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Label-free proteomics of spermatozoa identifies candidate protein markers of idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss.

Reprod Biol 2021 Jul 27;21(3):100539. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biophysics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India. Electronic address:

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects a large number of couples worldwide, increasing their mental and financial burdens. While female factors that contribute to RPL have been studied extensively, the role of male factors is largely unknown, and approximately 40 % RPL cases remain unexplained despite thorough clinical examinations. These cases are clinically termed as idiopathic RPL (iRPL). Read More

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Morphofunctional programming of microglia requires distinct roles of type II myosins.

Glia 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (I3S), Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The ramified morphology of microglia and the dynamics of their membrane protrusions are essential for their functions in central nervous system development, homeostasis, and disease. Although their ability to change and control shape critically depends on the actin and actomyosin cytoskeleton, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we systematically analyzed the actomyosin cytoskeleton and regulators downstream of the small GTPase RhoA in the control of microglia shape and function. Read More

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Multiple neuronal networks coordinate mechanosensory behavior.

Elife 2021 Jul 30;10. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, United States.

is an emerging model organism for neuroscience due to its small size, transparency, genetic tractability, and regenerative nervous system; however, fundamental properties of its sensorimotor behaviors remain unknown. Here, we use microfluidic devices combined with fluorescent calcium imaging and surgical resectioning to study how the diffuse nervous system coordinates 's mechanosensory response. Mechanical stimuli cause animals to contract, and we find this response relies on at least two distinct networks of neurons in the oral and aboral regions of the animal. Read More

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Mechanistic Pathways for the Molecular Step Growth of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystal Revealed by In Situ Liquid-Phase Atomic Force Microscopy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, United States.

Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal is the most common crystalline component of human kidney stones. The molecular-scale inhibitory mechanisms of COM crystal growth by urinary biomolecules such as citrate and osteopontin adsorbed onto the crystal surface are now well understood. However, the pathways by which dissolved calcium and oxalate ions are incorporated into the molecular step of the COM crystal surface, leading to COM crystal growth-a prerequisite to be elucidated for developing effective therapeutics to inhibit COM stones-remain unknown. Read More

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Impact of indoor temperature instability on diurnal and day-by-day variability of home blood pressure in winter: a nationwide Smart Wellness Housing survey in Japan.

Hypertens Res 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute for Building Environment and Energy Conservation, Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Home blood pressure (HBP) variability is an important factor for cardiovascular events. While several studies have examined the effects of individual attributes and lifestyle factors on reducing HBP variability, the effects of living environment remain unknown. We hypothesized that a stable home thermal environment contributes to reducing HBP variability. Read More

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Intranasal insulin rescues repeated anesthesia-induced deficits in synaptic plasticity and memory and prevents apoptosis in neonatal mice via mTORC1.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15490. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Anesthesia and Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Long-lasting cognitive impairment in juveniles undergoing repeated general anesthesia has been observed in numerous preclinical and clinical studies, yet, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown and no preventive treatment is available. We found that daily intranasal insulin administration to juvenile mice for 7 days prior to repeated isoflurane anesthesia rescues deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory and synaptic plasticity in adulthood. Moreover, intranasal insulin prevented anesthesia-induced apoptosis of hippocampal cells, which is thought to underlie cognitive impairment. Read More

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From receptive to perceptive fields: Size-dependent asymmetries in both negative afterimages and subcortical ON and OFF post-stimulus responses.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Neuroscience, the Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China

Negative afterimages are perceptual phenomena that occur after physical stimuli disappear from sight. Their origin is linked to transient post-stimulus responses of visual neurons. The receptive fields (RFs) of these subcortical ON- and OFF-center neurons exhibit antagonistic interactions between central and surrounding visual space, resulting in selectivity for stimulus polarity and size. Read More

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The Challenges and Pitfalls of Detecting Sleep Hypopnea Using a Wearable Optical Sensor: Comparative Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 29;23(7):e24171. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Center for Sleep Medicine, Sleep Research and Epileptology, Barmelweid, Switzerland.

Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most prevalent respiratory sleep disorder occurring in 9% to 38% of the general population. About 90% of patients with suspected OSA remain undiagnosed due to the lack of sleep laboratories or specialists and the high cost of gold-standard in-lab polysomnography diagnosis, leading to a decreased quality of life and increased health care burden in cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. Wearable sleep trackers like smartwatches and armbands are booming, creating a hope for cost-efficient at-home OSA diagnosis and assessment of treatment (eg, continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] therapy) effectiveness. Read More

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Interplay of Val66Met and BDNF methylation: effect on reward learning and cognitive performance in major depression.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Jul 29;13(1):149. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Kapucijnenvoer 35, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: There is a growing interest in the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in major depressive disorder (MDD). BDNF potentially exhibits opposite effects in the pathways linked to anhedonia and reward learning on the one hand and cognitive performance, on the other hand. However, the epigenetic mechanisms behind this remain unknown. Read More

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Circular RNA circIKBKB promotes breast cancer bone metastasis through sustaining NF-κB/bone remodeling factors signaling.

Mol Cancer 2021 Jul 29;20(1):98. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Program of Cancer Research, Key Laboratory of Protein Modification and Degradation and Guangzhou Institute of Oncology, Affiliated Guangzhou Women and Children's Hospital, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510623, China.

Background: Breast cancer (BC) has a marked tendency to spread to the bone, resulting in significant skeletal complications and mortality. Recently, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been reported to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. However, the function and mechanism of circRNAs in BC bone metastasis (BC-BM) remain largely unknown. Read More

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Hemophagocytic Syndrome in a Pregnant Renal Transplant Recipient Associated With Cytomegalovirus Infection.

Exp Clin Transplant 2021 Jul;19(7):739-743

From the Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation, Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital of Monastir, Tunisia.

Hemophagocytic syndrome is a disorder of the mononuclear phagocytic system resulting in uncontrolled hemophagocytosis and cytokine overproduction. We report the first case of hemophagocytic syndrome, which occurred in a pregnantfemale patient 14 years after kidney transplant who displayed an atypical presentation and who had septic shock following cytomegalovirus infection. The patient, a-39-year-old woman at 27 weeks gestation with end-stage renal disease of unknown etiology, was admitted 14 years after living-donor kidney transplant (donor was her father) with high-grade fever, cough, and pancytopenia. Read More

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COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in adults with multiple sclerosis in the United States: A follow up survey during the initial vaccine rollout in 2021.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 22;54:103163. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States; Department of Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) organizations have recommended that adults with MS obtain the COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccine hesitancy is a barrier to full COVID-19 inoculation in the general population. Whether vaccine hesitancy is also a barrier towards optimizing vaccination rates in the MS community is unknown. Read More

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The role of depression and anxiety in the relationship between poor sleep quality and subjective cognitive decline in Chinese elderly: Exploring parallel, serial, and moderated mediation.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 19;294:464-471. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Guangdong Mental Health Center, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: Poor sleep quality exacerbates subjective cognitive decline (SCD). Mental health may play an important role in the relationship, but the potential underlying mechanisms remain unknown.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on older adult residents in Guangdong province, south China from November 2020 to March 2021. Read More

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Genetic mapping of renal glutathione suggests a novel regulatory locus on the murine X chromosome and overlap with hepatic glutathione regulation.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Georgia, 305 Sanford Drive, Athens, GA, 30602, USA. Electronic address:

Glutathione (GSH) is a critical cellular antioxidant that protects against byproducts of aerobic metabolism and other reactive electrophiles to prevent oxidative stress and cell death. Proper maintenance of its reduced form, GSH, in excess of its oxidized form, GSSG, prevents oxidative stress in the kidney and protects against the development of chronic kidney disease. Evidence has indicated that renal concentrations of GSH and GSSG, as well as their ratio GSH/GSSG, are moderately heritable, and past research has identified polymorphisms and candidate genes associated with these phenotypes in mice. Read More

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Long-term administration of low-dose selenium nanoparticles with different sizes aggravated atherosclerotic lesions and exhibited toxicity in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Jul 26:109601. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic Chemistry and Materia Medica, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China; Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry for Energy Conversion and Storage, Ministry of Education, Wuhan, 430074, China. Electronic address:

Exploration of long-term in vivo effects of nanomaterials, particularly those with potential biomedical applications, is quite important for better understanding and evaluating their biosafety. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) has been considered as a good candidate in biomedical applications due to its high bioavailability, considerable biological activity, and low toxicity. However, its long-term biological effects and biosafety remain unknown. Read More

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The Impact of Radiotherapy Delay in Breast Conservation Patients Not Receiving Chemotherapy and the Rationale for Dichotomizing the Radiation Oncology Time-Dependent Standard into Two Quality Measures.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

The Data Working Group of the National Accreditation Program for Breast Centers, Chicago, IL, USA.

