4,251 results match your criteria relationships stimuli


Analysis of electrostimulation and electroporation by high repetition rate bursts of nanosecond stimuli.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Apr 1;140:107811. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23508, USA. Electronic address:

Exposures to short-duration, strong electric field pulses have been utilized for stimulation, ablation, and the delivery of molecules into cells. Ultrashort, nanosecond duration pulses have shown unique benefits, but they require higher field strengths. One way to overcome this requirement is to use trains of nanosecond pulses with high repetition rates, up to the MHz range. Read More

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Dual-responsive nanohybrid based on degradable silica-coated gold nanorods for triple-combination therapy for breast cancer.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

Multi-modal combination therapy has attracted great attention, owing to the unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy of conventional chemotherapy. Mesoporous silica-coated gold nanorods possess great potential in photothermal therapy and drug delivery. In this work, we fabricate a dual-responsive nanohybrid for combination treatment of the malignant tumor. Read More

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The Untapped Potential of Virtual Reality in Rehabilitation of Balance and Gait in Neurological Disorders.

Front Virtual Real 2021 Mar 11;2. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Dynamic systems theory transformed our understanding of motor control by recognizing the continual interaction between the organism and the environment. Movement could no longer be visualized simply as a response to a pattern of stimuli or as a demonstration of prior intent; movement is context dependent and is continuously reshaped by the ongoing dynamics of the world around us. Virtual reality is one methodological variable that allows us to control and manipulate that environmental context. Read More

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An Adaptable, Open-Access Test Battery to Study the Fractionation of Executive-Functions in Diverse Populations.

Front Psychol 2021 30;12:627219. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The umbrella-term 'executive functions' (EF) includes various domain-general, goal-directed cognitive abilities responsible for behavioral self-regulation. The influential unity and diversity model of EF posits the existence of three correlated yet separable executive domains: inhibition, shifting and updating. These domains may be influenced by factors such as socioeconomic status (SES) and culture, possibly due to the way EF tasks are devised and to biased choice of stimuli, focusing on first-world testees. Read More

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Airway Epithelial Inflammation Augments the Rescue of Mutant CFTR by Current CFTR Modulator Therapies.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:628722. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Marsico Lung Institute and Cystic Fibrosis Research Center, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

In cystic fibrosis (CF), defective biogenesis and activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to airway dehydration and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in chronic airway infection and inflammation. The most common CFTR mutation, F508del, results in a processing defect in which the protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and does not reach the apical surface. CFTR corrector compounds address this processing defect to promote mutant CFTR transfer to the apical membrane. Read More

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Relationships between expertise and distinctiveness: Abnormal medical images lead to enhanced memory performance only in experts.

Mem Cognit 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Memories are encoded in a manner that depends on our knowledge and expectations ("schemas"). Consistent with this, expertise tends to improve memory: Experts have elaborated schemas in their domains of expertise, allowing them to efficiently represent information in this domain (e.g. Read More

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Mechanisms of Cellular Senescence: Cell Cycle Arrest and Senescence Associated Secretory Phenotype.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:645593. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

MRC Prion Unit at UCL, UCL Institute of Prion Diseases, London, United Kingdom.

Cellular senescence is a stable cell cycle arrest that can be triggered in normal cells in response to various intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli, as well as developmental signals. Senescence is considered to be a highly dynamic, multi-step process, during which the properties of senescent cells continuously evolve and diversify in a context dependent manner. It is associated with multiple cellular and molecular changes and distinct phenotypic alterations, including a stable proliferation arrest unresponsive to mitogenic stimuli. Read More

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Ionic Charge-Transfer Liquid Crystals Formed by Alternating Supramolecular Copolymerization of Liquid π-Donors and TCNQ.

