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Vaccination rates and adherence in pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in mature born infants before and after vaccination schedule change - A claims database analysis.

Vaccine 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Pfizer Deutschland GmbH, Linkstraße 10, 10785 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: In August 2015, the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) changed the pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) schedule for mature infants from a 3+1 scheme to a 2+1 scheme. It was expected that a reduction of doses would be associated with a higher acceptance of the vaccination. Aim of this study was to assess vaccination rates and adherence for PCV after the change of recommendation based on real-world data. Read More

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Death rates in the U.S. due to Leukodystrophies with pediatric forms.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Population Health Observatory, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

To use national mortality and state death certificate records to estimate disease specific mortality rates among pediatric and adult populations for 23 leukodystrophies (LDs) with pediatric forms. Additionally, to calculate yearly prevalence and caseload of the most severe LD cases that will eventually result in pediatric death (i.e. Read More

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Short-term trajectories of restricted and repetitive behaviors in minimally verbal children with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Very little is known about the 30% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who remain minimally verbal when they enter school. Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are well-characterized in younger, preschool, and toddler samples. However, the prevalence and impact of RRBs has not been characterized in older, minimally verbal children. Read More

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Health care costs of rheumatoid arthritis: A longitudinal population study.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251334. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Quantifying the contribution of rheumatoid arthritis to the acquisition of subsequent health care costs is an emerging focus of the rheumatologic community and payers of health care. Our objective was to determine the healthcare costs before and after diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the public payer's perspective. The study design was a longitudinal observational administrative data-based cohort with RA cases from Ontario Canada (n = 104,933) and two control groups, matched 1:1 on year of cohort entry from 2001 to 2016. Read More

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Upregulation of Glutamatergic Receptors in Hippocampus and Locomotor Hyperactivity in Aged Spontaneous Hypertensive Rat.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU), Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Epidemiologic studies have indicated that chronic hypertension may facilitate the progression of abnormal behavior, such as emotional irritability, hyperactivity, and attention impairment. However, the mechanism of how chronic hypertension affects the brain and neuronal function remains unclear. In this study, 58-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) control rats were used. Read More

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Phylogroup stability contrasts with high within sequence type complex dynamics of Escherichia coli bloodstream infection isolates over a 12-year period.

Genome Med 2021 May 5;13(1):77. Epub 2021 May 5.

Université de Paris, IAME, UMR 1137, INSERM, F-75018, Paris, France.

Background: Escherichia coli is the leading cause of bloodstream infections, associated with a significant mortality. Recent genomic analyses revealed that few clonal lineages are involved in bloodstream infections and captured the emergence of some of them. However, data on within sequence type (ST) population genetic structure evolution are rare. Read More

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Spatial scaling of plant and bird diversity from 50 to 10,000 ha in a lowland tropical rainforest.

Oecologia 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Biology Centre, Institute of Entomology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 1760, 370 05, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic.

While there are numerous studies of diversity patterns both within local communities and at regional scales, the intermediate scale of tens to thousands of km is often neglected. Here we present detailed local data on plant communities (using 20 × 20 m plots) and bird communities (using point counts) for a 50 ha ForestGEO plot in lowland rainforest at Wanang, Papua New Guinea. We compare these local diversity patterns with those documented in the surrounding 10,000 ha of lowland rainforest. Read More

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Diversification of Academic Surgery, Its Leadership, and the Importance of Intersectionality.

JAMA Surg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond.

Importance: Diversity in academic surgery is lacking, particularly among positions of leadership.

Objective: To evaluate trends among racial/ethnical minority groups stratified by gender along the surgical pipeline, as well as in surgical leadership.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis assessed US surgical faculty census data obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges faculty roster in the Faculty Administrative Management Online User System database. Read More

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Rapamycin administration during an acute heat stress challenge in growing pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, USA.

Study objectives were to determine the effects of rapamycin (Rapa) on biomarkers of metabolism and inflammation during acute heat stress (HS) in growing pigs. Crossbred barrows (n = 32; 63.5 ± 7. Read More

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Evaluation of the analytical performance of the PC100 platelet counter.

Thromb J 2021 May 4;19(1):29. Epub 2021 May 4.

Departments of Internal Medicine and Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Universiteitssingel 50, Maastricht, 6229 ER, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Platelet count can be altered in various diseases and treatments and measuring it may provide better insight into the expected outcome. So far, quantification of platelet count is done within laboratory conditions by using established hematology analyzers, whereas a point-of-care device could be used for this purpose outside of the clinical laboratories.

Aim: Our aim was to assess the closeness of agreement between a newly developed point-of-care PC100 platelet counter and two reference methods (Sysmex® XP-300, Sysmex® XN-9000) in measuring platelet counts in whole blood and platelet-rich-plasma (PRP). Read More

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Biological Cloth Face Coverings-The Reduction of SARS-CoV-2 and Influenza (H1N1) Infectivity by Viruferrin™ Treatment.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1656 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 53706, USA.