Introduction: The Commission on Cancer/National Quality Forum breast radiotherapy quality measure establishes that for women < 70 years, adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery (BCS) should be started < 1 year from diagnosis. This was intended to prevent accidental radiotherapy omission or delay due to a long interval between surgery and chemotherapy completion, when radiation is delivered. However, the impact on patients not receiving chemotherapy, who proceed from surgery directly to radiotherapy, remains unknown. Read More

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Satellite-detected ammonia changes in the United States: Natural or anthropogenic impacts.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 25;789:147899. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Samuel Ginn College of Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

Ammonia (NH) is the most abundant alkaline component and can react with atmospheric acidic species to form aerosols that can lead to numerous environmental and health issues. Increasing atmospheric NH over agricultural regions in the US has been documented. However, spatiotemporal changes of NH concentrations over the entire US are still not thoroughly understood, and the factors that drive these changes remain unknown. Read More

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Bioaccumulation of current-use herbicides in fish from a global biodiversity hotspot: Lake St Lucia, South Africa.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 2;284:131407. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Private Bag 3, WITS, 2050, South Africa. Electronic address:

Agricultural pesticides threaten aquatic systems and biodiversity at a global scale, but limited information is available on the accumulation of current-use herbicides in tissues of aquatic organisms. Here, we examine the potential exposure and accumulation of currently used herbicides in two species of fish from Lake St Lucia, a global biodiversity hotspot located in South Africa. Muscle tissue samples were analysed for 11 widely used multi-residue and phenoxy-acid herbicides. Read More

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Of bars and stripes: a Malawi cichlid hybrid cross provides insights into genetic modularity and evolution of modifier loci underlying color pattern diversification.

Mol Ecol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Understanding the origins of phenotypic diversity among closely related species remains an important largely unsolved question in evolutionary biology. With over 800 species, Lake Malawi haplochromine cichlid fishes are a prominent example of extremely fast evolution of diversity including variation in coloration. Previously, a single major effect gene, agrp2 (asip2b), has been linked to evolutionary losses and gains of horizontal stripe patterns in cichlids, but it remains unknown what causes more fine-scale variation in the number and continuity of the stripes. Read More

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Oncological and prognostic analysis of soft tissue sarcoma of the elbow: report using the bone and soft tissue tumor registry in Japan.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Musculoskeletal Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: Soft tissue sarcomas in the elbow are extremely rare, and they have primarily been described in case series. Definitive concerning the prevalence and prognostic factors of elbow soft tissue sarcomas remain unknown. We examined the outcome of patients with elbow soft tissue sarcomas and identified the relevant prognostic factors. Read More

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The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in triage-negative patients and staff of a fertility setting from lockdown release throughout 2020.

Hum Reprod Open 2021 27;2021(3):hoab028. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 'Carol Davila' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Study Question: What is the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in triage-negative patients undergoing ART and fertility care providers after lockdown release and throughout 2020?

Summary Answer: Out of the triage-negative patients whose blood samples were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies over 6 months, 5.2% yielded positive results with a significantly higher rate in health care workers (HCWs) and a significant month-by-month increase in those with evidence of antibodies.

What Is Known Already: Patients of reproductive age are more prone to asymptomatic or minimal forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as compared to older age groups, and the identification of those with active infection and those already exposed (and probably immunized) is important for safety and cost-effective use of testing resources in the fertility setting. Read More

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Circular RNA TAF4B Promotes Bladder Cancer Progression by Sponging miR-1298-5p and Regulating TGFA Expression.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:643362. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Bladder cancer (Bca) is the most common malignant tumor of the urinary system. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been recognized as key regulators in tumorigenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying circRNAs involved in the progression of BCa remain largely unknown. Read More

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Susceptibility to Scams in Older Black and White Adults.

