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The therapeutic role of lactobacillus and montelukast in combination with metformin in diabetes mellitus complications through modulation of gut microbiota and suppression of oxidative stress.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 12;96:107757. Epub 2021 May 12.

Pharmacology department, Faculty of pharmacy, Horus University-Egypt, New Damietta 34518, Egypt.

Male reproductive dysfunction is one of the overlooked findings of diabetes mellitus (DM) that deserves greater scientific attention. This study is designed to explore the therapeutic potential of metformin and montelukast, in combination with Lactobacillus, for modulation of intestinal flora and suppression of oxidative stress in testicular and liver damage in diabetic male rats. A DM model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ)which caused functional, biochemical, and inflammatory injuries to the testicular and liver tissues. Read More

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The mediating effect of parenting stress and couple relationship quality on the association between material hardship trajectories and maternal mental health status.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 1;290:31-39. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Research, Cizik School of Nursing, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6901 Bertner Avenue, 591, Houston, TX 77030, United States.

Background: Household material hardships could have a negative impact on maternal mental health. Understanding mechanisms by which material hardship trajectories affect maternal depression and anxiety could aid health care professionals and researchers to design better interventions to improve mental health outcomes among mothers.

Methods: The study identified family-level mechanisms by which material hardship trajectories affect maternal depression and anxiety using Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study data (n = 1,645). Read More

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Monitoring Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Fecal Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and the Prevalence of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Among Food handlers in Kuwait.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait. Electronic address:

Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have become one of the most challenging problems in infectious diseases worldwide. Unrecognized personnel colonized as food handlers (FHs) with CRE serve as a reservoir for transmission. This study assessed the prevalence and susceptibility pattern of CRE isolates from FHs working in commercial eateries in the community (CFHs) and healthcare settings (HCFHs) in Kuwait over a period between 2016-2018. Read More

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Characteristics of lumbar flexion rhythm at different arm positions.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Julius Wolff Institute, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Germany.

Background: The lumbar spine displays its greatest mobility in ventral flexion, which is a potential risk factor for low back pain. The relative contribution of each segment to the complete flexion is denoted the spine rhythm, which is required to distinguish between normal and abnormal spinal profiles, and as well to calculate the spinal forces in musculoskeletal models. Nevertheless, different spine rhythms have been reported in literature and the effect of arm position has not been demonstrated. Read More

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Explaining inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake in Europe: the role of capabilities, opportunities and motivations.

Appetite 2021 May 12:105283. Epub 2021 May 12.

European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School| University of Exeter Medical School.

People who do not eat enough fruit and vegetables (F&V) have incremental health risks. Most Europeans do not comply with health recommendations relating to F&V consumption and this is especially true for those with lower-level education, which reinforces structural inequalities in health and wellbeing among Europeans. This study investigated the role of key behavioural triggers - capabilities, opportunities and motivation (in the COM-B model) - as pathways for educational differentials in F&V intake in Europe. Read More

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The Role of Temperature Change, Ambient Temperature, and Relative Humidity in Allergic Conjunctivitis in a US Veteran Population.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Environmental Health Division, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: Studies have implicated temperature and humidity in the pathogenesis of allergic conjunctivitis (AC), as these conditions facilitate air particulate and aeroallergen dispersion and tear film instability. Research also suggests that variation in temperature associates with risk of asthma, but similar data are limited for AC. This study examined associations between several meteorological conditions, including temperature variation, and AC visit risk. Read More

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Perceived Social Support from Different Sources and Adolescent Life Satisfaction Across 42 Countries/Regions: The Moderating Role of National-Level Generalized Trust.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Interdisciplinary Social Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 14, 3584 CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Although previous research established a positive association between perceived social support and adolescent life satisfaction, little is known about the relative importance of different sources of support for adolescent life satisfaction and cross-country variations in this respect. Using large-scale representative samples from the 2017/18 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, this study examined to what extent the association between social support and life satisfaction in early adolescence varied across different social sources and countries. Also, it examined whether cross-country variations are explained by national-level generalized trust, a sociocultural factor that shapes adolescent socialization. Read More

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High school seniors who used e-cigarettes may have otherwise been cigarette smokers: Evidence from Monitoring the Future (United States, 2009-2018).

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

FXB Center for Health and Human Rights, Harvard University, Boston, MA.