In an attempt to create novel methods to reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses, fabric material was treated with Viruferrin™ and tested for its inactivating properties against the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A viruses. Inactivating properties were evaluated by comparing Viruferrin-treated and cotton control fabric material with and without the application of saliva at various time points after virus exposure. A statistically significant ( < 0. Read More

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Effect of COVID-19 pandemic decisions on tertiary-level surgical services in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2020 12 14;111(2):120-123. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Discipline of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of restrictive policies on theatre procedures, with profound impacts on service delivery and theatre output.

Objectives: To quantify these effects at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

Methods: A retrospective review of morbidity and mortality data was conducted. Read More

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December 2020

The use of health care during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: repeated cross-sectional survey of the adult Swiss general population.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 3;21(1):853. Epub 2021 May 3.

Centre for Primary Health Care, University of Basel, Kantonsspital Baselland, Rheinstrasse 26, 4410, Liestal, Switzerland.

Background: The distribution of health care resources during a pandemic is challenging. The aim of the study was to describe the use of health care in a representative sample of the Swiss population during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in 2020, and to compare it to data from a survey conducted in 2018.

Methods: We conducted an observational, population-based, nationwide, repeated cross-sectional survey of the adult Swiss general population in 2018 and in March and April 2020 during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Read More

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Mobilized Peripheral Blood Stem Cells are Pluripotent and Can be Safely Harvested and Stored for Cartilage Repair.

Arthroscopy 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Kuala Lumpur Sports Medicine Centre, 47, Jalan Dungun, Bukit Damansara Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to reproduce and validate the harvest, processing and storage of peripheral blood stem cells for a subsequent cartilage repair trial, evaluating safety, reliability, and potential to produce viable, sterile stem cells.

Methods: Ten healthy subjects (aged 19-44 years) received three consecutive daily doses of filgrastim followed by an apheresis harvest of mononuclear cells on a fourth day. In a clean room, the apheresis product was prepared for cryopreservation and processed into 4mL aliquots. Read More

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Motility Profile of Captive-Bred Marmosets Revealed by a Long-Term In-Cage Monitoring System.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 15;15:645308. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.

A quantitative evaluation of motility is crucial for studies employing experimental animals. Here, we describe the development of an in-cage motility monitoring method for new world monkeys using off-the-shelf components, and demonstrate its capability for long-term operation (e.g. Read More

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A centrifugation-based clearing method allows high-throughput acidification and growth-rate measurements in milk.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

TI Food and Nutrition, 6709 PA, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Systems Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Health Department, NIZO Food Research, 6718 ZB, Ede, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The turbidity of milk prohibits the use of optical density measurements for strain characterizations. This often limits research to laboratory media. Here, we cleared milk through centrifugation to remove insoluble milk solids. Read More

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Posterior vertebral column resection as a safe procedure leading to solid bone fusion in metastatic epidural spinal cord compression.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 May;50(5):E8

1Division of Spine Surgery, Department of Trauma and Orthopedic Surgery, and.

Objective: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and greatly decreases a patient's quality of life. Vertebral metastases often lead to epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) requiring surgical therapy. It has previously been shown that in patients with metastatic ESCC (MESCC), a surgical intervention leads to an improved outcome. Read More

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Computational Amperometry of Nanoscale Capacitors in Molecular Simulations.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 30:4357-4361. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Physico-chimie des Electrolytes et Nanosystèmes Interfaciaux, PHENIX, F-75005 Paris, France.

In recent years, constant applied potential molecular dynamics has allowed researchers to study the structure and dynamics of the electrochemical double-layer of a large variety of nanoscale capacitors. Nevertheless, it has remained impossible to simulate polarized electrodes at fixed total charge. Here, we show that combining a constant potential electrode with a finite electric displacement fills this gap by allowing us to simulate open-circuit conditions. Read More

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The effects of examiner fatigue on the diagnostic accuracy of dental radiographs.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Mund, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie - plastische Operationen, Augustusplatz 2, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to find out whether and to what extent the performance of dentists regarding diagnostic evaluation of dental radiographs is influenced by symptoms of fatigue.

Materials And Methods: Over a period of 40 minutes, 21 dentists evaluated a database of 96 randomly selected, infinitely repeating intraoral dental radiographs for the presence of periapical radiolucencies. Both before and after, participants were asked to assess their subjective fatigue using the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory (SOFI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Read More

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Evaluation of Thyroid Function in Pregnant Women Using Automated Immunoassays.

Clin Chem 2021 Apr;67(5):772-780

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Health System, Lebanon, NH, USA.

Introduction: Automated free thyroxine (FT4) immunoassays are widely available, but professional guidelines discourage their use in pregnant women due to theoretical under-recoveries attributed to increased thyroid hormone binding capacity and instead advocate the use of total T4 (TT4) or free thyroxine index (FTI). The impact of this recommendation on the classification of thyroid status in apparently euthyroid pregnant patients was evaluated.