Front Psychol 2021 12;12:685258. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States.

Previous reports on racial differences in scam susceptibility have yielded mixed findings, and few studies have examined reasons for any observed race differences. Older Black and White participants without dementia ( = 592) from the Minority Aging Research Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project who completed a susceptibility to scam questionnaire and other measures were matched according to age, education, sex, and global cognition using Mahalanobis distance. In adjusted models, older Black adults were less susceptible to scams than older White adults (Beta = -0. Read More

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Sphingosine 1-phosphate Stimulates Insulin Secretion and Improves Cell Survival by Blocking Voltage-dependent K Channels in β Cells.

Front Pharmacol 2021 12;12:683674. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pharmacology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Recent studies suggest that Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays an important role in regulating glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. However, its effects and mechanisms of promoting insulin secretion remain largely unknown. Here, we found that S1P treatment decreased blood glucose level and increased insulin secretion in C57BL/6 mice. Read More

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Mechanisms of BRCA1-BARD1 nucleosome recognition and ubiquitylation.

Nature 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The BRCA1-BARD1 tumour suppressor is an E3 ubiquitin ligase necessary for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination. The BRCA1-BARD1 complex localizes to damaged chromatin after DNA replication and catalyses the ubiquitylation of histone H2A and other cellular targets. The molecular bases for the recruitment to double-strand breaks and target recognition of BRCA1-BARD1 remain unknown. Read More

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High frequency and long persistency of ballooning hepatocyte were associated with glucose intolerance in patients with severe obesity.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 28;11(1):15392. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Idaidori, Yahaba-cho, Iwate, 0283694, Japan.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and glucose intolerance are associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with severe obesity; however, whether histological findings of the liver are related to glucose intolerance in these patients remain unknown. Sixty-nine consecutive patients who underwent metabolic surgery between June 2008 and February 2020 were included; histological findings of the liver and laboratory data were analyzed. Twenty patients with biopsy-proven NASH were chronologically evaluated using sequential biopsies; data before metabolic surgery was considered as the baseline. Read More

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Tracking the rising extinction risk of sharks and rays in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 28;11(1):15397. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Earth to Ocean Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada.

The loss of biodiversity is increasingly well understood on land, but trajectories of extinction risk remain largely unknown in the ocean. We present regional Red List Indices (RLIs) to track the extinction risk of 119 Northeast Atlantic and 72 Mediterranean shark and ray species primarily threatened by overfishing. We combine two IUCN workshop assessments from 2003/2005 and 2015 with a retrospective backcast assessment for 1980. Read More

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Neuropeptide modulation increases dendritic electrical spread to restore neuronal activity disrupted by temperature.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Biological Sciences, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790, USA

Peptide neuromodulation has been implicated to shield neuronal activity from acute temperature changes which can otherwise lead to loss of motor control or failure of vital behaviors. However, the cellular actions neuropeptides elicit to support temperature-robust activity remain unknown. Here, we uncover that peptide neuromodulation restores rhythmic bursting in temperature-compromised central pattern generator (CPG) neurons by counteracting membrane shunt and increasing dendritic electrical spread. Read More

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PEITC inhibits the invasion and migration of colorectal cancer cells by blocking TGF-β-induced EMT.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Oct 17;130:110743. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Medicine Oncology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Colorectal and Pelvic Floor Diseases, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510655, China. Electronic address:

Aim: Tumor metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in which epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) plays a vital role. However, the exact mechanisms of this process remain largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) in CRC metastasis by regulating EMT. Read More

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October 2020

Factors affecting job choice among physician anesthesia providers in Uganda: a survey of income composition, discrete choice experiment, and implications for the decision to work rurally.

Hum Resour Health 2021 Jul 28;19(1):93. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Anaesthesia, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: One of the biggest barriers to accessing safe surgical and anesthetic care is lack of trained providers. Uganda has one of the largest deficits in anesthesia providers in the world, and though they are increasing in number, they remain concentrated in the capital city. Salary is an oft-cited barrier to rural job choice, yet the size and sources of anesthesia provider incomes are unclear, and so the potential income loss from taking a rural job is unknown. Read More

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