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The chaperonin CCT8 controls proteostasis essential for T cell maturation, selection, and function.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 3;4(1):681. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Developmental Immunology, MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK.

T cells rely for their development and function on the correct folding and turnover of proteins generated in response to a broad range of molecular cues. In the absence of the eukaryotic type II chaperonin complex, CCT, T cell activation induced changes in the proteome are compromised including the formation of nuclear actin filaments and the formation of a normal cell stress response. Consequently, thymocyte maturation and selection, and T cell homeostatic maintenance and receptor-mediated activation are severely impaired. Read More

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Super determinant1A, a RAWUL domain-containing protein, modulates axillary meristem formation and compound leaf development in tomato.

Plant Cell 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl-von-Linné-Weg 10, D-50931 Cologne, Germany.

Shoot branching and complex leaf development rely on the establishment of boundaries that precedes the formation of axillary meristems and leaflets. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) super determinant mutant is compromised in both processes, due to a mutation in Sde1A. Sde1A encodes a protein with a RAWUL domain, which is also present in Polycomb Group Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) RING finger proteins and WD Repeat Domain 48 proteins. Read More

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Hanging by a thread: unusual nocturnal resting behaviour in a jumping spider.

Front Zool 2021 May 17;18(1):23. Epub 2021 May 17.

John Harvard Distinguished Science Fellows Program, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.

Background: For diurnal animals that heavily rely on vision, a nocturnal resting strategy that offers protection when vision is compromised, is crucial. We found a population of a common European jumping spider (Evarcha arcuata) that rests at night by suspending themselves from a single silk thread attached overhead to the vegetation, a strategy categorically unlike typical retreat-based resting in this group.

Results: In a comprehensive study, we collected the first quantitative field and qualitative observation data of this surprising behaviour and provide a detailed description. Read More

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DIM5/KMT1 controls fungal insect pathogenicity and genome stability by methylation of histone H3K4, H3K9 and H3K36.

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):1306-1322

MOE Laboratory of Biosystems Homeostasis & Protection, Institute of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Mono-, di- and tri-methylation of histone H3 Lys 9, Lys 4, and Lys 36 (H3K_me1/me2/me3) required for mediation of DNA-based cellular events in eukaryotes usually rely upon the activities of histone lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) classified to the KMT1, KMT2, and KMT3 families, respectively. Here, an H3K9-specific DIM5/KMT1 orthologue, which lacks a C-terminal post-SET domain and localizes mainly in nucleus, is reported to have both conserved and noncanonical roles in methylating the H3 core lysines in , an insect-pathogenic fungus serving as a main source of wide-spectrum fungal insecticides. Disruption of led to abolishment of H3K9me3 and marked attenuation of H3K4me1/me2, H3K9me1/me2 and H3K36me2. Read More

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December 2021

Investigation of water bonding status of normal and psoriatic skin in vivo using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 26;11(1):8901. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Photonics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 701, Taiwan, R.O.C..

Psoriasis affects more than 125 million people worldwide, and the diagnosis and treatment efficacy evaluation of the disease mainly rely on clinical assessments that could be subjective. Our previous study showed that the skin erythema level could be quantified using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and the hemoglobin concentration of most psoriatic lesion was higher than that of its adjacent uninvolved skin. While the compromised epidermal barrier function has been taken as the major cause of clinical manifestation of skin dryness and inflammation of psoriasis, very few methods can be used to effectively evaluate this function. Read More

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Susceptibility factor RTP1 negatively regulates Phytophthora parasitica resistance via modulating UPR regulators bZIP60 and bZIP28.

Plant Physiol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a conserved stress adaptive signaling pathway in eukaryotic organisms activated by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). UPR can be elicited in the course of plant defense, playing important roles in plant-microbe interactions. The major signaling pathways of plant UPR rely on the transcriptional activity of activated forms of ER membrane-associated stress sensors bZIP60 and bZIP28, which are transcription factors that modulate expression of UPR genes. Read More

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Detection of arterial pressure waveform error using machine learning trained algorithms.

