11,100 results match your criteria relative bulk


Effects of Dietary Ferulic Acid on the Intestinal Microbiota and the Associated Changes on the Growth Performance, Serum Cytokine Profile, and Intestinal Morphology in Ducks.

Front Microbiol 2021 13;12:698213. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agriculture University, Changsha, China.

The present study investigated the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the growth performance, serum cytokine profile, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota in ducks at the growing stage. 300 female ducks at 28 days of age with similar body weights were randomly divided into five groups. Each group contained six replicates of 10 birds. Read More

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Impact of aerosol liquid water content and its size distribution on hygroscopic growth factor in urban Guangzhou of South China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 27;789:148055. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute for Environmental and Climate Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

To investigate the dependence of hygroscopic growth factor (f(RH)) on aerosol liquid water content (ALWC) and its size distribution, a comprehensive campaign was carried out in urban Guangzhou in autumn 2015. Major chemical components in bulk as well as size-segregated PM samples, bulk PM mass, aerosol scattering coefficient (b) under dry and wet conditions, inline water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) and meteorological parameters were synchronously measured. Mass fractions of hydrophilic chemical composition (e. Read More

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Effect of maternal overnutrition on predisposition to insulin resistance in the foal: Foal skeletal muscle development and insulin signaling.

Domest Anim Endocrinol 2021 Jul 2;77:106648. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843. Electronic address:

Skeletal muscle plays an integral role in the ability of a horse to perform at high levels. Shifts in skeletal muscle development in response to maternal plane of nutrition may have substantial and lasting impacts on athletic performance and whole-body metabolism. Therefore, sixteen Quarter Horse mares were used in a completely randomized design and maintained at a body condition score (BCS) 6 until start of third trimester. Read More

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Bulk Rashba Effect Splitting and Suppression in Polymorphs of Metal Iodine Perovskites.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 27:7245-7251. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Chemistry Department, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, CEP 81531-980 Paraná, Brazil.

We quantified the bulk Rashba splitting and suppression in polymorphs of MA(Pb, Sn, Ge, or Si)I perovskites. The low-computational-cost DFT-1/2 quasiparticle correction was performed for all structures, combined with the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects. The presence of SOC and symmetry breaking from the metal off-centering octahedral distortion are indispensable and essential conditions for Rashba splitting, whose magnitude emerges from the Pb → Si sequence. Read More

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Synthesis and Properties of Monolayer MnSe with Unusual Atomic Structure and Antiferromagnetic Ordering.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, 00076 Aalto, Finland.

Transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) are a large family of 2D materials that are currently attracting intense interest. TMCs with 3d transition metals provide opportunities for introducing magnetism and strong correlations into the material with manganese standing out as a particularly attractive option due to its large magnetic moment. Here we report on the successful synthesis of monolayer manganese selenide on a NbSe substrate. Read More

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A Relationship Between Mortality and Eating Breakfast and Fiber.

J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jul-Aug;34(4):678-687

From the Department of Family Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26505 (DEK, JX).

Background: Recent studies suggest that intermittent fasting or skipping breakfast may be good strategies for weight loss and better health. The objective of this study was to determine whether regular breakfast is associated with overall or cardiovascular mortality.

Methods: Cohort study with follow-up mortality data from the NHANES 1999-2002. Read More

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February 2021

Family Medicine Research on Health Equity, Addiction, and Eating Breakfast-Just for Starters.

J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Jul-Aug;34(4):675-677

As usual, this issue of the journal delivers reports on a broad range of topics that can inform clinical practice. Several articles address equity, or the lack thereof, in health care. This includes research on the social determinants of health and how family medicine can contribute to redressing inequity. Read More

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6,6'-Ditriphenylamine-2,2'-bipyridine: Coordination Chemistry and Electrochemical and Photophysical Properties.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.

