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Early Experience with Comaneci, a Newly FDA-Approved Controllable Assist Device for Wide-Necked Intracranial Aneurysm Coiling.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 May 10:1-8. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Comaneci (Rapid Medical) is a compliant, adjustable mesh that provides temporary scaffolding during coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms (WNAs) that preserves antegrade flow. We report our early multi-institutional experience with the Comaneci device in the USA.

Method: We reviewed all patients with WNAs that were treated using the Comaneci device for coil remodeling of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms at 4 institutions between July 2019 and May 2020. Read More

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Dietary protein source contributes to the risk of developing maternal syndrome in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2021 May 5;24:126-134. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physiology, Augusta University, United States.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy, which is categorized by hypertension and proteinuria or signs of end-organ damage. Though PE is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms leading to PE remain unclear. The present study examined the contribution of dietary protein source (casein versus wheat gluten) to the risk of developing maternal syndrome utilizing two colonies of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/JrHsdMcwi) rats. Read More

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Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantitation using cardiac dual-energy CT with late iodine enhancement in patients with heart failure without coronary artery disease: A single-center prospective study.

Eur J Radiol 2021 May 1;140:109743. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Shizi Street No.188, Suzhou, 215002, China; Institute of Medical Imaging, Soochow University, Shizi Street No.188, Suzhou, 215002, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction measured using dual-energy computed tomography with late iodine enhancement (LIE-DECT) and risk of heart failure (HF) in patients without coronary artery disease (CAD), and to evaluate the relationship between ECV and left ventricular structure and function.

Materials And Methods: Sixty consecutive HF patients without CAD and 60 consecutive participants without heart disease who underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA) following LIE-DECT were included. ECV of the left ventricle was calculated from the iodine maps and hematocrit levels using the American Heart Association (AHA) 16-segment model. Read More

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TNAP is a novel regulator of cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction by mediating TGF-β/Smads and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

EBioMedicine 2021 May 6;67:103370. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cardiac fibrosis is the most important pathogenesis leading to cardiac remodeling and heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). Tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) has recently been recognized as a potential prognostic factor for MI. Nevertheless, the role of TNAP in cardiac fibrosis after MI has not been explicitly delineated. Read More

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Suppression of Cancer-associated bone loss through dynamic mechanical loading.

Bone 2021 May 7:115998. Epub 2021 May 7.

Stony Brook University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Patients afflicted with or being treated for cancer constitute a distinct and alarming subpopulation who exhibit elevated fracture risk and heightened susceptibility to developing secondary osteoporosis. Cancer cells uncouple the regulatory processes central for the adequate regulation of musculoskeletal tissue. Systemically taxing treatments to target tumors or disrupt the molecular elements driving tumor growth place considerable strain on recovery efforts. Read More

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Inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin does not improve hypoxic pulmonary hypertension-induced right heart failure in old mice.

Exp Gerontol 2021 May 7:111395. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Kinesiology & Health, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, United States of America. Electronic address:

Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by rapamycin attenuates heart failure (HF) and age-associated changes in left ventricular (LV) function. Rapamycin has also been suggested as a therapy for pulmonary hypertension (PH) and concomitant right heart failure (PH-RHF) based on reports of elevated mTOR signaling in young models with PH. However, rapamycin has yet to be tested in the setting of aging, PH, and right heart disease despite the fact that RV function predicts survival in both age-related HF as well as several pulmonary disease states including PH. Read More

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Macrophage activation in the lung during the progression of nitrogen mustard induced injury is associated with histone modifications and altered miRNA expression.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 May 7:115569. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, 08854, USA; Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address:

Activated macrophages have been implicated in lung injury and fibrosis induced by the cytotoxic alkylating agent, nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, we determined if macrophage activation is associated with histone modifications and altered miRNA expression. Treatment of rats with NM (0. Read More

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The Association between Lung Hyperinflation and Coronary Artery Disease in Smokers.

Chest 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departments of Medicine. Electronic address:

Background: Smokers manifest varied phenotypes of pulmonary impairment.

Research Question: Which pulmonary phenotypes are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in smokers?

Study Design: & Methods: We analyzed data from the Pittsburgh SCCOR cohort (n=481), and the COPDGene cohort (n=2580). Participants were current and former smokers with >10 pack-years of tobacco exposure. Read More

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Echocardiographic evaluation of the Athlete's heart.

Echocardiography 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Cardiac response to prolonged, intense exercise induces phenotypic and physiologic adaptive changes that improve myocardial ability to meet oxygen demands. These adaptations, termed "athletes' heart," have been extensively studied. The importance of this entity arises from the increasing numbers of athletes as well as the drive for physical fitness in the general population leading to adaptive cardiac changes that need to be differentiated from life-threatening cardiovascular diseases. Read More

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Cryo-radiofrequency Stimulates Browning of Adipocytes in Mice.