Introduction: Studies have indicated that youth who use e-cigarettes are more likely to progress to cigarette smoking; however, the likelihood that these youth would have used tobacco products in the pre-vaping era is unclear. This study sought to determine whether youth who used e-cigarettes in 2014-2018 would have likely been smokers in the period preceding e-cigarette availability.

Methods: Analyzing Monitoring the Future 12 th grade data (USA, 2009-2018), we forecasted the prevalence of current smoking with logistic regression-derived propensity scores. Read More

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Daily Associations Between Positive Emotion and Obesity-Related Behaviors and Their Interconnections Within Adolescent-Caregiver Dyads.

Ann Behav Med 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV, USA.

Background Greater overall positive emotion has been linked with increased physical activity and overeating. High approach positive emotions (HAPEs), a subtype of positive emotion, are theorized to facilitate this goal-driven behavior. However, the day-to-day associations of HAPE and physical activity and overeating, including both at the individual level and within caregiver-adolescent dyads, remain unknown. Read More

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Cervical mucus patterns and the fertile window in women without known subfertility: a pooled analysis of three cohorts.

Hum Reprod 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Office of Cooperative Reproductive Health, Division of Public Health, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, USA.

Study Question: What is the normal range of cervical mucus patterns and number of days with high or moderate day-specific probability of pregnancy (if intercourse occurs on a specific day) based on cervical mucus secretion, in women without known subfertility, and how are these patterns related to parity and age?

Summary Answer: The mean days of peak type (estrogenic) mucus per cycle was 6.4, the mean number of potentially fertile days was 12.1; parous versus nulliparous, and younger nulliparous (<30 years) versus older nulliparous women had more days of peak type mucus, and more potentially fertile days in each cycle. Read More

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Associations of family income with cognition and brain structure in USA children: prevention implications.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Poverty, as assessed by several socioeconomic (SES) factors, has been linked to worse cognitive performance and reduced cortical brain volumes in children. However, the relative contributions of the various SES factors on brain development and the mediating effects between cognition and brain morphometry have not been investigated. Here we used cross-sectional data from the ABCD Study to evaluate associations among various SES and demographic factors, brain morphometrics, and cognition and their reproducibility in two independent subsamples of 3892 children. Read More

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Neuromuscular Ultrasound: Indications in the Electrodiagnostics Laboratory.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA Department of Family Medicine, Larner Medical College at the University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, USA Adirondack Rehabilitation Medicine, PLLC, Queensbury, New York, USA Department of Neurology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, The Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, South Carolina, USA.

Abstract: Accurate assessment of neuromuscular disorders is critical to facilitate timely treatment and achieve the best outcomes. Historically, electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies have filled this role, but recently, neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) is being used in the EDX lab. This review discusses the uses of NMUS in the EDX lab that have strong evidence, emphasizing those that could be adopted in a typical EDX lab with a reasonable level of equipment and training. Read More

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Seeing Beyond the Theory: Empowering Novice Nursing Students in Their Ability to Save Lives Through Primary and Secondary Prevention.

Creat Nurs 2021 May;27(2):112-117

Students in early-level nursing courses often doubt their ability to intervene effectively to impact health, much less save a life, due to lack of hands-on experience and confidence. Theoretical concepts introduced in early-level courses are abstract terms that can be difficult for the novice student to grasp. Two strategies were designed to take early-level nursing students beyond the theory and increase their awareness of the power of prevention through risk identification, advocacy, health education, and early intervention. Read More

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Infiltration between the popliteal artery and the capsule of the knee (IPACK) block in knee surgery: a narrative review.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Anaesthesia, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

Background: The infiltration between the popliteal artery and the capsule of the knee (IPACK) block has been described as an alternative analgesic strategy for knee pain.

Objective: Our aim was to perform a narrative review to examine the place and value that the IPACK block has in comparison to and in conjunction with other regional anesthesia modalities.

Evidence Review: Following an extensive search of electronic databases, we included anatomical studies, letters, comparative observational studies, and non-randomized and randomized controlled trials that examined the IPACK block in relation to surgery on the knee under general or neuraxial anesthesia. Read More

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A Model of Intention to Participate in Parenting Interventions: The Role of Parent Cognitions and Behaviors.

Behav Ther 2021 May 24;52(3):761-773. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Queensland University of Technology.