A 2,2'-bipyridine with bulky triphenylamine substituents in the 6 and 6' positions of the ligand (6,6'-ditriphenylamine-2,2'-bipyridine, 6,6'-diTPAbpy) was generated. Despite the steric bulk, the ligand readily formed bis(homoleptic) complexes with copper(I) and silver(I) ions. Unfortunately, efforts to use the 6,6'-diTPAbpy system to generate heteroleptic [Cu(6,6'-diTPAbpy)(bpy)] complexes were unsuccessful with only the [Cu(6,6'-diTPAbpy)](PF) complex observed. Read More

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Assessing changes in stream macroinvertebrate communities across ecological gradients using morphological versus DNA metabarcoding approaches.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 14;797:149030. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

CIBIO/InBio, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus de Vairão, Vila do Conde, Portugal; CIBIO/InBio, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Freshwater macroinvertebrates provide valuable indicators for biomonitoring ecosystem change in relation to natural and anthropogenic drivers. DNA metabarcoding is an efficient approach for estimating such indicators, but its results may differ from morphotaxonomic approaches traditionally used in biomonitoring. Here we test the hypothesis that despite differences in the number and identity of taxa recorded, both approaches may retrieve comparable patterns of community change, and detect similar ecological gradients influencing such changes. Read More

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3D-Printed Architected Materials Inspired by Cubic Bravais Lattices.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano via La Masa 1, Milano 20156, Italy.

Learning from Nature and leveraging 3D printing, mechanical testing, and numerical modeling, this study aims to provide a deeper understanding of the structure-property relationship of crystal-lattice-inspired materials, starting from the study of single unit cells inspired by the cubic Bravais crystal lattices. In particular, here we study the simple cubic (SC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and face-centered cubic (FCC) lattices. Mechanical testing of 3D-printed structures is used to investigate the influence of different printing parameters. Read More

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Repair potential of a bulk-fill resin composite: Effect of different surface-treatment protocols.

Eur J Oral Sci 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Restorative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

This study evaluated the effect of different surface-treatment protocols on the repair bond strength of a bulk-fill resin composite. One-hundred and forty specimens (Filtek Bulk-fill) were created (5 mm diameter, 4 mm depth) and allocated to one of 14 groups according to surface treatment (no treatment, tribochemical silica coating, sandblasting with aluminum oxide), adhesive application (no adhesive, total-etch, self-etch), and type of repair resin (bulk-fill, universal resin) (n = 10 per group). Twenty specimens were selected for measuring the cohesive strengths of non-aged resin composites and used as reference. Read More

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Feeding Pre-weaned Calves With Waste Milk Containing Antibiotic Residues Is Related to a Higher Incidence of Diarrhea and Alterations in the Fecal Microbiota.

Front Vet Sci 2021 8;8:650150. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Lodi, Italy.

The cows receiving antibiotics for intra-mammary infection (IMI) produce milk that cannot be marketed. This is considered waste milk (WM), and a convenient option for farmers is using it as calf food. However, adding to the risk of selecting resistant bacteria, residual antibiotics might interfere with the gut microbiome development and influence gastrointestinal health. Read More

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Disentangling the Complexity of the Rumen Microbial Diversity Through Fractionation Using a Sucrose Density Gradient.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:664754. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Computational Biology and Microbial Ecology Group, Max Planck Tandem Group in Computational Biology, Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.

The ruminal microbial community is an important element in health, nutrition, livestock productivity, and climate impact. Despite the historic and current efforts to characterize this microbial diversity, many of its members remain unidentified, making it challenging to associate microbial groups with functions. Here we present a low-cost methodology for rumen sample treatment that separates the microbial community based on cell size, allowing for the identification of subtle compositional changes. Read More

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Consequences of whole genome duplication for 2n pollen performance.

Plant Reprod 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996, USA.

The vegetative cell of the angiosperm male gametophyte (pollen) functions as a free-living, single-celled organism that both produces and transports sperm to egg. Whole-genome duplication (WGD) should have strong effects on pollen because of the haploid to diploid transition and because of both genetic and epigenetic effects on cell-level phenotypes. To disentangle historical effects of WGD on pollen performance, studies can compare 1n pollen from diploids to neo-2n pollen from diploids and synthetic autotetraploids to older 2n pollen from established neo-autotetraploids. Read More

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Fiber Selection for Reinforced Additive Manufacturing.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 7;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Information Technology Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180, USA.