Cryo Letters 2021 Mar-Apr;42(2):96-105

Department of Nutrition, Nursing School, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Local fat accumulation is a health risk and this has raised interest in the development of aesthetic treatments, such as cryo-radiofrequency (CRF).

Objective: To evaluate the consequences of CRF in adipose tissue remodeling in a model system.

Materials And Methods: Lean and high-fat diet-induced obese mice were assessed 7 days after one CRF application; and lean mice were assessed 0, 3, 6 and 12 h after one application of CRF. Read More

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Agent-based model provides insight into the mechanisms behind failed regeneration following volumetric muscle loss injury.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 May 10;17(5):e1008937. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America.

Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable capacity for repair and regeneration following a variety of injuries. When successful, this highly orchestrated regenerative process requires the contribution of several muscle resident cell populations including satellite stem cells (SSCs), fibroblasts, macrophages and vascular cells. However, volumetric muscle loss injuries (VML) involve simultaneous destruction of multiple tissue components (e. Read More

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Letter by Wu et al Regarding Article, "Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Soluble Ninjurin-1 Ameliorate Atherosclerosis".

Circulation 2021 May 10;143(19):e919-e920. Epub 2021 May 10.

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan.

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Spinal Pseudoaneurysms Mimicking an Osteogenic Tumor: A Case Report.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2020 May;4(5):e1900156

From the National Guard Health Affairs, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Aim: This study presents a rare case of pseudoaneurysm mimicking a tumor on the back, with no history of fever, trauma, or surgical intervention. In which no identifiable symptoms or warning signs were present. This pseudoaneurysm arises from intercostal arteries and segmental arteries. Read More

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Octamer transcription factor-1 induces the Warburg effect via up-regulation of hexokinase 2 in non-small cell lung cancer.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Integrative Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China.

Reprogramming of energy metabolism is a hallmark of cancer which is prevalent worldwide. Octamer transcription factor-1 (OCT1) is a well-known transcription factor. However, the role of OCT1 in metabolism remodeling has not been well defined. Read More

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5 is involved in spermatogenesis through the modification of cell-cell junctions.

Reproduction 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Y Zhao, Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonists have been reported to decrease male fertility, however the roles of mAChRs in spermatogenesis and the underlying mechanisms are not understood yet. During spermatogenesis, extensive remodeling between Sertoli cells and/or germ cells interfaces takes place to accommodate the transport of developing germ cells across the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and adluminal compartment. The cell-cell junctions play vital role in the spermatogenesis process. Read More

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KSR1-and ERK-dependent translational regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Elife 2021 May 10;10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Eppley Cancer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, United States.

The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered a transcriptional process that induces a switch in cells from a polarized state to a migratory phenotype. Here we show that KSR1 and ERK promote EMT-like phenotype through the preferential translation of Epithelial-Stromal Interaction 1 (EPSTI1), which is required to induce the switch from E- to N-cadherin and coordinate migratory and invasive behavior. EPSTI1 is overexpressed in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Read More

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Sleep duration and vascular inflammation using hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging: results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Study Objectives: Short sleep duration (SD) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the relationship between objective SD and subclinical atherosclerosis employing hybrid PET/MRI with F-FDG tracer in the MESA cohort.

Methods: We utilized data from MESA-SLEEP and MESA-PET ancillary studies. Read More

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Nitric Oxide-cGMP Pathway Modulation in an Experimental Model of Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2021 May 8:10742484211014162. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department Cœur-Vaisseaux, Cardiac Surgery Center, 30635University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Manipulation of nitric oxide (NO) may enable control of progression and treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Several approaches may modulate the NO-cGMP pathway in vivo. Here, we investigate the effectiveness of 3 modulatory sites: (i) the amount of l-arginine; (ii) the size of plasma NO stores that stimulate soluble guanylate cyclase; (iii) the conversion of cGMP into inactive 5'-GMP, with respect to hypoxia, to test the effectiveness of the treatments with respect to hypoxia-induced PH. Read More

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Wiring and plumbing: Oligodendrocyte precursors and angiogenesis in the oligovascular niche.

Authors:
Ken Arai Eng H Lo

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 May 9:271678X211014979. Epub 2021 May 9.

Neuroprotection Research Laboratories, Departments of Radiology and Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA.

For efficient stroke recovery, the entire neurovascular unit must be repaired. A recent study underscores this concept by highlighting the importance of cellular crosstalk for white mater remodeling. In developing brains and in brains injured by hypoxia, interactions between oligodendrocyte precursors and endothelium play an essential role for physiological and compensatory angiogenesis. Read More

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Vascular Control of Kidney Epithelial Transporters.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Duke Universitygrid.26009.3d.

A major pathway in hypertension pathogenesis involves direct activation of Ang II (AT) receptors in the kidney, stimulating sodium reabsorption. AT receptors in tubular epithelia control expression and stimulation of sodium transporters and channels. Recently, we found reduced blood pressure and enhanced natriuresis in mice with cell-specific deletion of AT receptors in smooth muscle (SMKOs). Read More

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Formation of Low Voltage Zones on the Anterior Left Atrial Wall Due to Mechanical Compression by the Ascending Aorta.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Ohyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8610, Japan.