Front Chem 2021 29;9:657246. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

A new family of liquid π-donors, lipophilic dihydrophenazine (DHP) derivatives, show remarkably high π-electron-donor property which exhibit supramolecular alternating copolymerization with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), giving ionic charge-transfer (ICT) complexes. The ICT complexes form distinct columnar liquid crystalline (LC) mesophases with well-defined alternating molecular alignment as demonstrated by UV-Vis-NIR spectra, IR spectra, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. These liquid crystalline ICT complexes display unique phase transitions in response to mechanical stress: the columnar ICT phase is converted to macroscopically oriented smectic-like mesophases upon applying shear force. Read More

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Cinobufagin-Loaded and Folic Acid-Modified Polydopamine Nanomedicine Combined With Photothermal Therapy for the Treatment of Lung Cancer.

Front Chem 2021 29;9:637754. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Cinobufagin is used as a traditional Chinese medicine for cancer therapy. However, it has some disadvantages, such as poor water solubility, short circulating half-life, and low bioavailability. In the present study, a targeted delivery and smart responsive polydopamine (PDA)-based nanomedicine for delivering cinobufagin was rationally designed to improve the anticancer efficacy of the compound for the treatment of lung cancer. Read More

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What Does Social Support Sound Like? Challenges and Opportunities for Using Passive Episodic Audio Collection to Assess the Social Environment.

Front Public Health 2021 29;9:633606. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Global Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, United States.

The social environment, comprised of social support, social burden, and quality of interactions, influences a range of health outcomes, including mental health. Passive audio data collection on mobile phones (e.g. Read More

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Single-Cell Transcriptomics and Morphological Analyses Reveal Microglia Heterogeneity Across the Nigrostriatal Pathway.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:639613. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB), University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Microglia are the resident immune effector cells of the central nervous system (CNS) rapidly reacting to various pathological stimuli to maintain CNS homeostasis. However, microglial reactions in the CNS may also worsen neurological disorders. Hence, the phenotypic analysis of microglia in healthy tissue may identify specific poised subsets ultimately supporting or harming the neuronal network. Read More

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Innate Immune Memory in Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: Myeloid-Biased Differentiation and the Role of Interferon.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:621333. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Developmental Biology, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Innate immune memory was first described for monocytes and other myeloid cells. This memory is designated , in which the host animals that had experienced pathogen infection earlier acquire improved resistance to a second infection. Innate immune memory is mediated by an epigenetic mechanism traced to that is conserved throughout evolution and has been selected for the ability to mount an adaptive response to shifting environments. Read More

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Non-cross Bridge Viscoelastic Elements Contribute to Muscle Force and Work During Stretch-Shortening Cycles: Evidence From Whole Muscles and Permeabilized Fibers.

Front Physiol 2021 29;12:648019. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, United States.

The sliding filament-swinging cross bridge theory of skeletal muscle contraction provides a reasonable description of muscle properties during isometric contractions at or near maximum isometric force. However, it fails to predict muscle force during dynamic length changes, implying that the model is not complete. Mounting evidence suggests that, along with cross bridges, a Ca-sensitive viscoelastic element, likely the titin protein, contributes to muscle force and work. Read More

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EEG measures for clinical research in major vascular cognitive impairment: recommendations by an expert panel.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Mar 10;103:78-97. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Izmir Biomedicine and Genome Center. Dokuz Eylul University Health Campus, Izmir, Turkey.

Vascular contribution to cognitive impairment (VCI) and dementia is related to etiologies that may affect the neurophysiological mechanisms regulating brain arousal and generating electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. A multidisciplinary expert panel reviewed the clinical literature and reached consensus about the EEG measures consistently found as abnormal in VCI patients with dementia. As compared to cognitively unimpaired individuals, those VCI patients showed (1) smaller amplitude of resting state alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms dominant in posterior regions; (2) widespread increases in amplitude of delta (< 4 Hz) and theta (4-8 Hz) rhythms; and (3) delayed N200/P300 peak latencies in averaged event-related potentials, especially during the detection of auditory rare target stimuli requiring participants' responses in "oddball" paradigms. Read More

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Intellective and stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems in eyes.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 9:120591. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Eye Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 310009. Electronic address:

Stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems have attracted widespread attention in recent years since they can control drug release in a spatiotemporal manner and can achieve tunable drug release according to patient's physiological or pathological condition. In this review, we briefly introduce the drug delivery barriers and drug delivery systems in the anterior and posterior segment of eyes, and collect the recent advances in stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems in eyes for controlled drug release in response to exogenous stimuli (ultrasound, magnetic stimulus, electrical stimulus, and light) or endogenous stimuli (enzyme, active oxygen species, temperature, ions, and pH). in both anterior and posterior segment of eyes. Read More

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Detection of Parkinson's Disease Through Automated Pupil Tracking of the Post-illumination Pupillary Response.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 25;8:645293. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, United States.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, but it is often diagnosed after the majority of dopaminergic cells are already damaged. It is critical to develop biomarkers to identify the disease as early as possible for early intervention. PD patients appear to have an altered pupillary response consistent with an abnormality in photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells. Read More

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Mitochondrial OMA1 and OPA1 as Gatekeepers of Organellar Structure/Function and Cellular Stress Response.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:626117. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Biology, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, United States.

Mammalian mitochondria are emerging as a critical stress-responsive contributor to cellular life/death and developmental outcomes. Maintained as an organellar network distributed throughout the cell, mitochondria respond to cellular stimuli and stresses through highly sensitive structural dynamics, particularly in energetically demanding cell settings such as cardiac and muscle tissues. Fusion allows individual mitochondria to form an interconnected reticular network, while fission divides the network into a collection of vesicular organelles. Read More

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Flagellin From Stimulates ATB Transporter for Arginine and Neutral Amino Acids in Human Airway Epithelial Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:641563. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Laboratory of General Pathology, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

At present, the central role played by arginine in the modulation of the inflammatory cellular responses is well-recognized, and many pro-inflammatory stimuli are known to modulate the expression and activity of its transmembrane transporters. In this regard, we have addressed the effects of bacterial flagellin from (FLA-PA) on the uptake of the amino acid in human epithelial respiratory cells. Among the arginine transporters, only ATB, yL, and y were operative in bronchial epithelial Calu-3 cells under control conditions; however, only the expression and activity of ATB were stimulated upon incubation with flagellin, whereas those of systems yL and y were not stimulated. Read More

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Fas/FasL Signaling Regulates CD8 Expression During Exposure to Self-Antigens.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:635862. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Departamento de Inmunología y Reumatología, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.

Activation of self-reactive CD8 T cells induces a peripheral tolerance mechanism that involves loss of CD8 expression. Because genetic deficiency of and causes the accumulation of double-negative (DN; CD3 TCR-αβ CD4 CD8) T cells that have been proposed to derive from CD8 cells, we decided to explore the role of Fas and FasL in self-antigen-induced CD8 downregulation. To this end, we quantified Fas and FasL induction by different stimuli and analyzed the effects of Fas/FasL deficiency during a protective immune response and after exposure to self-antigens. Read More

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Impact of Distracting Emotional Stimuli on the Characteristics of Movement Performance: A Kinematic Study.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:642643. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Brain and Cognitive Neuroscience Research Center, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian, China.

It is well-documented that emotional stimuli impact both the cognitive and motor aspects of "goal-directed" behavior. However, how emotional distractors impact motor performance remains unclear. This study aimed to characterize how movement quality was impacted during emotional distractors. Read More

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Forest Before Trees: Letter Stimulus and Sex Modulate Global Precedence in Visual Perception.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:546483. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Biological and Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The global precedence effect (GPE), originally referring to processing hierarchical visual stimuli composed of letters, is characterised by both global advantage and global interference. We present herein a study of how this effect is modulated by the variables letter and sex. The Navon task, using the letters "H" and "S," was administered to 78 males and 168 females (69 follicular women, 52 luteal women, and 47 hormonal contraceptive users). Read More

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Increased Amygdala Activity Associated With Cognitive Reappraisal Strategy in Functional Neurologic Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:613156. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurology, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

Cognitive reappraisal is an emotion regulation strategy to reduce the impact of affective stimuli. This regulation could be incomplete in patients with functional neurologic disorder (FND) resulting in an overflowing emotional stimulation perpetuating symptoms in FND patients. Here we employed functional MRI to study cognitive reappraisal in FND. Read More

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Ion Channels Orchestrate Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Progression and Therapy.