J Clin Monit Comput 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Anesthesiology, CUB Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

In critically ill and high-risk surgical room patients, an invasive arterial catheter is often inserted to continuously measure arterial pressure (AP). The arterial waveform pressure measurement, however, may be compromised by damping or inappropriate reference placement of the pressure transducer. Clinicians, decision support systems, or closed-loop applications that rely on such information would benefit from the ability to detect error from the waveform alone. Read More

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February 2021

Genomic vulnerability of a dominant seaweed points to future-proofing pathways for Australia's underwater forests.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 16;27(10):2200-2212. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Primary Industries, National Marine Science Centre, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia.

Globally, critical habitats are in decline, threatening ecological, economic and social values and prompting calls for 'future proofing' efforts that enhance resilience to climate change. Such efforts rely on predicting how neutral and adaptive genomic patterns across a species' distribution will change under future climate scenarios, but data is scant for most species of conservation concern. Here, we use seascape genomics to characterise genetic diversity, structure and gene-environmental associations in a dominant forest-forming seaweed, Phyllospora comosa, along its entire latitudinal (12° latitude), and thermal (~14°C) range. Read More

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Prkaa1 Metabolically Regulates Monocyte/Macrophage Recruitment and Viability in Diet-Induced Murine Metabolic Disorders.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 12;8:611354. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Vascular Biology Center, Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, United States.

Myeloid cells, including monocytes/macrophages, primarily rely on glucose and lipid metabolism to provide the energy and metabolites needed for their functions and survival. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, its gene is for human, for rodent) is a key metabolic sensor that regulates many metabolic pathways. We studied recruitment and viability of -deficient myeloid cells in mice and the phenotype of these mice in the context of cardio-metabolic diseases. Read More

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January 2021

Targeted Ptpn11 deletion in mice reveals the essential role of SHP2 in osteoblast differentiation and skeletal homeostasis.

Bone Res 2021 Jan 27;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brown University Alpert Medical School and Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI, 02903, USA.

The maturation and function of osteoblasts (OBs) rely heavily on the reversible phosphorylation of signaling proteins. To date, most of the work in OBs has focused on phosphorylation by tyrosyl kinases, but little has been revealed about dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). SHP2 (encoded by PTPN11) is a ubiquitously expressed PTPase. Read More

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January 2021

Tannic Acid (TA)-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles for EpCAM-Independent Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) Isolation from Patients with Different Cancers.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 14;13(3):3694-3700. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

School of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

The majority of current methods of isolating circulating tumor cells (CTCs) rely on a biomarker. However, the isolation efficiency may be compromised due to the heterogeneity of CTCs. In this work, a simple and broad-spectrum method is established to efficiently isolate the heterogeneous CTCs from patient blood samples using tannic acid (TA)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Read More

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January 2021

Fundamental Insights into Graphene Strain Sensing.

Nano Lett 2021 Jan 29;21(1):833-839. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

National Graphene Institute/Department of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom.

Graphene has been studied extensively for use in flexible electronics as ultrasensitive and wide-area strain sensors. Many sensors demonstrated so far rely on graphene networks, such that the spatial resolution is compromised, and they are unable to measure strain variations on a fine scale such as those resulting from substrate/interface failure. In this study, mono-/few-layer graphene are demonstrated to be good candidates for strain sensing with high spatial resolution to evaluate features <100 nm. Read More

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January 2021

Intraperitoneal microdialysis detects intestinal leakage earlier than hemodynamic surveillance and systemic inflammation in a pig model.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Feb 28;56(2):219-227. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Division of Emergencies and Intensive Care, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: Anastomotic leakage is a common complication following large abdominal surgery, often developing to life-threatening abdominal sepsis due to late diagnosis. Currently, diagnostics rely on systemic hemodynamic and infection monitoring. We hypothesized that intraperitoneal microdialysis allows detection of peritonitis prior to changes in standard clinical parameters in a pig model. Read More

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February 2021

Pregnancy in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020 11 21;2(4):100237. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Division of Pediatric Pulmonology and Sleep Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome is a rare genetic disorder of autonomic regulation of breathing resulting from mutations in the paired-like homeobox gene. Individuals with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome demonstrate an absent or diminished physiological response to hypercapnia and hypoxia that is most severe during sleep and depend on mechanical ventilation to maintain normal gas exchange. Increased disease awareness and availability of paired-like homeobox gene testing has improved congenital central hypoventilation syndrome morbidity and mortality, and patients are now living into adulthood. Read More

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November 2020

Fully automatic wound segmentation with deep convolutional neural networks.