A wide range of factors, from perceived child behavior problems to sociocultural factors, have been identified as impacting the engagement of parents in parenting interventions. However, parents' cognitions and behaviors have not been evaluated sufficiently to understand their role in initial parental engagement. The current study aimed to examine why some parents are more likely to want to participate in parenting programs and how their cognitions and behaviors are related to their intention to participate in future parenting interventions. Read More

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Responsiveness of the EuroQoL 5-Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire in patients with spondyloarthritis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 14;22(1):439. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, The University of Hong Kong, Professorial Block, 5th Floor, 102 Pokfulam Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) has a significant impact on patients' quality of life due to functional impairments. Generic health instruments like the EuroQoL 5-dimension (EQ-5D) is important for cost-utility analysis of health care interventions and calculation of quality-adjusted life-years. It has been validated in patients with SpA. Read More

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Professional satisfaction of health professional undergraduates and influencing factors in Hebei province, China.

BMC Med Educ 2021 May 14;21(1):275. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Public Health, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Background: Professional satisfaction of health professional students can impact on their medical professional achievement. Understanding the professional satisfaction of health professional students and identifying its relative factors is beneficial to strengthen the professionalism education of health professional students, and provide solid foundation for future medical achievements.

Methods: A self-made questionnaire was used to survey undergraduate students of six medical universities in Hebei province. Read More

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Using Weibo and WeChat social media channels to assess public awareness and practices related to antimicrobial resistance, China, 2019.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 14;21(1):921. Epub 2021 May 14.

Health Communication Center (National 12320 Health Hotline Management Office), Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No.155 Changbai Rd, Changping District, Beijing, China.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global healthcare problem, including in China where high rates of resistance to common bacterial infections have been documented. In 2016, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) in China established a comprehensive strategic plan to increase awareness about AMR through education programs.

Methods: We conducted an online survey to assess changes in public knowledge, awareness and practices related to AMR in China since 2016. Read More

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Comfort Level in Caregivers of Palliative Care Patients and Affecting Factors: What Should We Know?

Omega (Westport) 2021 May 14:302228211014779. Epub 2021 May 14.

Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Aksaray University, Aksaray, Turkey.

Caregivers are an important source of support for patients in palliative care. Comfort is an important concept in nursing care for both patients and their families, and nurses aim to increase comfort. The aim of the study was to determine the comfort level and influencing factors in caregivers of palliative care patients. Read More

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Patient satisfaction with partial hospital telehealth treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: Comparison to in-person treatment.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 26;301:113966. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

From the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown Medical School, and the Department of Psychiatry, Rhode Island Hospital, 146 West River Street, Providence, RI 02904.

Most research evaluating telehealth psychiatric treatment has been conducted in outpatient settings. There is a lack of research assessing the efficacy of telehealth treatment in more acute, intensive treatment settings such as a partial hospital. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, much of ambulatory behavioral health treatment has transitioned to a telehealth, or virtual, format. Read More

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Is the severity of the Great Recession's aftershocks correlated with changes in access to the combined prevention environment among people who inject drugs?

Int J Drug Policy 2021 May 11;95:103264. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: The 2008 Recession was a global event that led to funding cuts for programs and services in the United States; though this recession officially ended in 2009, its aftershocks continued through 2012. We evaluated the relationship between the severity of the Great Recession's aftermath and spatial access to combined prevention services (i.e. Read More

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Optimization of a Screening Method for Macroprolactinemia.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Apr 25;1175:122723. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, 310014, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To optimize a screening method for macroprolactinemia and improve the accuracy of free prolactin (freePRL) detection.

Method: Overall efficiency, calculated as the product of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) precipitation rate and the freePRL recovery rate were employed to determine the concentration of the precipitant polyethylene glycol (PEG). Then, an optimized screening method for macroprolactinemia was established. Read More

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Pseudomonas lalucatii sp. nov. isolated from Vallgornera, a karstic cave in Mallorca, Western Mediterranean.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2021 Apr 21;44(3):126205. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Microbiologia, Departament de Biologia, Edifici Guillem Colom, Universitat de les, Illes Balears, Campus UIB, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats (IMEDEA, CSIC-UIB), Campus UIB, 07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain. Electronic address:

Caves are extreme underground environments colonized by oligotrophic bacterial communities that influence mineral transformations. The identification at the species level is important and this study aims to the taxonomic characterisation of four bacterial strains previously isolated from rock surfaces and water samples from a karstic cave located on Mallorca (Spain) that were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas according to 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence analysis. Sequence analysis of the RNA polymerase sigma factor gene (rpoD) allocated these strains to the P. Read More