The purpose of this review is to survey, categorize, and compare the mechanical and thermal characteristics of fibers in order to assist designers with the selection of fibers for inclusion as reinforcing materials in the additive manufacturing process. The vast "family of fibers" is described with a Venn diagram to highlight natural, synthetic, organic, ceramic, and mineral categories. This review explores the history and practical uses of particular fiber types and explains fiber production methods in general terms. Read More

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Explainable Artificial Intelligence Reveals Novel Insight into Tumor Microenvironment Conditions Linked with Better Prognosis in Patients with Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

We investigated the data-driven relationship between immune cell composition in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the ≥5-year survival rates of breast cancer patients using explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) models. We acquired TCGA breast invasive carcinoma data from the cbioPortal and retrieved immune cell composition estimates from bulk RNA sequencing data from TIMER2.0 based on EPIC, CIBERSORT, TIMER, and xCell computational methods. Read More

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Socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors modifies the association between snack foods intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome.

Nutr J 2021 07 22;20(1):70. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Intake of snack foods has been previously associated with an elevated risk of chronic disease; however, studies on snack foods and metabolic syndrome (MetS) while considering the modifying effect of socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors on this association are lacking. We aimed to investigate the association between snack foods intake and the MetS risk, and the mediatory effects of SES and lifestyle factors on the forenamed association among adults who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006-2018).

Methods: This is a prospective study of 1915 participants (male, 40. Read More

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Effect of surface properties and polymer chain length on polymer adsorption in solution.

J Chem Phys 2021 Jul;155(3):034701

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

In polymer nanoparticle composites (PNCs) with attractive interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and polymers, a bound layer of the polymer forms on the NP surface, with significant effects on the macroscopic properties of the PNCs. The adsorption and wetting behaviors of polymer solutions in the presence of a solid surface are critical to the fabrication process of PNCs. In this study, we use both classical density functional theory (cDFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study dilute and semi-dilute solutions of short polymer chains near a solid surface. Read More

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Relationships between the Physicochemical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter and Its Reaction with Sodium Borohydride.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Zachry Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77845, United States.

The reaction of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with sodium borohydride has been used to understand the geographic origin of DOM and investigate the photophysical model underlying DOM's optical properties. However, the physicochemical properties of DOM (e.g. Read More

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Mesoscopic simulations of the NMR spectra of porous carbon based supercapacitors: electronic structure and adsorbent reorganisation effects.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Université Toulouse 3 - Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9, France. and Réseau sur le Stockage Électrochimique de l'Énergie (RS2E), Fédération de Recherche CNRS 3459, HUB de l'Énergie, Rue Baudelocque, 80039 Amiens, France.

In situ NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique to investigate charge storage mechanisms in carbon-based supercapacitors thanks to its ability to distinguish ionic and molecular species adsorbed in the porous electrodes from those in the bulk electrolyte. The NMR peak corresponding to the adsorbed species shows a clear change of chemical shift as the applied potential difference is varied. This variation in chemical shift is thought to originate from a combination of ion reorganisation in the pores and changes in ring current shifts due to the changes of electronic density in the carbon. Read More

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A sequence variant in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 gene influences palmitoleic acid content in pig muscle.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 20;11(1):14797. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Animal Science, University of Lleida-Agrotecnio-CERCA Center, 191 Rovira Roure, 25198, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain.

The bulk of body fat in mammals is in the form of triacylglycerol. Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) catalyses the terminal step in triacylglycerol synthesis. The proximity of DGAT2 with stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in the endoplasmic reticulum may facilitate provision of de novo SCD-mediated fatty acids as substrate for DGAT2. Read More

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Numerical Modeling of Flow through Foam Nodes within the Dry and Wet Limits.

Langmuir 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Mechanical and Product Design Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn 3122, Victoria, Australia.