Front Pharmacol 2020 19;11:586599. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Institute of Physiology II, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a devastating disease with a dismal prognosis. Therapeutic interventions are largely ineffective. A better understanding of the pathophysiology is required. Read More

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January 2021

Self-reference Network-Related Interactions During the Process of Cognitive Impairment in the Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 24;13:666437. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neurology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Medical School and The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Institute of Brain Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

: Normal establishment of cognition occurs after forming a sensation to stimuli from internal or external cues, in which self-reference processing may be partially involved. However, self-reference processing has been less studied in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) field within the self-reference network (SRN) and has instead been investigated within the default-mode network (DMN). Differences between these networks have been proven in the last decade, while ultra-early diagnoses have increased. Read More

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Extracting Phonetic Features From Natural Classes: A Mismatch Negativity Study of Mandarin Chinese Retroflex Consonants.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 24;15:609898. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Linguistics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

How speech sounds are represented in the brain is not fully understood. The mismatch negativity (MMN) has proven to be a powerful tool in this regard. The MMN event-related potential is elicited by a deviant stimulus embedded within a series of repeating standard stimuli. Read More

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Preferential Neuronal Responses to Snakes in the Monkey Medial Prefrontal Cortex Support an Evolutionary Origin for Ophidiophobia.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 24;15:653250. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

System Emotional Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Ophidiophobia (snake phobia) is one of the most common specific phobias. It has been proposed that specific phobia may have an evolutionary origin, and that attentional bias to specific items may promote the onset of phobia. Noninvasive imaging studies of patients with specific phobia reported that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the rostral part of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), and amygdala are activated during the presentation of phobogenic stimuli. Read More

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PPAR γ Prevents Neuropathic Pain by Down-Regulating CX3CR1 and Attenuating M1 Activation of Microglia in the Spinal Cord of Rats Using a Sciatic Chronic Constriction Injury Model.

Front Neurosci 2021 24;15:620525. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Anesthesiology, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Previous studies have proved that peripheral nerve injury is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain (NP). The peripheral nerve injury primes spinal M1 microglia phenotype and produces pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are responsible for neurotoxic and neuronal hyper-excitable outcomes. Spinal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) has been shown to play an anti-inflammatory role in the development of NP. Read More

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Chronic pesticide exposure induced aberrant Notch signalling along the visual pathway in a murine model.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 3;282:117077. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Medical Biotechnology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, India. Electronic address:

Pesticides aid in crop-protection against pests and increase yield. However, the xenobiotic stress exerted by pesticides leads to the deterioration of human and animal health. There is a lacuna in our knowledge about their impact on the ocular surface The present work sheds light on this gap by analysing the deterioration of visual acuity as a consequence of pesticide induced xenobiotic stress and Notch pathway dysregulation. Read More

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Sex hormones modulate sex differences and relate to hemispheric asymmetries in a divided visual field Navon task.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Apr 8:113281. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychology & Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020, Salzburg, Austria. Electronic address:

Sex differences in functional hemispheric asymmetries (FHA) have been hypothesized as a fundamental mechanism behind sex differences in global-local processing. So far, it has not been assessed how interactive effects of sex and hemifield presentation influence common indicators of global precedence. The current study is the first to investigate the involvement of FHAs by using a divided visual field Navon paradigm and controlling for sex hormone status. Read More

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The Interaction Between Timescale and Pitch Contour at Pre-attentive Processing of Frequency-Modulated Sweeps.

Front Psychol 2021 23;12:637289. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, National Central University, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.

Speech comprehension across languages depends on encoding the pitch variations in frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps at different timescales and frequency ranges. While timescale and spectral contour of FM sweeps play important roles in differentiating acoustic speech units, relatively little work has been done to understand the interaction between the two acoustic dimensions at early cortical processing. An auditory oddball paradigm was employed to examine the interaction of timescale and pitch contour at pre-attentive processing of FM sweeps. Read More

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