Sci Rep 2020 12 14;10(1):21897. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Big Data Analytics and Visualization Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Acute and chronic wounds have varying etiologies and are an economic burden to healthcare systems around the world. The advanced wound care market is expected to exceed $22 billion by 2024. Wound care professionals rely heavily on images and image documentation for proper diagnosis and treatment. Read More

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December 2020

An Infrastructure-Free Magnetic-Based Indoor Positioning System with Deep Learning.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 20;20(22). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Associação Fraunhofer Portugal Research, Rua Alfredo Allen 455/461, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal.

Infrastructure-free Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) are becoming popular due to their scalability and a wide range of applications. Such systems often rely on deployed Wi-Fi networks. However, their usability may be compromised, either due to scanning restrictions from recent Android versions or the proliferation of 5G technology. Read More

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November 2020

Pattern-triggered immunity restricts host colonization by endophytic fusaria, but does not affect endophyte-mediated resistance.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 02 18;22(2):204-215. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Molecular Plant Pathology, Faculty of Science, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) is best known as a host-specific vascular pathogen causing major crop losses. Most Fo strains, however, are root endophytes potentially conferring endophyte-mediated resistance (EMR). EMR is a mechanistically poorly understood root-specific induced resistance response induced by endophytic or nonhost pathogenic Fo strains. Read More

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February 2021

Autologous tendon graft for non-union distal clavicle fracture in a patient with chronic kidney disease.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 28;77:116-121. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

Background: Fracture of distal-end accounts for 20% of all clavicle fracture. In the situation of impaired bone healing environment such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), nonunion rates after surgery might increase. In the case where bone healing is unexpected, biological healing with tendon graft could be an alternative method to maintain bone reduction. Read More

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October 2020

Neuronal Autophagy Regulates Presynaptic Neurotransmission by Controlling the Axonal Endoplasmic Reticulum.

Neuron 2021 01 5;109(2):299-313.e9. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Leibniz-Forschungsinstitut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP), 13125 Berlin, Germany; Freie Universität Berlin, Faculty of Biology, Chemistry, and Pharmacy, 14195 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Neurons are known to rely on autophagy for removal of defective proteins or organelles to maintain synaptic neurotransmission and counteract neurodegeneration. In spite of its importance for neuronal health, the physiological substrates of neuronal autophagy in the absence of proteotoxic challenge have remained largely elusive. We use knockout mice conditionally lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG5 and quantitative proteomics to demonstrate that loss of neuronal autophagy causes selective accumulation of tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in axons, resulting in increased excitatory neurotransmission and compromised postnatal viability in vivo. Read More

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January 2021

Engineered Heart Muscle Models in Phenotypic Drug Screens.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021 ;265:143-156

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Medical Center, Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany.

Classical drug development is compromised by considerable clinical failure of promising drug candidates after decades of costly preclinical work. Failure can be because of previously unrecognized safety concerns or more commonly lack of clinical efficacy. Classical drug discovery and safety pharmacology programs rely heavily on well-established in vitro and preclinical animal models. Read More

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Human Performance Consequences of Automated Decision Aids: The Impact of Time Pressure.

Hum Factors 2020 Oct 28:18720820965019. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

26524 Technische Universität Berlin, Germany.

Objective: The study addresses the impact of time pressure on human interactions with automated decision support systems (DSSs) and related performance consequences.

Background: When humans interact with DSSs, this often results in worse performance than could be expected from the automation alone. Previous research has suggested that time pressure might make a difference by leading humans to rely more on a DSS. Read More

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October 2020

Visuospatial short-term and working memory disturbance in the primary progressive aphasias: Neuroanatomical and clinical implications.