We present a numerical simulation using three-dimensional microscale models to illustrate flow dynamics through different foam geometries. These were designed to represent the flow with various liquid volume fractions throughout the Plateau border (PB) and node system within the "dry" limit and throughout the two nodes and PB system within the "wet" limit. Most surfaces in the models involve a gas-liquid interface. Read More

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Characterization of tetracycline-resistant microbiome in soil-plant systems by combination of HO-based DNA-Stable isotope probing and metagenomics.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 14;420:126440. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance have been considered as a global health threat. However, effective methods to identify antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in complex microbial community are lacking, and the potential transmission pathways of ARB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil-plant system remain scarce. Here in this study, tetracycline was chosen as the target antibiotic due to its globally wide usage and clinical significance. Read More

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Low dietary fiber promotes enteric expansion of a Crohn's disease-associated pathobiont independent of obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 07 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Obesity is associated with metabolic, immunological, and infectious disease comorbidities, including an increased risk of enteric infection and inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn's disease (CD). Expansion of intestinal pathobionts such as adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) is a common dysbiotic feature of CD, which is amplified by prior use of oral antibiotics. Although high-fat, high-sugar diets are associated with dysbiotic expansion of E. Read More

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Integrated analysis of single-cell RNA-seq and bulk RNA-seq reveals distinct cancer-associated fibroblasts in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(12):1017

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Background: The heterogeneity of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has been widely acknowledged, but has not yet been elucidated. The potential roles and clinical relevance of CAFs subclusters in HNSCC progression remain obscure.

Methods: In this study, we combined single-cell and bulk tissue transcriptome profiles of HNSCC with clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Read More

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Unsaturated hemiwicking dynamics on surfaces with irregular roughness.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 5;604:104-112. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Chemical Biological Center, 8198 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424, United States.

Hypothesis: Spreading of wetting liquids on rough surfaces can occur in a regime termed hemiwicking in which liquid advances ahead of the bulk liquid droplet front under the influence of capillary forces induced by the surface topography. When the surface topography is periodic as in the case for micropillar arrays, the wetting front is sharp and models describing the wetting dynamics can be derived directly from the periodic geometry. For materials with a highly irregular surface topography, the wetting front is diffuse and deriving analytical spreading model parameters directly from the surface topography is not generally possible. Read More

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Discriminatory and cooperative effects within the mouse gut microbiota in response to flaxseed and its oil and lignan components.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Jul 13:108818. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, ON, Canada; Joannah and Brian Lawson Centre for Child Nutrition, University of Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Gut microbial processing of dietary flaxseed (FS) contributes to its health benefits, but the relative effects of its bioactive components (lignans, omega-3 fatty acids, fiber) on the microbiota are unclear. We investigated the gut microbial compositional and functional responses to whole FS and its isolated components, FS oil (FSO) and secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) (precursor to microbial-derived enterolignans) to help understand their contribution to whole FS benefits. Cecum content and fecal samples were collected from C57BL/6 female mice fed a basal diet (AIN93G) or isocaloric diets containing 10% FS or 10% FS-equivalent amounts of FSO or SDG for 21 days. Read More

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The effects of signalment, diet, geographic location, season, and colitis associated with antimicrobial use or Salmonella infection on the fecal microbiome of horses.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.

Background: The fecal microbiome of healthy horses may be influenced by signalment, diet, environmental factors, and disease.

Objectives: To assess the effects of age, breed, sex, geographic location, season, diet, and colitis caused by antibiotic use (antimicrobial-associated diarrhea [AAD]) and Salmonella infection on fecal microbiota.

Animals: Healthy horses (n = 80) were sampled from nonhospital environments across multiple geographical locations in the United States. Read More

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Conservative Potentials for a Lattice-Mapped Coarse-Grained Scheme.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Jul 15;125(29):6486-6497. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia,Vancouver V6T 1Z1, Canada.

The conservative potential, arising from a coarse-grain (CG) mapping scheme for nonbonded atomistic particles, is studied. This is a bottom-up approach from first-principles that maps atomistic particles to fluid element-like subcells whose centers lie on a regular, cubic lattice. Unlike standard CG mapping schemes, the current one uses dynamic labeling which on-the-fly changes the CG labels of the particles. Read More

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Decrease in abundance of bacteria of the genus in gut microbiota may be related to pre-eclampsia progression in women from East China.

Food Nutr Res 2021 28;65. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Changzhou Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, China.

Background: Pre-eclampsia (PE) can result in severe damage to maternal and fetal health. It has been reported that gut microbiota (GM) had important roles in regulating the metabolic and inflammatory responses of the mother. However, investigations on GM in PE are rare. Read More

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