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The association between natural environments and childhood mental health and development: A systematic review and assessment of different exposure measurements.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 May 11;235:113767. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada; School of Population and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada; ISGlobal, Parc de Recerca Biomèdica de Barcelona, Carrer de Dr. Aiguader, 88, 08003, Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Plaça de La Mercè, 10-12, 08002, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro, 3, 28029, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Several studies have assessed the relationship between exposure to natural environments (NEs) and childhood mental health and development. In most cases, a positive association has been found, but results are inconsistent, and the strength of association is unclear. This inconsistency may reflect the heterogeneity in measurements used to assess NE. Read More

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Evaluation of two anti-seizure medication strategies in refractory epilepsy patients from a tertiary center with complementary insights from data visualization.

Epilepsy Res 2021 May 10;174:106667. Epub 2021 May 10.

CAPHRI, Research School for Public Health and Primary Care, Dept. Health Services Research, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Objective: To evaluate the healthcare resources in a tertiary center related to exclusive use of non-enzyme inducing anti-seizure medications relative to concomitant use of enzyme-inducing anti-seizure medications in patients with refractory epilepsy.

Methods: In this retrospective case-time-control study, we compared the effects of two anti-seizure medication strategies: exclusively non-inducing anti-seizure medications (NIND) or a combination of NIND and inducing anti-seizure medications (IND+). The primary outcome parameter was the number of consultations with relevant healthcare professionals in our tertiary center, assessed with a negative binomial regression model, adjusting for several covariates like blood drug level and time interval (TI). Read More

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Obese-asthma phenotype self-management: A literature review.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 May 11;60:154-163. Epub 2021 May 11.

University of Tennessee, Knoxville: College of Education, Health, and Human Sciences, United States of America. Electronic address:

Problem: Recent identification of the early-onset obese-asthma phenotype has spurred exploration of ways to promote effective, long-term management behaviors for children with this comorbid presentation. Few studies have examined the needs of children with both asthma and obesity and little is known about optimal management options for this unique population. Therefore, the authors aimed to review, critique, and synthesize existing published research on health-management programs designed for children with comorbid asthma and obesity in order to describe the state of the science and recommend next steps in creating pediatric management programs. Read More

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Determinants of healthcare worker turnover in intensive care units: A micro-macro multilevel analysis.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251779. Epub 2021 May 14.

Modélisation Epidémiologie et Surveillance des Risques Sanitaires (MESuRS) Laboratory, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (Cnam), Paris, France.

Background: High turnover among healthcare workers is an increasingly common phenomenon in hospitals worldwide, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). In addition to the serious financial consequences, this is a major concern for patient care (disrupted continuity of care, decreased quality and safety of care, increased rates of medication errors, …).

Objective: The goal of this article was to understand how the ICU-level nurse turnover rate may be explained from multiple covariates at individual and ICU-level, using data from 526 French registered and auxiliary nurses (RANs). Read More

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Characterizing and predicting person-specific, day-to-day, fluctuations in walking behavior.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251659. Epub 2021 May 14.

Center for Wireless & Population Health Systems, The Qualcomm Institute and the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States of America.

Despite the positive health effect of physical activity, one third of the world's population is estimated to be insufficiently active. Prior research has mainly investigated physical activity on an aggregate level over short periods of time, e.g. Read More

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National estimates from the Youth '19 Rangatahi smart survey: A survey calibration approach.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251177. Epub 2021 May 14.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Significant progress has been made addressing adolescent health needs in New Zealand, but some areas, such as mental health issues remain, particularly for rangatahi Māori (indigenous Māori young people). Little is known about how contemporary Māori whānau (families) and communities influence health outcomes, health literacy and access to services. Previous nationally representative secondary school surveys were conducted in New Zealand in 2001, 2007 and 2012, as part of the Youth2000 survey series. Read More

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Stepped Augmented Glenoid Component in Anatomic Total Shoulder Arthroplasty for B2 and B3 Glenoid Pathology: A Study of Early Outcomes.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopedic and Rheumatologic Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Posterior glenoid bone loss is commonly associated with primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Surgical management of bone loss in anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (aTSA) remains controversial. We studied the use of a stepped augmented glenoid component for management of Walch B2 and B3 glenoids and compared the radiographic and clinical outcomes at short-term follow-up with those achieved with a non-augmented component of the same design in Walch A1 glenoids. Read More

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