Background: Although low voltage zones (LVZs) in the left atrium (LA) are considered arrhythmogenic substrates in some patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the pathophysiologic factors responsible for LVZ formations remain unclear.

Objective: To elucidate the anatomical relationship between the LA and ascending aorta responsible for anterior LA wall remodeling.

Methods: We assessed the relationship between existence of LVZs on the anterior LA wall and the 3-dimensional computed tomography image measurements in 102 patients who underwent AF ablation. Read More

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Structural Analysis of Hollow Versus Solid-stemmed Shoulder Implants of Proximal Humeri with Different Bone Qualities.

J Orthop Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Stress shielding of the proximal humerus following total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) can promote unfavorable bone remodeling, especially for osteoporotic patients. The objective of this finite element (FE) study was to determine if a hollow, rather than solid, titanium stem can mitigate this effect for healthy, osteopenic, and osteoporotic bone. Using a population-based model of the humerus, representative average healthy, osteopenic, and osteoporotic humerus FE models were created. Read More

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Distinct Phenotypes Induced by Different Degrees of Transverse Aortic Constriction in C57BL/6N Mice.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 22;8:641272. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital South Campus, Shanghai, China.

The transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model surgery is a widely used disease model to study pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mice. The severity of adverse cardiac remodeling of the TAC model is largely dependent on the degree of constriction around the aorta, and the phenotypes of TAC are also different in different mouse strains. Few studies focus on directly comparing phenotypes of the TAC model with different degrees of constriction around the aorta, and no study compares the difference in C57BL/6N mice. Read More

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The Cell Origin and Role of Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoblastogenesis in Vascular Calcification.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 23;8:639740. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

Arterial calcification refers to the abnormal deposition of calcium salts in the arterial wall, which results in vessel lumen stenosis and vascular remodeling. Studies increasingly show that arterial calcification is a cell mediated, reversible and active regulated process similar to physiological bone mineralization. The osteoblasts and chondrocytes-like cells are present in large numbers in the calcified lesions, and express osteogenic transcription factor and bone matrix proteins that are known to initiate and promote arterial calcification. Read More

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Pharmacological Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-asthmatic Effects of Modified Guomin Decoction Determined by Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 22;8:644561. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of TCM, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by Th2-predominant inflammation and airway remodeling. Modified Guo Min decoction (MGMD) has been an extensive practical strategy for allergic disorders in China. Although its potential anti-asthmatic activity has been reported, the exact mechanism of action of MGMD in asthma remains unexplored. Read More

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Epigenetic Regulation of Cardiac Neural Crest Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:678954. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Genetics, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States.

The cardiac neural crest cells (cNCCs) is a transient, migratory cell population that contribute to the formation of major arteries and the septa and valves of the heart. Abnormal development of cNCCs leads to a spectrum of congenital heart defects that mainly affect the outflow region of the hearts. Signaling molecules and transcription factors are the best studied regulatory events controlling cNCC development. Read More

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Extracellular Matrix: Emerging Roles and Potential Therapeutic Targets for Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:650453. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Increasing evidence shows that the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important regulator of breast cancer (BC). The ECM comprises of highly variable and dynamic components. Compared with normal breast tissue under homeostasis, the ECM undergoes many changes in composition and organization during BC progression. Read More

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Fisetin Alleviates Neointimal Hyperplasia via PPAR/PON2 Antioxidative Pathway in SHR Rat Artery Injury Model.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 21;2021:6625517. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Medical and Healthcare Center, Hainan General Hospital/Hainan Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan 570311, China.

The phenotypic transformation of proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from media to intima is the basic pathology of neointimal hyperplasia after angioplasty in hypertensive patients. Angiotensin II (AngII) stimulates oxidative stress in VSMC, inducing VSMC proliferation and migration, which is a critical factor in both developments of hypertension and angioplasty-induced arterial restenosis. Fisetin, a plant flavonoid polyphenol, has been reported to be antioxidative and potent senolytic. Read More

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Microarray analysis of the time-dependent expression profiles of long non-coding RNAs in the progression of vein graft stenotic disease.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 15;21(6):635. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China.

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be involved in various biological processes, including cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the expression profiles of lncRNAs in patients with vein graft restenosis remain unknown. In the present study, the time-dependent expression profiles of genes in vein bypass grafting models were examined by microarray analysis. Read More

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Meiosis Progression and Recombination in Holocentric Plants: What Is Known?

Front Plant Sci 2021 22;12:658296. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Chromosome Biology, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Germany.

Differently from the common monocentric organization of eukaryotic chromosomes, the so-called holocentric chromosomes present many centromeric regions along their length. This chromosomal organization can be found in animal and plant lineages, whose distribution suggests that it has evolved independently several times. Holocentric chromosomes present an advantage: even broken chromosome parts can be correctly segregated upon cell division. Read More

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