Cortex 2020 11 8;132:223-237. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

The University of Sydney, School of Psychology, Sydney, Australia; The University of Sydney, Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) comprises three main variants: logopenic (lv-PPA), non-fluent (nfv-PPA) and semantic variant (sv-PPA). Differentiating the language profiles of the PPA variants remains challenging, especially for lv-PPA and nfv-PPA. As such, diagnostic tools that do not rely on speech and language may offer some utility. Read More

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November 2020

Effect of endodontic treatment on periodontal healing of grade 3 endo-periodontal lesions without root damage in periodontally compromised patients-a retrospective pilot study.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Apr 19;25(4):2373-2380. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Section of Periodontology, Clinic for Conservative Dentistry, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Objectives: There is little evidence about the effect of different treatment protocols for grade 3 endo-periodontal lesions without root damage in patients with periodontitis according to the new classification of periodontal disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of endodontic treatment on the achievement of periodontal healing.

Materials And Methods: Teeth with the initial diagnosis endo-periodontal lesion without root damage grade 3, treated with a standardized endodontic treatment protocol, were included in this study. Read More

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Aberrant and constitutive expression of FOXL2 impairs ovarian development and functions in mice.

Biol Reprod 2020 10;103(5):966-977

Reproductive and Developmental Biology Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

Development and functions of the ovary rely on appropriate signaling and communication between various ovarian cell types. FOXL2, a transcription factor that plays a key role at different stages of ovarian development, is associated with primary ovarian insufficiency and ovarian cancer as a result of its loss-of-function or mutations. In this study, we investigated the impact of aberrant, constitutive expression of FOXL2 in somatic cells of the ovary. Read More

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October 2020

Evaluating insecticide resistance across African districts to aid malaria control decisions.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 25;117(36):22042-22050. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, United Kingdom;

Malaria vector control may be compromised by resistance to insecticides in vector populations. Actions to mitigate against resistance rely on surveillance using standard susceptibility tests, but there are large gaps in the monitoring data across Africa. Using a published geostatistical ensemble model, we have generated maps that bridge these gaps and consider the likelihood that resistance exceeds recommended thresholds. Read More

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September 2020

Computational models of drug use and addiction: A review.

J Abnorm Psychol 2020 Aug;129(6):544-555

Clinical and Affective Neuroscience Lab, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University.

In this brief review, we describe current computational models of drug-use and addiction that fall into 2 broad categories: mathematically based models that rely on computational theories, and brain-based models that link computations to brain areas or circuits. Across categories, many are models of learning and decision-making, which may be compromised in addiction. Several mathematical models take predictive coding approaches, focusing on Bayesian prediction error. Read More

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Access to Migraine Treatments in Ontario, Canada: A Review of the Ontario Drug Benefit Program.

Authors:
Susan Cape

Headache 2020 Oct 5;60(9):1888-1900. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

School of Social Work, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: This paper provides a critical review of the decision-making process of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MOHLTC) regarding which migraine treatment drugs will be covered under the Ontario Drug Benefit Formulary (ODB).

Main Text: Under MOHLTC policy, triptans and OnabotulinumtoxinA are available to patients only through the Exceptional Access Program (EAP). This policy, and justifications for it, are examined with reference to clinical guidelines, patient experiences, and health policy literature. Read More

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October 2020

Location-Aware and Regularization-Adaptive Correlation Filters for Robust Visual Tracking.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 2;32(6):2430-2442. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Correlation filter (CF) has recently been widely used for visual tracking. The estimation of the search window and the filter-learning strategies is the key component of the CF trackers. Nevertheless, prevalent CF models separately address these issues in heuristic manners. Read More

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Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Impairment in Metastatic Melanoma by Lactic Acidosis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 28;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.

The introduction of targeted therapies and immunotherapies has significantly improved the outcome of metastatic melanoma (MM) patients. These approaches rely on immune functions for their anti-melanoma response. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) exhibit anti-tumor function by production of effector molecules, type I interferons (I-IFNs), and cytokines. Read More

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