noninvasive biomarker. The development of generalizable biomarkers requires large-scale samples necessitating harmonization approaches to combine data collected across sites.

Purpose: To develop a method to harmonize NM-MRI across scanners and sites. Read More

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Effects of 9,300 nm Carbon Dioxide Laser on Dental Hard Tissue: A Concise Review.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dent 2021 30;13:155-161. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

A carbon dioxide laser at 9,300 nm has a high absorption affinity for water and a shallow depth of penetration. It can be used for soft tissue surgery and hemostasis. Besides, it matches well with the absorption characteristic of hydroxyapatite in enamel and dentine. Read More

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An Antibody-like Polymeric Nanoparticle Removes Intratumoral Galectin-1 to Enhance Antitumor T-Cell Responses in Cancer Immunotherapy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Antibodies have shown potential to deplete immunosuppressive factors in tumor tissues. However, intrinsic drawbacks, including time-consuming processes in preparation, high cost, and short half-life time, greatly restrict their applications. In this work, we report an antibody-like polymeric nanoparticle (APN) that is capable of specifically capturing and removing galectin-1 in tumor tissues, thereby enhancing the antitumor T-cell responses. Read More

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Charge-Order on the Triangular Lattice: A Mean-Field Study for the Lattice = 1/2 Fermionic Gas.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, ulica Uniwersytetu Poznańskiego 2, PL-61614 Poznań, Poland.

The adsorbed atoms exhibit tendency to occupy a triangular lattice formed by periodic potential of the underlying crystal surface. Such a lattice is formed by, e.g. Read More

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SnOnanorods/graphene nanoplatelets nanocomposites: towards fast removal of malachite green and pathogen control.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering, Islamabad, PAKISTAN.

The world is facing alarming challenges of environmental pollution due to uncontrolled water contamination and multiple drug resistance of pathogens. In this work, SnOnanorods and SnO/GNPs nanocomposites have been prepared. The length and diameter of nanorods are ca. Read More

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Size-related increase in inducible mechanical variability of major ampullate silk in a huntsman spider (Araneae: Sparassidae).

Naturwissenschaften 2021 May 4;108(3):22. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Life Science, Tunghai University, Taichung, 407224, Taiwan.

Most spiders use major ampullate silk (MAS) to perform many functions across their lifetimes, including prey capture, vibratory signal detection, and safety/dragline. To accommodate their various needs, adult spiders can use inducible variability to tailor MAS with specific mechanical properties. However, it is currently unknown whether this inducible mechanical variability develops gradually or remains consistent across spider size. Read More

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CORR® Curriculum-Orthopaedic Education: Changing USMLE Step 1 Scores to Pass/Fail Removes an Objective Measure of Medical Knowledge.

Authors:
Paul J Dougherty

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

P. J. Dougherty, Professor and Chairman, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

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Choroid Plexus and Drug Removal Mechanisms.

AAPS J 2021 May 3;23(3):61. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Health Science Building Room H-272J, Box 357610, Seattle, Washington, 98195-7610, USA.

Timely and efficient removal of xenobiotics and metabolites from the brain is crucial in maintaining the homeostasis and normal function of the brain. The choroid plexus (CP) forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and vitally removes drugs and wastes from the brain through several co-existing clearance mechanisms. The CP epithelial (CPE) cells synthesize and secrete the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

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Cleavage of Braun's lipoprotein Lpp from the bacterial peptidoglycan by a paralog of l,d-transpeptidases, LdtF.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 500007 Hyderabad, India

The gram-negative bacterial cell envelope is made up of an outer membrane (OM), an inner membrane (IM) that surrounds the cytoplasm, and a periplasmic space between the two membranes containing peptidoglycan (PG or murein). PG is an elastic polymer that forms a mesh-like sacculus around the IM, protecting cells from turgor and environmental stress conditions. In several bacteria, including , the OM is tethered to PG by an abundant OM lipoprotein, Lpp (or Braun's lipoprotein), that functions to maintain the structural and functional integrity of the cell envelope. Read More

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