Methods: After excluding specimens with thyroid autoantibody concentrations above reference limits, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), FT4, TT4, and T-uptake were measured on the Roche Cobas® platform in remnant clinical specimens from at least 147 nonpregnant women of childbearing age and pregnant women at each trimester. Read More

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Genome-wide gene expression changes of Pseudomonas veronii 1YdBTEX2 during bioaugmentation in polluted soils.

Environ Microbiome 2021 Apr 29;16(1). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Fundamental Microbiology, University of Lausanne, 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Bioaugmentation aims to use the capacities of specific bacterial strains inoculated into sites to enhance pollutant biodegradation. Bioaugmentation results have been mixed, which has been attributed to poor inoculant growth and survival in the field, and, consequently, moderate catalytic performance. However, our understanding of biodegradation activity mostly comes from experiments conducted under laboratory conditions, and the processes occurring during adaptation and invasion of inoculants into complex environmental microbiomes remain poorly known. Read More

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Estradiol Priming Potentiates the Kisspeptin-Induced Release of LH in Ovariectomized Cows.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508-270, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The present study examined whether priming with estradiol benzoate (EB) for 12 h increased both the peak and duration of LH release in response to kisspeptin (KISS1, KP) in cows. In a Latin square design, ovariectomized Nelore cows ( = 8) received: Control, i.m. Read More

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Influence of Active and Healthy Ageing on Quality of Life Changes: Insights from the Comparison of Three European Countries.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 14;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Health Service Research Network on Chronic Diseases (REDISSEC), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

This study aimed to analyze the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in older people in three European countries (Portugal, Spain and Sweden). A sample of 7589 participants in waves 4 (2011) and 6 (2015) of the Survey on Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) project, aged 50 and over and living in Portugal, Spain and Sweden, was included. The CASP-12 scale was used to measure QoL. Read More

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Acute Responses to Oxygen Delivery via High Flow Nasal Cannula in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-HFNC and Severe COPD.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 21;10(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, NE4 208, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Differences in oxygen delivery methods to treat hypoxemia have the potential to worsen CO retention in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Oxygen administration using high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) has multiple physiological benefits in treating respiratory failure including reductions in PaCO in a flow-dependent manner. We hypothesized that patients with COPD would develop worsening hypercapnia if oxygen fraction was increased without increasing flow rate. Read More

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Steve Oroszlan: A Personal Perspective.

Authors:
Raymond Gilden

Viruses 2021 04 5;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

5802 Meadow Drive, Frederick, MD 21702, USA.

My memories of Steve go back over 50 years. While precise dates are no longer in my memory bank, circumstances and emotions remain alive and easy to recall. These memories tell the story of a remarkable human being, a true practitioner of his craft always, faithful to the basic principles of scientific pursuit, with integrity, honesty, and enthusiasm well beyond the norm. Read More

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Properties of Surface Heating Textile for Functional Warm Clothing Based on a Composite Heating Element with a Positive Temperature Coefficient.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Fashion Industry, Incheon University, Incheon 22012, Korea.

A high-stretch positive temperature coefficient (PTC) surface heating textile (PTC-SHT) was fabricated using a composite of PTC powder and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The PTC-SHT (heating area = 100 × 100 mm) was produced by screen-printing the PTC-MWCNT composite paste onto a high-stretch textile with embroidered electrodes. Overall, the temperature increased to 56. Read More

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Patch-Clamp Recordings of Action Potentials From Human Atrial Myocytes: Optimization Through Dynamic Clamp.

Front Pharmacol 2021 12;12:649414. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Biology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Consequently, novel therapies are being developed. Ultimately, the impact of compounds on the action potential (AP) needs to be tested in freshly isolated human atrial myocytes. Read More

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Inflammatory Markers May Inform the Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Cognition in Patients with Depression.

Neuropsychobiology 2021 Apr 28:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Psychiatry, University Psychiatric Center Duffel, Duffel, Belgium.

Introduction: The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the acute cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remain poorly understood. Prior research has shown that proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL-10 may interfere with cognitive functioning. Interestingly, immunomodulation is one of the proposed modes of action of ECT. Read More

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Characterization of thermoluminescence kinetic parameters of beta irradiated B doped Ca(PO)OH powder obtained from eggshell.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Apr 22;173:109738. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Physics Department, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142, Jazan, Saudi Arabia; Department of Physics, Manisa Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Muradiye-Manisa, 45010, Turkey. Electronic address:

In this study, we have synthesized B doped Ca5(PO4)3OH (HAP) by a sonication chemical method. The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the family of synthesized samples (B doped Ca5(PO4)3OH (HAP) were investigated using an IRSL-TL 565 nm filter. This gave the highest TL intensity of each phosphor after 2 Gy β-irradiation. Read More

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Spatial proximity of proteins surrounding zyxin under force-bearing conditions.

Mol Biol Cell 2021 Apr 28:mbcE19100568. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Biomedical Engineering Department, University of California Davis.

Sensing physical forces is a critical first-step in mechano-transduction of cells. Zyxin, a LIM domain-containing protein, is recruited to force-bearing actin filaments and is thought to repair and strengthen them. Yet, the precise force-induced protein interactions surrounding zyxin remain unclear. Read More

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